Temporary service was also rendered at different times in the department of mental and moral science, to meet emergencies, by the Rev. W. F. Hamilton, D.D., and the writer of this sketch. The vacancy created by the retirement of Dr. Hays extended through the first session of the following collegiate year. During this interval the duties of the presidency were most ably and satisfactorily discharged by the vice-president, Alonzo Linn, LL.D., in addition to the labors of his professorship. With an increased number of students, the order and efficiency of the college were fully sustained.

On Nov. 16, 1881, the committee having in charge the nomination of a president called the board together and presented the name of the Rev. James D. Moffat, an alumnus of the college, of the class of 1869, and pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Wheeling, W. Va., who was thereupon unanimously elected to this office. Mr. Moffat, having after careful consideration signified his acceptance of the presidency thus tendered, entered upon the discharge of his duties as the head of the institution at the opening of the second term of the year on Jan. 4, 1882. His formal inauguration, which had been postponed by the action of the board, in order to afford the alumni and friends of the college opportunity more generally to witness it, took place in the town hall at Washington, June 20, 1882, the evening preceding the annual commencement. Meanwhile the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity had been conferred upon him by the handsome and unanimous action of the trustees of Hanover College, Indiana.

The ceremonies of the inauguration were simple but very impressive. A procession was formed in the college campus at seven o'clock P.M., consisting of the undergraduates, alumni, faculty, and trustees, which, headed by a fine brass band and under the direction of the chief marshal, the Hon. John H. Ewing, an alumnus of Washington College of the class of 1814, and a trustee continuously since 1834, reached the town hall at the appointed hour, where an immense concourse of strangers and citizens were in waiting. The solemn exercises were opened with prayer by the Rev. Daniel W. Fisher, D.D., president of Hanover College. In the absence of the venerable president of the board, the Rev. Charles C. Beatty, D.D., LL.D., on account of sickness, the Rev. James I. Brownson, D.D., vice-president, acted in his place. The exercises of the evening were enlivened with the excellent music of Toerge's orchestra, of Pittsburgh. An introductory address was delivered by Dr. Brownson, which was followed by an address of the Rev. Samuel J. Wilson, D.D., LL.D., in behalf of the trustees, setting forth the history of the college, its great success and usefulness in the past, its fine prospects for the future, and its strong claims upon the support of its friends and the community at large. The oath of office was then impressively administered to the new president by the Hon. William McKennan, LL.D., judge of the Circuit Court for the Third Circuit of the United States, after which the keys of the College, and also a copy of its charter and by-laws, were handed to Dr. Moffat by Dr. Brownson in token of his official authority and duty. The able and eloquent inaugural address of President Moffat brought. the services of the evening to a happy conclusion, and the large audience separated in the spirit of confidence that the outlook for Washington and Jefferson College was never brighter than at present. Hearty and unanimous congratulations were tendered to the young president, who takes his place of dignity and influence both to carry forward the work of his distinguished predecessors and to fulfill a service of filial devotion to his own cherished alma mater.

It only now remains, in order to complete this sketch of the college, that we give a brief summary of the results of the past as the best possible prophecy of the future, adding the fruits of the seven years intervening since a like statement was given in the "Centenary Memorial." Any other county of the commonwealth, if not, also, of the nation, may be challenged for the production of an equal list of educated sons, whether to fill her own high places, or to lead society in other counties and States. And receiving from far and near, beyond her own borders, the youth of other communities, she has sent them back by hundreds, fitted by thorough collegiate training for every variety of professional and other responsible service. More than three thousand graduates, besides an almost equal number who have taken a partial course, embracing fourteen hundred ministers of the gospel, seven hundred and fifty lawyers, and four hundred physicians, six or eight United States senators, six cabinet officers, fifty or more representatives in Congress, and sixty president judges, together with forty-five presidents and seventy-five professors of colleges, twenty-five professors in theological seminaries, and as many principals of female seminaries, to say nothing of the headship of countless academies,—surely this is a production of cultured men which may be safely put into competition with that of any other community in kind or value, or with any scale of material interests, actual or possible, in like circumstances. Proud, therefore, as we may be to be reckoned in the front rank of the world's competitors as producers of the world's finest wool, and rejoicing as we do in the heritage of a soil and climate unsurpassed for the multiplied and varied comforts of life, our highest exultation is in the educated men who have carried the name and fame of Washington County as a chief home of culture into the foremost rivalry of our country, and made it known also across the seas.

Academies.1—It is a matter for deep regret that the glory of these useful institutions, for the most

By Rev. James I. Brownson, D.D.


part, belongs only to the past generations. A number of them were vigorously conducted in the county, as were others elsewhere, and were most important feeders for the colleges, besides their work of training teachers for the common schools. They were usually, projected and fostered by the ministry with the aid of fresh graduates from college, who were led to employ a year or two in teaching, partly to supply themselves with funds that they might prosecute their professional studies. Both the disposition and the ability to obtain a liberal education were thus brought to very many young men who otherwise would never have thought of it. The change which has dried up most of these fountains may perhaps be accounted for by various causes. Cheap scholarships have doubtless enticed many lads to college at an earlier stage of study than formerly. The establishment of State normal schools may have diverted many students into their channel. The advance of utilitarianism in leading so large a portion of the people of our day to disparage the mental training which so peculiarly attends the study of the classics, and to estimate educational culture, if not even religion itself, by the rule of dollars and cents may have had its natural effect. But whatever the causes may have been, the evil results are manifest. And happy will be the day of restoration, for which the best educators long, when once more our students shall pass through the teaching and discipline of good academies as the best preparation for the more advanced instruction and government of the college.

Historic connection with Washington and Jefferson College claims the first place in these sketches for CANONSBURG ACADEMY, which in its catalogue goes under the name Of JEFFERSON ACADEMY. It virtually dates from the college charter of consolidation of 1869, which, in its effect, the same year located Washington and Jefferson College at Washington. In fact, however, the organization of the academy dates from March 19, 1872, when, under that charter, the trustees elected the Rev. William Smith, D.D.; David C. Houston, John Hayes, William G. Barnett, M.D., John W. Martin, M.D., J. W. Alexander, M.D., and J. Nevin Brown as directors of the academy, with instruction to hold their first meeting on the 3d day of April following. This delay of organization was a fruit of the litigation following the college charter of 1869, and only settled, as we have seen, in December, 1871.

It was an express provision of the college charter of 1869 that " an academy, normal school, or other institution of lower grade than a college" should be established at the place losing the college, or at each of them, should a new place be chosen for the consolidated college. And in either or each place, as the case might be, as much of the property there located as the board should think 'necessary for the use of such an institution was to be placed in the hands of seven trustees or directors chosen by the board for this purpose, and thus authorized to carry the organization of the academy into effect. Of the original seven directors chosen, as we have seen, in 1872, John Hays, Esq., departed this life July 21, 1875, at the venerable age of seventy-six years, and was followed July 17, 1878, by the Rev. Dr. William Smith, in his eighty-fifth year. The place of the former was in due time filled by the election of Dr. Boyd Emory, Sr., and that of the latter by the choice of the Rev. Thomas R. Alexander, pastor of the Mount Prospect Presbyterian Church. Mr. Alexander has also succeeded Dr. Smith as president of the board. In a liberal exercise of its discretion, the college board set apart for the use and control of the academy the college buildings at Canonsburg, the president's house, and two additional professors' houses, together with a valuable portion of the libraries, apparatus, and furniture formerly belonging to Jefferson College, relinquishing all further right in them.

The academy was most fortunate in the selection as its first principal of a scholarly Christian gentleman of the highest fitness, integrity, and industry, in the person of the Rev. William Ewing, Ph.D., an alumnus of Washington College, of the class of 1842, and the recipient of its first honor. He has been careful to associate with himself assistant teachers of excellent ability, who have well sustained his efforts to raise the standard of scholarship to the highest attainable point. And for the purpose of further enlargement he has lately purchased from the college the large boarding-house formerly known under the sobriquet of " Fort Job.”

As now constituted the academy has two departments. The classical prepares young men for college, and the normal is designed for the special training of teachers. It has a laboratory and gymnasium, and of late has made large additions to its library. The average attendance of students for the years that are past has been an hundred and upwards. Those who have completed the course have gone, according to their preference, to Washington and Jefferson College, to Lafayette, to Princeton, and to Wooster, and in general have taken high standing in these leading colleges. One of these students took a first-class prize in one of the Irish colleges, and did not in his success fail to return thanks to his academic principal for the fine start given him in that direction. In the course of these years the academy has won a high and deserved reputation, and has the confidence and good wishes of the friends of sound scholarship joined with wholesome moral and religious influence. The failure to obtain more minute details of this history will account for the comparative brevity of this sketch ; but enough has been given to establish past. success and to assure a future of great public benefit.

Passing now from the only surviving academy to those which live only in history, we present first

WEST ALEXANDER ACADEMY:-—This excellent and


useful institution was organized in 1828 by the Rev. John McCluskey, D.D. (an alumnus of Jefferson College, of the class of 1822), the same year of his settlement as pastor of the Presbyterian Church of West Alexander. He managed the school alone, employing subordinate teachers, and taking an active part himself in the work of instruction, until 1836, when, at his request, on account of the great increase of students, a board of trust was chosen to assist him. A legislative charter was secured in 1840, and in 1849 the academy was formally taken under the care of the Presbytery of Washington, as at once a parochial and presbyterian institution. The resignation of his pastoral charge in 1853 passed the church and the academy together from the hands of Dr. McCluskey into those of his excellent successor, the Rev. William H. Lester, who in full strength still stands in his lot. The venerable doctor himself, after some years of intermingled ministerial and educational labor in Philadelphia and its vicinity, was at length compelled by the infirmities of age to accept repose, and on the 31st of March, 1880, was called to the heavenly reward. During the quarter of a century of his headship of the academy it sent forth a large number of young men, forty-four of whom became ministers of the gospel, thirty-two of these entering the service of the Presbyterian Church. Fifteen more were added to this list in the few years of his successor's charge of the institution. A goodly proportion of these heralds of the gospel were brought to Christ during their academical training. Diligent teaching, energetic administration, earnest Biblical instruction, and the genial influence of religious culture and example were richly crowned with the fruits of the blessing which prayer brings down from heaven. The purposed reduction of expenses to the lowest possible point brought the poor and the rich side by side as equal sharers of these benefits. Most of the students of all those years entered Washington College, and are numbered among her sons. A great public loss was sustained when the doors of the West Alexander Academy were closed.

CROSS CREEK ACADEMY was opened near the same time as that of West Alexander, by another prominent Presbyterian pastor, the Rev. John Stockton, D.D., at Cross Creek village, in his ministerial charge. Its site was under the shadow of Vance's fort, so intimately associated with frontier history, both civil and religious. There Smith had broken the silence of the, wilderness with the trumpet of We gospel, and there, too, the eloquence of the " silver-tongued" Marques had thrilled the hearts of a second generation with the heavenly message. Their successor, the venerable Stockton, received his seal from God upon a most honored and successful ministry of fifty years, begun in 1827, and relinquished in 1877, at that hallowed place. He departed this life in the peace of the gospel May 5, 1882, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. Among his first efforts to extend the kingdom of his Master was the establishment of this academy, with special reference to the training of ministers. Its teachers, with various intervals, were Samuel and George Marshall (the latter a son of Jefferson College, in the class of 1831, and afterwards a distinguished Presbyterian minister), John Marques, Robert McMillan, and Thomas M. C. Stockton, son of the pastor. Thirty ministers of the gospel came forth from that school, besides many other students who have filled honorable places in secular life. Washington College, the alma mater of Dr. Stockton himself, was the resort of most of the young men who caught their classical inspiration in this academy. But for more than a score of years it has been another instance of suspended animation, relieved only by an occasional and spasmodic effort to revive the spirit of by-gone times.¹

FLORENCE ACADEMY next claims attention. It was located in the village of Florence, formerly known as Briceland's Cross-Roads, in the northern part of Washington County. It was preceded, and perhaps suggested, by an excellent select school for young ladies, founded by the venerable Rev. Elisha McCurdy, pastor of the Presbyterian Church there, in 1832, and conducted for four or five years with fine success by Mrs. Rachel Lamdin, a lady of superior scholarship and tact as well as of devoted piety. The average number of pupils in that school was about thirty or forty, and its effect was very marked in the mental, moral, and religious culture of the young ladies of the neighborhood.

The spirit of liberal education, thus fostered, led to the establishment, in 1833, of the academy. Its first principal was Mr. Robert Fulton, a former student and teacher in Washington College, and a relative by marriage of Mr. McCurdy. After a brief experiment he erected an academy building in the village, on a site conveyed by the trustees of the Presbyterian Church. But the title proving defective he surrendered the property, upon remuneration, to the same trustees, and took possession of the building on Mr. McCurdy's farm, which until then had been occupied by Mrs. Lamdin's seminary. Mr. Fulton was the sole proprietor and head of the academy until 1839, three or four years subsequent to Mr. McCurdy's resignation of his charge because of advanced age, and his consequent removal to Allegheny City. Having meanwhile received a licensure to preach, he disposed of his interests at the end of six years to take charge of an academy and church at Ashland, Ohio, where he subsequently died. During most of these years he was very efficiently assisted in the instruction by Mr. James Sloan, a graduate of Jefferson College, of the class of 1830, who was afterwards both a teacher and pastor at Frankfort, and later still for many years the worthy and successful pastor of the Presbyterian

¹An accurate list of the sons of this academy and that of West Alexander is not in the power of the writer, and therefore none is attempted. Very many of them are well known.


Church of Pigeon Creek, in the Presbytery of Washington. Dr. Sloan departed this life in 1871, in Monongahela City. For the last two years of his term Mr. Fulton had for his assistant his nephew and former pupil, Mr. Samuel Fulton, an alumnus of Washington College, of the class of 1836, who still survives, though lately compelled by broken health to resign his charge as pastor of the Great Valley Presbyterian Church, in Chester County, Pa.

Mr. Fulton's successor as principal was the Rev. William Burton, also pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Florence. Messrs. John Rierson, John Russell, John Kerr, and James G. Ralston successively acted as assistant teachers. Mr. Kerr, after much service in the gospel ministry, is still a respected member of the Presbytery of Blairsville, and Mr. Ralston rose to distinction as the founder and head of a prosperous female seminary at Norristown, Pa., having before his death worn the titles of D.D. and LL.D. Messrs. Joseph Sheets, John A. Smith, and George W. Miller quickly followed in their order as principals, all of them being alumni of Washington College, of the respective classes of 1839, 1840, and 1845. The last named was subsequently the very successful principal of the academy at Carmichael's, Pa., and is now a prominent member of the Washington County bar. The palmy days of the academy were embraced in the period of Mr. Fulton, when there was an average attendance of seventy students. Within the fifteen years of its existence, many were trained in it who afterwards rose to more or less distinction. In the want of a catalogue, memory supplies the names of the Rev. Messrs. Alexander Swaney, D.D., James D. Mason, D.D., David R. Campbell, D.D., William M. Robinson, David P. Lowary, and others of the sacred calling; Prof. Cochron, of Oberlin College ; Drs. Joseph Rodgers and Thomas M. C. Stockton, and John Fulton, John McCombs, Caleb J. McNulty, and William Johnson, attorneys. The last two acquired prominence in Ohio, the former as a member of the Legislature of that State, and also as clerk of the United States House of Representatives, and the latter as a member of Congress.

There have been, at different times, two academies in Hopewell township, which did good service in the cause of liberal education. One of these was organized in 1844, in a building owned and fitted up for the purpose by the late Hon. Abram Wotring, whose spirit of liberality was further shown by the payment of seventy dollars per annum in tuition fees for the instruction of his own children. Its principal, Mr. W. A. McKee, now the head of an academy at Knoxville, gave it the honorable name of Franklin High School, though it was better known in the neighborhood as the "Horse-Mill Academy," in playful allusion to the building in which it was conducted. Subsequently it came under the care of trustees, viz.: Messrs. Wotring, Dawson, Allison, and others, with the Rev. John Eagleson, D.D., as their president. It had considerable success under Mr. McKee, but dwindled after his retirement, and ceased in 1847, but not without great benefit to the neighboring youth of both sexes, and especially to several worthy young men who were, through its culture, fitted for college, and have since had very honorable professional standing.

The other institution referred to was Upper Buffalo Academy, named in honor of the village of its location, and the Presbyterian congregation, of which its founder, Dr. Eagleson, was pastor. It had a continuance of fifteen years from its origin in 1853, was conducted in a building specially erected for that purpose, and was under the control of a board of trustees. The following succession of excellent teachers will be good evidence of the character of the work done, viz. : Messrs. A. E. Thompson, now pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Rushville, Ind. ; Jefferson McC. Martin, the present Professor of Natural Science in Ohio University ; W. H. Jeffers, afterwards a minister of the Presbyterian Church of Waynesburg, Pa. (deceased) ; John H. Sherrard, now pastor of the Upper Ten-Mile Presbyterian Church at Prosperity, Pa. ; John M. Smith, now a pastor at Canonsburg, Pa.; Joseph H. Stevenson, a pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Scottdale, Pa. ; Robert Welsh, afterwards a United Presbyterian minister, now deceased ; and James S. Reed, the present pastor of the church of the same denomination at Laclede, Mo. For a year or two before its close, Dr. Eagleson himself had charge of its instruction. He was an excellent scholar, an alumnus of Jefferson College, of the class of 1829, the honored pastor of the church of Upper Buffalo from his ordination in 1834 until his death, Jan. 23, 1873, and, having been a trustee of Washington College for seven years prior to the union of 1865, was a member of the board of Washington and Jefferson College until his death. About twenty young men passed, under his religious and educational influence, into the ministry of the gospel. Of those who went through the academy now under review the following are recalled, viz.: the Rev. Messrs. John W. Dinsmore, D.D., of Bloomington, Ill. ; F. R. Wotring, Wenona, Ill.; Robert B. Farrar, Portland, Oregon ; John B. Reed, Listersville, W. Va. ; James S. Reed, Mo.; William S. Eagleson, Mount Gilead, Ohio; Thomas H. Haund, Monmouth, Ill. ; and John French, Cleveland, Ohio. The last two are ministers of the United Presbyterian Church. David S. Eagleson, M.D., of West Alexander, Pa., and others trained in the same academy passed into secular professions. And so we have another instance of academical education as among " the memories of joys that are past."

Monongahela City, which until 1837 was known as Williamsport, is the centre of large interests, which deserve a place in the history of Washington County. The educational part of its history is less marked with distinguishing lines than that of most other places. Yet in addition to common or subscription


schools, which from the first never failed to receive vigorous attention, classical and other culture of the higher sort has at different times commanded both effort and success. A. full half-century ago, or more, the Rev. Samuel Ralston, D.D., who took charge of the Presbyterian Church of that place and region as early as 1796, is known to have instructed young men in preparation for college, inviting them to his study for this purpose. At least five of these subsequently became graduates and reached honorable distinction, viz.: Ross Black, Esq., Rev. Samuel Hair, Rev. Thomas P. Gordon, D.D., Rev. Aaron Williams, D.D., and Professor Samuel R. Williams. The last two were brothers, and at different times were valued members of the faculty of Jefferson College.

The first academy of the town was established in the spring of 1838 by the late Thomas R. Hazzard, Esq. Besides the common branches, the instruction embraced Latin, Greek, mathematics, and the sciences. He was followed in a year by two graduates of Washington College, viz., James D. Mason, now a minister of the Presbyterian Church at Shiloh, Iowa, and W. P. Thompson, who survived this service but a short time. These were followed by the Rev. E. S. Blake, an alumnus of Yale College, with whom, for a time, Mr. Hazzard, returning, was associated. And others still succeeded, the most prominent and successful of whom was Joseph S. Morrison, a son of Washington College, of the class of 1844, and for many years past a prominent member of the Pittsburgh bar. During all the years of its existence the academy was vigorous and thorough in its work, and embraced many pupils whose names are to be found among the graduates of our best colleges. Its success is all the more remarkable in view of the fact that it never had a distinct building for its use.

An imperfect list of the students of this academy gives the following names, which are themselves its brightest record, viz.: Rev. A. H. Kerr, the first Presbyterian minister settled in St. Paul, Minn., now of Rochester, in the same State; James Scott, M.D., a member of the Legislature of Ohio ; Captain R. F. Cooper, an attorney ; Rev. John McFarland, late of Greenfield, Miss. ; Rev. William F. Hamilton, D.D., Washington, Pa. ; J. M. H. Gordon, M.D., Fayette City ; J. S. Morrison, Esq., Pittsburgh ; J. S. Van Voorhis, M.D., Belle Vernon ; James Manown, M.D., Kingwood, W. Va.; J. C. Cooper, M.D., Philadelphia; Rev. James P. Fulton, Harper, Kan. Rev. O. M. Todd, Tuscola, Ill. ; M. P. Morrison, M.D., Monongahela City ; J. H. Storer, M.D., Triadelphia, W. Va. ; A. J. Davis, M.D., Pittsburgh ; J. M. Todd, M.D., Martin's Ferry, Ohio ; George T. Miller, Port Perry; James Fleming, M.D., Franklin, Ohio; Alonzo Linn, LL.D., vice-president and Professor of Greek in Washington and Jefferson College ; A. P. Morrison, Esq., Pittsburgh ; Prof. George P. Fulton, Pittsburgh ; James Alexander, banker, Monongahela City ; Rev. Thomas Hodgson, Ohio; Cyrus B. King, M.D., Allegheny City; Thomas T. Williams, M.D., White College ; George Linn, M.D., Monongahela City ; C. W. Hazzard, Esq., editor, and T. R. Hazzard, M.D., of the same place; and Rev. Robert P. Fulton, Baltimore, Md.

From academies we now pass to female seminaries. These noble institutions, now such important factors in the intellectual and moral culture of society, are of later origin and development than colleges and academies designed for the sons of the land. It required much general advancement and a complete revolution of social ideas to bring up the standard of education for females to the level of the other sex. Happily later generations have both followed the logic of principles and the spirit of the gospel to the fair and just conclusion. If the lapse of the earlier half of the century past was needed for the removal of unfounded and disparaging prejudices on this subject, the progress of the latter half has not failed, by its salutary results, to drive such prejudices into oblivion or shame. And for Washington County at least a proportionate share of the honor of this progress may be fairly claimed.

The first institution of its kind in Western Pennsylvania was Edgeworth Ladies' Seminary, established by Mrs. Mary Oliver at Pittsburgh in 1825, arid shortly afterwards transferred to Braddock's Field, and still later to Sewickley. Steubenville Female Seminary, on the Ohio, followed in 1829, and still abides in honor and usefulness, a monument of praise to its founders, the Rev. Charles C. Beatty, D.D., and his noble wife, Mrs Hettie E. Beatty. The fine school of Mrs. Rachel Lamdin, at Florence, already noticed, brought the agencies of this higher education as early as 1832 within the borders of Washington County. Since then the pen of history is called to trace three noble seminaries through years of successful work in this great cause. Two of these have indeed fulfilled the mission and passed away, but the oldest of the number survives in unabated strength.

OLOME INSTITUTE was founded in 1844 at Canonsburg by Mrs. Olivia J. French. It was wholly an individual enterprise, begun and conducted by an excellent Christian lady, who in early life had been sorely bereaved by the death of a devoted husband, the Rev. John M. French, a promising minister of the Associate Presbyterian Church. He began his ministry as pastor of the church of Noblestown, Pa., having been ordained and installed Oct. 22, 1841. But, after becoming greatly endeared to his people in a service of two years, he ceased from his work to receive his crown, Oct. 10, 1843. Mrs. French, nobly taking up the responsibilities of life

thus cast upon herself alone, named her seminary Olome, in memory of her departed husband, who was wont to write this word at the close of his manuscript sermons along with their date, designating the happy place of their production. It was a contract word of his own invention, sweetly combining


Olivia, the name of his dear wife, with Home, the synonym of all that is tender to a loving heart. The transfer of that name from a broken family home to an institution for the training of young ladies was simply a symbol of its consecration as a home of Christian culture.

The seminary had an humble beginning in 1844, but, under the divine blessing, its success in the course of three years demanded its organization as a boarding-school, and the purchase of new buildings, to which, for the same reason, extensive additions were made, both by purchase and erection, in 1848 and 1853.

The seminary was vigorously conducted, with joint reference to the best possible intellectual and moral training. Its corps of teachers was carefully selected. Its board of superintendence was composed of prominent clergymen and laymen, over whom the Rev. William Smith, D.D., vice-president of Jefferson College, presided, giving a portion of his time also to instruction in languages. The catalogue of 1857 reports an attendance of eighty-one pupils, almost one-half of whom came from beyond the limits of Washington County, and some of them from distant States. For the period of eighteen years the honored principal conducted the seminary with excellent success and reputation, fixing upon it the stamp of her own fine intelligence and evangelical spirit; and sending forth seventy-five graduates, besides many others who took a partial course to exemplify her good service for liberal education, and for the cause of Christ. She still survives at her home in Marysville, Ohio, a recipient of human gratitude and awaiting a heavenly reward. But who shall calculate the loss of Canonsburg and the public when, upon her retirement, the doors of Olome Institute were closed ?

PLEASANT HILL SEMINARY, near West Middle town, is another Washington County institution of the past. It was a development of the more private labors of Mrs. Jane (Campbell) McKeever, wife of Matthew McKeever, and sister of the well-known Alexander Campbell, leader of the " Christian Church," or "Church of the Disciples," so generally called by his name, and also the founder and first president of Bethany College, at Bethany, W. Va. Mrs. McKeever, having been a teacher in her youth, continued, as an amateur, the same pursuit after her marriage, using a room in her own house for this purpose. Her pupils were mostly gathered from the village and neighborhood of West Middletown, with occasional additions from abroad. Such was the prosperity of the school, however, that Mrs. McKeever was encouraged to elevate it to the dignity of a ladies' seminary. Her son-in-law, Mr. James Campbell, and her son, Mr. Thomas C. McKeever, both recent graduates of Bethany College, were associated with her as teachers, she herself of course becoming the principal. The financial management was for the most part in the hands of her husband.

The course of study adopted and afterwards matured, embraced both ancient and modern languages, and was otherwise up to the level of the best institutions of the same kind. The instruction is also said to have been accurate and thorough. The first class, consisting of four members, was graduated in 1847. The principal, feeling the weight of advancing years, and Prof. Campbell. having removed to the Pacific coast, the seminary passed, in a few years, wholly into the hands of Professor T. C. McKeever. Under his management, which was marked with extraordinary energy, it was highly prosperous. Addition after addition was made to the original buildings, until ample provision was made for the accommodation of one hundred boarders, and about that number were at one time in actual attendance. But, at the full tide of prosperity, in 1867, Principal McKeever suddenly sickened and died,—a providential affliction from which the institution never recovered. Including that year, the roll of graduates contains one hundred and fifty-two names, making an annual average of about seven and a half for these twenty-one years. The largest class was that of 1865, which numbered nineteen graduates. And these figures are all the more remarkable taken in connection with the fact that by far the largest proportion were boarding pupils from a distance, scarcely more than one in ten having been drawn from the immediate rural vicinity.

Under the superintendence of Mr. Keever's widow, Mrs. Martha McKeever, assisted by Elder T. A. Crenshaw, the seminary was continued for several years, and graduated two classes of three members' each, and then, under the pressure of discouraging circumstances, went into declension. Subsequent efforts were made for its revival, first by Mr. William M. Eaton, who had been educated at Washington and Jefferson College (now a Presbyterian minister), and then by the Rev. J. A. Snodgrass, of the Baptist Church, but without encouraging success. After an interval of suspension the property passed under the control of a conference of the colored people, and by them a school was conducted in it, under the name of Zion Hill Collegiate Institute, for about three years. In 1881 another suspension took place, and the unused property is now owned by Mr. Holdship, of the city of Pittsburgh.

WASHINGTON FEMALE SEMINARY.—This is the only institution of its kind in Washington County which has survived the waves of changing fortune. It abides in strength and usefulness, having pow a history of nearly half a century. Its fine reputation also has gone with its graduates into many States, especially of the West and South. And never were its prospects better than at present.

The movement for its organization began with a consultation of a number of citizens Nov. 26, 1835, in the parlor of the Hon. T. M. T. McKennan. The Rev. D. Elliott, D.D., then pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Washington,' was a leader in the enterprise, but he


was nobly sustained by the substantial citizens of the place of all persuasions. Subsequent meetings were held and efforts were made which resulted in the purchase of a site on East Maiden Street from Alexander Reed, Esq., who was himself one of the most liberal supporters of the movement. Contributions were taken in the form of stock at $50 per share, to be binding when the minimum amount of $4000 should be raised. Mr. Reed and Dr. F. J. Le Moyne led the way with each a subscription of twelve shares, and were followed by others in smaller amounts until the plan was assured. Messrs. F. J. Le Moyne, M.D., James Reed, James Ruple, Robert Officer, and James Brice were chosen as a building committee ; Alexander Reed, Esq., David McConaughy, D.D., and Dr. Le Moyne were selected to prepare articles of association, and various other committees were appointed. John Harter was made collector and treasurer, and upon his resignation, Alexander Sweeny was chosen in his stead. The plan of organization, reported and adopted Feb. 14, 1837, provided for a board of nine trustees, of whom six must be stockholders, and committed the building as well as the general management of the seminary into the hands of the principal, including also the selection of teachers, " with the advice and consent of the trustees." It was arranged that the course of study should cover three years, with as many classes, viz., primary, junior, and senior. Besides the tuition fees upon which the institution was to be conducted, a matriculation fee of two dollars per session for each pupil in the regular classes and of one dollar for each preparatory pupil was to be paid to a distinct treasurer representing the stockholders, from the proceeds of which dividends were to be declared from time to time by the trustees. The original trustees chosen under this arrangement were Alexander Reed, F. J. Le Moyne, .John Marshel, Jacob Slagle, John Wishart, David McConaughy, Joseph Lawrence, Robert R. Reed, and John L. Gow. By an act of Assembly dated April 14, 1838, a State charter was obtained, embracing the same names as corporators, except that John Grayson was substituted for Alexander Reed, the latter having for private reasons declined to serve. This charter had the agreeable accompaniment of a legislative donation of $500 per annum for five years. With this help, together with additional stock and temporary loans, the trustees were enabled to meet the expenses of the new building. In the organization under the charter the Rev. David McConaughy, D.D., was chosen president of the board, and such he continued to be until his death, Jan. 29, 1852. John L. Gow, Esq., was made secretary, and John Grayson, treasurer.

For two years prior to the charter the institution had been in actual operation under the charge of Mrs. Francis Biddle, formerly of Philadelphia, having been opened in the spring of 1836, in a building on Maiden Street familiarly known as the " Lodge." For one session she was assisted by Miss Elizabeth Clarke, a graduate of South Hadley, who for special reasons then retired, giving place to temporary assistants for the remainder of the year. During the second year, commencing in the spring of 1837, the assistant teacher was Miss Mary A. N. Inskeep, of St. Clairsville, Ohio, a graduate of the Steubenville Female Seminary in the class of 1834, a teacher in that seminary through the following year, and afterwards in the school of the Rev. H. Hervey, D.D., at Martinsburg, Ohio, until her transfer by invitation to Washington. For the latter half of this year the new seminary building was occupied by the school. Miss Inskeep, afterwards Mrs. Crittenden, and now the wife of the Rev. Charles C. Beatty, D.D., LL.D., of Steubenville, remembers this year of service with great pleasure, as she too is gratefully remembered by former pupils and the older citizens.

The summer session of 1838 opened with the presence of two teachers who gave new life to the institution, viz.: Miss Sarah Chapman, of Springfield, Mass., now Mrs. C. M. Reed, of Washington, and Miss H. M. Post, of Lebanon, N. H., now wife of Uriah W. Wise, Esq., of Plattesmouth, Neb. The former rendered efficient service for one year, while the latter remained four years with unabated popularity. At the end of her fourth year, in the spring of 1840, Mrs. Biddle resigned her position and returned to the East.

We have now come to the point in this history from which the real prosperity of the enterprise may be dated. Upon the retirement of Mrs. Biddle, Miss Sarah R. Foster, then a teacher at Cadiz, Ohio, and formerly a pupil of the distinguished Mrs. Emma Willard, of Troy, N. Y., was chosen principal, and entered upon her duties. Miss Post was continued as assistant, and Miss L. Simmons was added to the teaching force.

Miss Foster, having taught in district schools in her native State, New York, for nine years prior to her entrance into Troy Female Seminary in 1833, and having afterwards had a very successful experience as the head of a high school at Cadiz, did not enter upon her work in Washington as a novice. Her well-balanced judgment, strong common sense, amiability, dignity, conscientiousness, and religious devotion soon manifested themselves in her wise and energetic administration of the institution, and made her the centre of confidence in the whole enterprise. She entered upon her duties with characteristic zeal, and more and more, by her discreet management, secured the co-operation of the trustees and the community. Excellent teachers were chosen, the course of study was gradually enlarged, and the number of both day and boarding pupils was soon increased up to the full capacity of the buildings, and even beyond it. This advancement compelled the erection of an important addition to the main structure at its west end in 1841. But even the enlargement thus secured only for a brief time met the demand, and soon by its


beneficent results produced a necessity for still further extension of facilities. The popularity of the institution was extensive and permanent, and the trustees frequently volunteered the formal expression of their satisfaction with its management.

The year 1848 is remarkable in this history for two events, one pleasing and the other afflictive, which had an important bearing upon the prosperity of the institution. The former of these was the marriage in September of Miss Foster with the Rev. Thomas Hanna, D.D., pastor of the Associate Presbyterian Church of Cadiz, Ohio. This change transferred Dr. Hanna to Washington, and prepared the way for his becoming pastor of the church of his communion here, now the United Presbyterian Church, of which for almost a score of years the Rev. J. R. Johnston, D.D., has been the worthy pastor. Miss Foster thus simply became Mrs. Hanna without any change in her official relations to the seminary. Dr. Hanna's kindly and wholesome influence in his new sphere was recognized by the trustees March 11, 1850, in his formal appointment as superintendent of the institution, a position which he held with satisfaction to all concerned until his lamented death, Feb. 9, 1864.

The other notable event of 1848 was the destruction by fire, on the last day of November, of the west wing of the seminary building, erected, as we have seen, only seven years before, together with serious damage to the other part of the structure. It so occurred that this destruction fell upon the only portion of the building which was not insured, and upon the very day set by the treasurer, under a previous order of the board, to effect a policy. The crisis, however, was promptly met by the best possible arrangements for going forward at once with the recitations, and also for the reconstruction of the burnt edifice, and the addition of a story to the main building. The cost of the erection, amounting to four thousand nine hundred dollars, was provided for in part by the disposal of forty-three shares of stock at fifty dollars per share, and the balance by money borrowed, to refund which the income from matriculation fees was pledged in lieu of dividends to the stockholders. In the lapse of ten years the debt was canceled and dividends were renewed, though since, as before, the holders of stock have ever, upon an emergency of need, been ready to forego them. Further enlargement of accommodations is still regarded by many as one of the most pressing demands.

Under the administration of Mrs. Hanna, the seminary was conducted with wisdom and success until 1874, when, yielding to the infirmities of age, she surrendered her charge to younger hands. Ten years before, as we have seen, she had been called by the stroke of death to part with her venerable and excellent husband, an affliction which both the seminary and the community deeply shared. There is not room here for mention of the long list of excellent teachers who took part in the work of instruction during these thirty-four years, though many of them have an indelible record in memory. The venerable principal, after eight years of retirement, still lives in sight of the institution she loved and served so well, waiting in holy patience for the coming of the Lord. Her graduation-list had reached five hundred and forty-seven names. Of these, ten or twelve became devoted missionaries, more than one hundred have been successful teachers, and a fair proportion have gladdened ministers' homes as wives and mothers. Personal and official intimacy with Mrs. Hanna, as president of the board of trustees during the latter sixteen years of her service,—a position which he still has the honor to hold,—enables the writer of this sketch to bear cordial testimony to her high Christian character, her wise management, and her conscientious fidelity. The motive which prompted her resignation and the spirit in which it was received will best appear in the following official correspondence:

"WASHINGTON, PA., March 28th, 1874. "REV. JAMES I BROWNSON, D.D., President of the Board of Trustees of the Washington Female Seminary :

"DEAR SIR,—Through you I desire to make the following communication to the respected Board over which you preside:

"In 1840 the members then constituting the Board, most of whom have passed, as I trust, to a better world, conferred on me the office of principal of this seminary. This honor I have carried, together with its attendant obligations, for a period of thirty-four years. I now feel it to be my duty to tender my resignation, to take effect at the close of the present seminary year, on the 25th of next June. After such a service, in view of all the circumstances surrounding both myself and the institution, I desire freedom from the cares and responsibilities of such a position. "Before closing this letter permit me to offer my sincere thanks to the trustees and their families, as well as other friends of the seminary, for the kindness manifested towards myself and those connected with me during the years of my service. That a kind Providence may guide you in the selection of my successor, and preside over all the interests of the seminary, is the wish and prayer of

"Your friend, 


" WASHINGTON, PA., March 28th, 1874.


" DEAR MADAME,—The trustees of the Washington Female Seminary hereby acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date announcing your resignation of the headship of the institution, to take effect at the close of the present session, next June. In yielding to a purpose which you seem to have deliberately and firmly settled, the Board regard it as due to the public and themselves, as well as to you; to express their feelings in the prospect of your retirement.

"Though, indeed, after a service of thirty-four years as principal of the seminary the possibility that your desire for repose might in the future lead you to the step now taken has very naturally suggested itself to our minds, the actual crisis has come upon us with surprise and also with pain, in view of separation after so happy a union, both personal and official. So long have the trustees and friends of the seminary been accustomed to rely upon the wisdom and energy of your management that we cannot but realize the responsibility which circumstances now force upon us of selecting another person who may prove competent to carry forward the work so faithfully and successfully done by you in the years now gone. From our intimate knowledge of your character we are confident that, with or without official connection, your counsel and prayers will be available in behalf of an enterprise which has so long enlisted the warmest feelings of your heart and the best energies of your life.

" Whatever the future may disclose, under the providential hand which controls all things, you have the sure record of God's blessing upon your labors. Our seminary has been built up into prosperity and honor, chiefly through your agency. Its more than five hundred graduates and a like number who have taken a partial course have been, as their


survivors will be, your living witnesses. The institution, into whatever has ds it may pass, will always be associated with your name. The Board can never fail to appreciate your fidelity; and our Father in Heaven, we doubt not, will follow with unfailing reward the toil and vigilance you have so heartily laid upon, His altar. We beg leave to assure you that when the time shall come which you have designated for surrendering your trust you will carry with you the abiding confidence and friendship of the Board, the stockholders, and the community, and that we shall ever pray for a divine blessing upon the evening of your life.

"With great regard and esteem, we are

" Very truly yours,









Upon the retirement of Mrs. Hanna, the board appointed its president, together with Messrs. C. M. Reed and M. H. Clark, to nominate a successor. This committee, after careful inquiry and extensive correspondence, in due time presented the name of Miss Nancy Sherrard, who was unanimously chosen. Miss Sherrard, having been born and reared near Steubenville, Ohio, and educated in its honored female seminary, had also the full benefit of experience as a teacher in similar institutions at Blairsville, Pa., Louisville, Ky., and Fort Wayne, Ind. At the time of her election she was vice-principal of the Steubenville Seminary, under Rev. A. M. Reid, Ph.D., principal. She entered upon her official duties at the opening of the next seminary year, in September, 1874, bringing her excellent reputation and great energy into her new and wide sphere of usefulness. The record of eight years of continued and advancing success is the best possible testimony alike of the wisdom of the trustees in her selection and of her own untiring devotion to their service.

For several years prior to the beginning of this new administration the seminary had, under the operation of various causes, seriously declined in the number of pupils, and consequently in revenues. Very soon, however, the hopefulness of a new departure was manifested in every direction. The building. was renovated, a full corps of teachers was secured, and pupils both from the town and from abroad came in, until once more the measure of patronage is equal to that of capacity. Still further enlargement also has been given to the course of study, extending it to four years, and a preparatory department has now for several years been in operation with efficiency and advantage. The general prosperity of the institution may be inferred from the average attendance of pupils during the eight years of Miss Sherrard's incumbency, viz.: the first year, 78 ; second, 118 ; third, 87 ; fourth, 123 ; fifth, 1119 ; sixth, 115 ; seventh, 125 ; eighth, 132. Of these about forty-three per cent. have been boarding pupils, the rest having been drawn from the town and vicinity. During the same period the number of graduates has been as follows, viz.: in 1875, eight; 1876, nineteen ; 1877, thirteen ; 1878, fourteen ; 1879, twenty-nine; 1880, twenty-four; 1881, nineteen; 1882, thirty ; making a total of one hundred and fifty-six, or an annual average of nineteen and a half.

The following lists are taken from the annual catalogue of 1881-82, viz.: Officers of the institution, Miss N. Sherrard, principal. Teachers ; Miss C. C. Thompson, English Branches; Miss Mary W. Brownson, English and Elocution ; Miss Mary E. Brownlee, English Branches; Miss F. J. Osborne, English Branches; Miss L. S. Radcliffe, English Branches;. Miss L. P. Kuhn, English and Penmanship ; Miss Carrie H. Stephenson, Piano and Harmony; Miss M. M. Rodgers, Assistant in Instrumental Music; Miss Anna V. Peebles, Vocal Music ; Miss Hettie Speer, Drawing and Painting; Miss Eliza 0. Hart, Preparatory Department. Instruction in special studies: James A. Lyon, Ph.D., Prof. W. and J. College, Lectures and Experiments in Chemistry; Rev. Henry Woods, D.D., Prof. W. and J. College, Latin ; Prof. F. Schmid, Prof. Trinity School, German and French.

Board of Trustees, Rev. James I. Brownson, D.D., Hon. John H. Ewing, C. M. Reed, Esq., Thomas McKennan, M.D., V. Harding, Esq., Thomas McKean, Esq., A. S. Ritchie, Esq., Julius Le Moyne, Esq., James R. Clark, Esq. Officers of the Board : Rev. James L Brownson, D.D., President; A. S. Ritchie, Esq., Secretary ; Thomas McKean, Esq., Treasurer.

In bringing to a close these outline sketches of the colleges, academies, and seminaries of Washington County, the writer is free to confess the imperfection of his work. It was undertaken under the sole motive of putting upon permanent record the progress of an interest second to no other but the Christian religion itself in the community with which his lifework has been identified. The reader need not be reminded that the several classes of educational institutions here traced are but parts of one comprehensive system. They are all due, in their measure, to the characteristic spirit of the homogeneous generation which shaped the character and destinies of. Washington County, and their benefits are now an interchangeable and common inheritance to their descendants. History and hope make their joint appeal to the favored people of the present time for an enlarged support and a vigorous advancement of these high interests. God and the generations to come demand it at our hands. The past at least is secure; let the future more than surpass it.

TRINITY HALL.¹—Of the four institutions of learning of which Washington is justly proud, the youngest, but by no means the least prosperous, and in its sphere as important as any, is the Trinity Hall Boarding-School for boys. The design of the school is to educate the pupils " in the various English branches, and in the ancient and modern languages on positive and thoroughly Christian principles."

¹ By Samuel Tarp, Ph.D.


To this end no pains are spared. Every pupil has the constant attention of the rector in his studies as in everything else. It is his aim to secure teachers of the best talent and highest Christian character, and to supply all such advantages as are to be obtained in older institutions of its kind. For years the founding of such a school was a favorite project of the late Rt. Rev. John B. Kerfoot, D.D., LL.D., D.C.L., bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburgh. The railroad facilities of the place, its healthfulness and natural beauty of surroundings, led to the choice of Washington as the site for the School. A building (which was afterwards enlarged) and grounds, both of which were well adapted to the purpose, were leased from Mr. W. W. Smith, of Washington, who generously furnished the necessary funds for the equipment of the school. The Rev. Samuel Earp, at that time rector of one of the leading Protestant Episcopal Churches of New York City, a man of large experience as an instructor, was induced to lead the enterprise as head-master of the school. Finally, on Sept. 11, 1879, the hall was opened with appropriate services, part of which wasp an admirable address by Bishop Kerfoot on "The Pastorship of Boys." The school has been successful from beginning, exceeding the hopes of its most sanguine friends.

Situated on an eminence overlooking the town, Trinity Hall, as improved, is one of the most attractive and conspicuous landmarks of Washington. Its grounds, thirty-two acres in extent, the property of W. W. Smith, cannot be surpassed for beauty and utility. The distinguished landscape gardener, the late R. M. Copeland, of Boston, Mass., gave to the improvement of the grounds considerable time and attention, so that they are now not only adorned with drives and avenues, a splendid lawn and elegant flower-beds, but full of superb fruit- and shade-trees, native and exotic, of twenty years' growth.

There is ample opportunity for all athletic sports, to which, by the way, special attention is given as. valuable accessories to successful intellectual development. A small stream flows through the grounds, by the side of which is a beautiful meadow containing about eight acres. This is used as a play-ground, and, being dry and almost level, is in its way all that can be desired for such a purpose. The waters of the stream will be let upon lower grounds during the winter, and the pond thus formed used by the boys for skating.

The original building has a length of eighty-five feet front and faces the south; from the vestibule we enter a hall thirty-six by fourteen feet. At the left of this is the rector's study and to the right the parlor, an elegant room thirty-two by eighteen feet, surrounded on three sides by a broad piazza. In the rear of these rooms are two others, each twenty-seven by sixteen feet; the one is used as a chapel, the other as a boys' library ; to these there is also access from the general hall. These four rooms intercommunicating by this hall will, when its doors are thrown open, make a reception at "Trinity" a much more pleasant occasion than it otherwise could be. By a broad staircase we reach another hall, well lighted, and of equal size with the one below. Surrounding this are the rooms of the rector's family, and in the third story are rooms for the servants. The building throughout is well, lighted, well ventilated, finished with taste, and complete in all its appointments. Besides the rooms mentioned, the original building contains the music-room and .a room for the sick, which, owing to the healthfulness of the location, is rarely needed. To this original structure a large addition was erected joining it on the north.

The addition is fifty by ninety-six feet, two stories in height, of brick with trimmings of stone. The treatment of the exterior is broad and simple, indicating by its appearance the purpose of the building, and at the same time harmonizing with the main building. We enter from the main building a spacious hall, from which a broad and easy staircase ascends to the floor. The staircase, plainly and substantially finished, is lighted by broad, quaint windows. At the foot a door opens on the play-ground, and from this point a wide corridor leads to the school-room. Wide folding-doors opposite the entrance from the main building give access to the dining-hall. At the left is the bath-room and lavatory. The dining-hall, a well-lighted apartment, forty-one by twenty-eight feet, is finished in oak, with the ceiling supported by turned pillars. A massive fireplace of brick and stone gives character to the room. Wide folding doors open into the school-room..

Passing the dining-hall and ascending a few steps at the end of the corridor we enter the school-room, forty-five by twenty-eight feet. By this device a greater height is obtained, a matter of importance in a room occupied by a large number of persons. Also allowing higher windows, the light is distributed to better advantage. The steps at the entrance, protected by a handsome railing, with a seat below, make a pleasing feature, and add to the appearance of the room. As in the dining-hall, the ceiling is supported by turned oak pillars. When the folding doors between the school-room and dining-hall are thrown open the latter, being on a higher level, is more readily converted into a stage for exhibition purposes. On each side of the school-room are two large alcoves used as recitation-rooms The entire second floor, with the exception of a space reserved for the clothes and linen-closets, is occupied by the dormitories. In ,the centre, and extending nearly the entire length, is a light well fifty-eight by eight. This is lighted from above by a clerestory with ventilating louvres and skylights, thus securing ample light and ventilation. Around this extends a broad corridor, from which opens on either side the dormitories, fifty-four in number. These are formed by


partitions of wood almost seven feet in height, but not reaching the ceiling, thus giving privacy to each, pupil without interfering with the ventilation.

At one end a wide bay window opens on the condor, adding to the cheerfulness of the dormitories and forming an attractive feature of the exterior design, The school rooms and recitation-rooms are provided] with ventilating shafts, by which the air can be kept pure in winter without exposing the pupils to draughts from partially opened windows.

The entire building is warmed by means of hot-air furnaces in the cellar.

The architects were McKim, Mead, and White, of New York City.

The present officers (June, 1882) are as follows : Rev. S. Earp, A.M., Ph.D., rector and instructor in English branches ; Francis Schmid, A.M., instructor in ancient and modern languages; Rev. Frederick W. White, A.B., assistant instructor in English branches; W. C. McClelland, A.B., instructor in mathematics; W. Wallace, assistant instructor in English branches ; Miss Annie Moore, music teacher ; and Miss Margaret Brownson, drawing teacher.

Public Schools. — In Washington County ever first and foremost among the communities west of the Allegheny Mountains in educational matters—the establishment of the classical schools of the Rev. John McMillan and the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, in 1782, infused into the minds of the people a thorough appreciation of the benefits of education. These schools expanded into the academies which afterwards developed into Washington and Jefferson Colleges. In response to the public educational demand Washington County, by its commissioners, provided as early as 1803 that the sum of one hundred dollars should be applied yearly for the purpose of giving the rudiments of education to poor children. This action on the part of the commissioners was continued till 1808, in which year no such provision was made (doubtless on account of the agitation of the subject in the State Legislature at that time). On the 4th of April, 1809, the Legislature passed " An act to provide for the education of the poor gratis ;" which law provided that the county commissioners at the time of issuing their precepts to the assessors should direct them to obtain the names of all the children between the ages of five and twelve years, whose parents were unable to pay for their schooling, and also required of the assessor to inform the parents of the children " that they are at liberty to send them to the most convenient school free of expense." The assessor was to send a list of the names of children so obtained to the teachers of schools in his district, whose duty it was made to teach all such children who came to the school the same as other children, and to keep a day-book in which the name of each child should be kept, with the number of days' attendance and amount of stationery furnished to each such child ; and to make out his account against the county agreeably to the usual rates, subject to examination by the trustees of the school where there were any, but where ] there were none to three reputable subscribers to the school, which account the teacher should present to the county commissioners, and, if approved, the amount should be paid out of any moneys in the treasury.

In the November following the passage of this act the commissioners of Washington County included in the budget of taxes for that year the sum of eight hundred dollars for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the act, and an amount was annually appropriated for that purpose until the year 1834. The following are the sums so appropriated, viz.:

1809 - $800

1810 - 200

1811 - 200

1812 - 200

1813 - 200

1814 - 200

1815 - 300

1816 - 300

1817 - 500

1818 - 500

1819 - 1000

1820 - 500

1821 - 1000

1822 - $1500

1823 - 1500

1824 - 1500

1825 - 1200

1826 - 1000

1827 - 1200

1828 - 1600

1829 - 1500

1830 - 1500

1831 - 2500

1832 - 2500

1833 - 2500

The subject of a public-school law had been agitated in the State Legislature from the year 1825, when Gen. H. W. Beeson, of Fayette County, introduced a bill for the establishment of common schools, which, however, failed. From that time until the passage of the school act in 1834 the question had been much agitated, and was finally passed after much opposition. The following letter shows that the citizens of Washington County were active on the subject, and by word and pen were using their influence in bringing about its accomplishment:

"WASHINGTON, PENNA 4 Feb'y, 1831.

"At a meeting of the Committee on the subject of common schools in the Borough of Washington. the following proceedings were had, viz.:

"On motion of Thomas Morgan, Esqr, seconded by William Baird, The following preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted. The Committee deeply impressed with the importance and magnitude of the subjects referred to them by their fellow citizens, considering that the axiom is no less true than trite that ' Education is power' in the Government of a people who are enlightened, but in relation also to the individuals who possess the virtue of which education is the handmaid, and the liberty of which it is the shield ; and believing that he who suggests a new and useful idea tending to the improvement of the systems in his own vicinity, or develops those of a beneficial character elsewhere, or furnishes by means of his researches and industry valuable facts and important inferences and reflections on the engrossing subject, is entitled if not to a civic crown to the thanks of every friend of private happiness and public prosperity, and that he is a greater promoter of both than one who bestows on either his whole fortune however splendid.

"The committee feel themselves constrained to adopt the following resolutions, viz.:

" Resolved, That this Committee in their own name, and on behalf of the community, whose agents they are, respectfully tender their acknowledgments to the Hon. Wm. McCreery, our representative in Congress, the Hon. E. Everett, a representative in Congress from Massachusetts, William Patterson, Esqr, our representative in the State Legislature; Roberts Vaux, Esqr, of the City of Philadelphia; Morgan Neville & Nathan Guilford, Esq", of the City of Cincinnati ; and the Reverend George Brown, of the City of Pittsburgh, for their luminous communications on the momentous subject of their inquiries.

"Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, attested by the Chairman of this Committee, Thomas M. T. McKennan, Esqr, and the Secretary, ,


Jno. L. Gaw, Eton be communicated to each of the Gentlemen named in the preceding resolution, and that the Chairman and Secretary be requested to assure them of our best wishes for their health and happiness.


"TH. M. T. MCKENNAN, Chairman.

"JOHN L. GOW, Sec'y."

In the county of Washington, under the school law of April 1, 1834, school directors were elected in each township, and a joint meeting was called for Nov. 4, 1834, to consist of the three commissioners of the county and one delegate from each of the twenty-three boards of directors. In accordance with this call, the convention was held at the court-house Nov. 4, 1834, at which time Robert Patterson, Esq., of Smith township, was chosen president, and John R. Kennedy, of Chartiers, secretary. The vote on the question of complying with the law, by making an appropriation, being taken, as required by the fifth section of said act, the yeas and nays were as follows, to wit:

Yeas, 21.—James Ruple, Washington ; James Taggart, Canton ; Thomas —, Morris; John H. Kennedy, Chartiers; John Morrison, Nottingham; James P. Kerr, Donegal; John Lowery, Hopewell; Samuel Hill, Fallowfield; Andrew Kerr, Pike Run; William Campbell, North Strabane; James Linn, South Strabane; Jonathan Warrick, Amwell; James Holmes, West Finley; William Patterson, Cross Creek; Henry Enlow, East Finley; James McClaskey, Mount Pleasant; Robert Patterson, Smith; Richard Donaldson, Robinson; James Miller, William McElroy, James Lee, commissioners.

Nays, 5.—James Spears, Peters; William Pedon, Somerset; Jesse Kenworthy, East Bethlehem; David McCoy, Hanover; James Moore,

At this meeting it was decided to raise the sum of $4800, there having been appropriated from the State fund, for the use of Washington County, $2397.73. kt this time there were eight thousand seven hundred and thirty-six persons in the county liable to taxation for school purposes. This tax was collected, and an earnest effort was made on the part of the school directors of the several townships to establish the new system, that it might work harmoniously. Its provisions " proved cumbersome," and much opposition was developed. At a county convention held on the 2d of May, 1836, composed of the county commissioners and delegates from the different townships (all of which were represented except Canton, Hopewell, Hanover, and North Strabane), it was voted to fix the county appropriation at $12,000, in addition to that made by the State. This year there was considerable opposition to the law, and the following is the list of townships which accepted the appropriation, with the sums raised by each ; also a list of those which were " non-accepting" :






Cross Creek




East Finley

West Finley



Pike Run


South Strabane








197.00 493.00 502.00 383.00 367.00



$98.28 140.46 144.15 111.57 66.39 65.46 61.16 100.20 101.42 122.02 56.86 66.39 122.94



East Bethlehem

West Bethlehem






Mount Pleasant



North Strabane



$100.81 171.50 128.47 68.84 69.07 129.70 120.31 124.78 86.44 79.29 99.68 66.69 88.21

Amendments were made to the school law as experience suggested changes, and in 1837 all the townships of the county, with the exception of Cecil and Hanover, were working in harmony with the provisions of the school act. These townships accepted these provisions in the next year, since which time various changes and improvements have been made.

Normal Schools.—The first meeting of educators connected with the interests of common schools and the establishment of normal schools was held at the Pigeon Creek Church, in Somerset, Nov. 23, 1849. Several resolutions were passed declaring for " well qualified teachers and a system of Normal schools for their training," and "a county committee to examine teachers, with authority to call a convention of teachers twice a year for instruction by lectures on the science of teaching." This meeting resulted in the calling of a common school county convention, which met at Washington, Feb. 19, 1850. A second one was held March 20th, a third May 21st, and a fourth Sept. 23, 1850, at Washington. At this last meeting A. M. Gow offered a resolution to establish an institute by which the teachers may be brought together for their improvement ; also at this meeting the name of Washington County Institute was adopted. At a meeting in October the delegates to the State convention were instructed to recommend county superintendency and the establishment of State normal schools for the special preparation of teachers. Conventions were held often in different parts of the county, and educators from abroad as well as those at home were employed to lecture before the institute. At a meeting of the association in 1855, A. M. Gow recommended establishing a normal school of four weeks' continuance. It was not, however, until three years later that this suggestion was acted upon. The following from the "Report of Public Instruction of 1877" shows the progress of normal schools until 1861 :

"The first normal school in the county was held in Hillsboro, commencing May 11, 1858. J. H. Longdon, county superintendent, was the principal. He was assisted by J. N. Boyd and A. J. Buffington. Sixty-eight teachers were in attendance. The next session was held in West Middletown, commencing June 10, 1859, which continued six weeks, with an attendance of one hundred and thirty-one teachers. Mr. Long-don was assisted by some of the best teachers in attendance. Stated lectures were delivered by prominent men during the session. Mr. Longdon held. the next session at Monongahela, City in the following


May and June, continuing seven weeks. The enrollment numbered one hundred and fifty-eight, exclusive of the model school, which was taught by John F. Weller and Julia A. Weller. Mr. Longdon was assisted in the normal department by J. E. Stephenson, A. J. Buffington, and J. L. Phillips. So great was the benefit derived by those who attend these schools, and yet so unsatisfactory, because of the limited time which the sessions were kept open, that a demand was felt for a normal school that could be in session nine months during the year."

Thomas J. Horner, to whom must be given the honor of giving permanency to the normal school now 'in Washington County, was a native of Carmichael's, Greene Co., where he was born Feb. 1, 1835. His education was obtained at the district school and at Greene Academy. In the fall of 1856 he went to Millsboro', and taught school at that place during the winter and following spring, after which he went to Mount Union, Ohio, and entered the college at. that place for a regular course. In 1859 he went to West Brownsville and resumed teaching. In 1860 he went to Bridgeport, where he was employed in the Union school until July, when he was chosen principal.

The idea of a normal school had been growing in the minds of educators in Washington County and vicinity for some time previous, but to Mr. Horner it assumed tangible shape. Millsboro' was the site selected by him for the starting-place of such a school, as it was one of the most central points in the southwestern part of the State. He visited that place and laid his plans before the public. They were not at first favorably received, from financial reasons, but when he proposed to give his own notes for the payment of all subscriptions he succeeded in raising sufficient money, with what he had, to warrant hint in contracting for a building suitable for the purpose, intending it to be used only for a few years or until it could be changed into a State institution. In the spring of 1862 circulars were issued as follows:

"THE UNION NORMAL SCHOOL, located at Millsboro', Washington Co., Pa. For the convenience of teachers in Washington, Fayette, and Greene Counties. Under the supervision of the county superintendents, who will give instruction in teaching, and lecture during the term.

" Remarks.—The necessity and importance of such an institution are evidenced in the local and increasing demand for better teachers, correct in theory, and skilful in practice. In addition to this, the instructions of the State Department. of Common Schools require a much higher standard of attainment than has yet been acquired by the great majority of our teachers. For the purpose of affording to all increased facilities for receiving the higher standard of attainment, the above has been established. Our educational system is progressive, and teachers must either improve or give place to those who will. The examinations the next year will demand increased proficiency; therefore we recommend that all teachers holding Provisional Certificates, and others desiring to prepare for the Profession of Teaching, and who propose continuing in the Profession, will avail themselves of the facilities offered.



"County Superintendents.

"The first term of the first academic year will commence on Monday, the 28th of April, 1862.

" T. J. HORNER, Principal,

" Assisted by an able corps of Professional Teachers."

The pupils in attendance at this term, as given in the circular of the academic year of 1863-64, is as follows : " Teachers, higher department, 95 ; teachers, preparatory department, 30; boarding students, 60; day pupils, 70; number preparing to teach, 70."

The school was called at the next term "Southwestern Normal School." During the year 1863 Mr. Homer's health failed, and on the 27th of January, 1864, he died, having given up the charge to A. J. Buffington and J. C. Gilchrist, assisted by T. J. Teal. It was carried on through another year, that of 1864-65, when the school building and home of Mr. Homer were sold, and bought in by a company, who let the interest subside, but Mr. Gilchrist, being still interested, returned to California, Washington County, and succeeded in raising money enough to secure the State appropriation, and the normal school was moved to California. An offer of the union school building was made to them, which the trustees or faculty accepted. The union school was merged into it, and opened with an attendance of 143 during the summer session.

Southwestern State Normal School.¹ —This school, located on the Monongahela, at California, Pa., had its origin in the educational sentiment of the early settlers of the town, a sentiment nourished and developed by the establishment of a high school or academy in the year 1854. Chief among those who led the way in this enterprise was Job Johnson, Esq., one of the proprietors of the town. And here let it be said to the honor of all concerned that by a provision in the chartered rights, a provision vital to the success of the town and school, the sale of intoxicating liquors was forever prohibited within the borough limits.

Under the leadership of Prof. E. N. Johnson, now of Ohio, the academy secured a wide reputation.

The charter of incorporation of the normal school was approved by Governor A. G. Curtin March 16, 1865. Section 1 says that the corporate name and title of this institution shall be Southwestern Normal College of Pennsylvania until and before the time it may be recognized as a State normal school under the act of Legislature passed April 15, 1859, when it can take such name and title as may be consistent with the provisions of that act.

Section 2 says the object of this association is to found a normal college, in which shall be taught a course of study consisting of the English branches, the natural sciences, mathematics, the languages, metaphysics, music, and the science and art of teaching.

The first recorded meeting of the trustees took place in Seminary Hall, June 18, 1864. Prof. T. J. Teal, then county superintendent of Greene County, but also at that time a teacher in the school, was called to the chair, and an election held, resulting

¹ By Prof. G. G. Hertzog, Secretary of the Board of Trustees.


in the choice of Joseph A. Lambert, president; L. W. Morgan, vice-president ; and Samuel Sickman, secretary. At this meeting Profs. Buffington, Teal, and Yeagley, superintendents of Washington, Greene, and Fayette Counties respectively, were appointed to select a site for the normal school building.

Prominent among the early movers and workers were Prof. W. N. Hull, Rev. Abner Jackson, Rev. J. C. Momyer, Job Johnson, Esq., Edward Riggs, John N. Dixon, and Prof. Gilchrist, now of the State Normal School at Cedar Falls, Iowa. G. M. Eberman, William McFall, S. W. Craft, G. G. Hertzog, S. M. Binns, A. P. Smith, Thomas Johnson, E. N. Lilley, Capt. J. B. Williams, and W. W. Jackman came to the work a little later, but were earnest and efficient workers. So evenly were the chances of success and failure balanced in the long struggle to found the school that if any one of a dozen had failed to cooperate, the enterprise must have failed. But Prof. J. C. Gilchrist, who first led the way, and President John N. Dixon, for his manly devotion to the work through so many years, deserve especial mention.

The laying of the corner-stone took place Aug. 26, 1868, in the presence of a large concourse of people. Gen. John W. Geary, then Governor of the State, was present, and delivered an appropriate and eloquent address.

Because of a lack of means the work was much hindered, so that the school was not adopted as a State institution till June, 1874. It then took the title of Southwestern State Normal School. The buildings were completed in 1875, costing in the aggregate $90,000. In the mean time the work of the school was done in the old building till 1870, when it was begun in the new.

The school is designed specially as a training-school for teachers, and all applicants for examination from among the students indorsed by the faculty are tested by a State Board of Examiners. The first class, consisting of two members, was graduated in 1875. The succeeding classes numbered respectively six, nine, twenty-two, thirty, twenty-five, twenty-eight, and forty, aggregating one hundred and sixty-two. Not one of all indorsed by the faculty, and presented to the board for examination, has been rejected.

But the value of the school is not to be estimated simply by the number and work of its graduates ; for before the school was adopted by the State, as well as since, hundreds of others have gone from the school to do efficient work as teachers.

Prof. J. C. Gilchrist was the first principal of the "Normal College," but when in 1866 he was elected superintendent of the public schools of Washington County, Prof. A. J. Buffington, the retiring superintendent, was chosen principal; but after a successful session of five months retired to his farm. Prof. Gilchrist still continued his interest in the school during his term of office, severing his connection finally in September, 1870. The school was without a principal then till June, 1871, Prof. Hertzog having charge, when Prof. C. L. Ehrenfeld, of Hollidaysburg, Pa., was chosen. Prof. Ehrenfeld continued at the head of the school till January, 1877, when he resigned his position to become the State librarian. Soon after, Prof. George P. Beard, formerly principal of Shippensburg Normal School, but later of the State of Missouri, was chosen principal, and remains in that office still. Prof. Beard having had large experience in normal school work, and possessing the elements of a successful leader, the school has advanced rapidly under his management. In the State superintendent's report for 1866, it is stated that the number of students in the Southwestern Normal College was two hundred and sixty-one, nearly one hundred of whom taught in the county. This institution by its thorough work is giving an earnest of what it will accomplish when recognized as a " State Normal School." In the catalogue just published, that for 1882-83, the number in normal school for the past year is three hundred and fifty-five, besides an enrollment in the model school of one hundred and eighty-two, making a total of five hundred and thirty-seven. The school is managed by a board of eighteen trustees, twelve of whom are chosen by the stockholders and six by the State. Following are the names of the present board :

Elected by the stockholders,—William McFall, A. P. Smith, W. W. Jackman, Louis S. Miller, John N. Dixon, Esq., Z. W. Morgan, S. W. Craft, G. M. Eberman, Prof. G. G. Hertzog, Luke P. Beazell, O. Hornbake, Rev. D. A. Pierce

Appointed by the State, Hon. Gibson Binns, Col. Chill W. Hazzard, Hon. G. V. Lawrence, Hon. J. K. Billingsley, Hon. Daniel Kaine, Prof. T. J. Teal.

Officers of Board of Trustees,—Jno. N. Dixon, Esq., president; Prof. G. G. Hertzog, secretary; S. M. Binns, treasurer.

Faculty,—George P. Beard, A.M., principal; T. B. Noss, A.M., vice-principal ; G. G. Hertzog, mathematics ; J. B. Smith, natural sciences and Latin ; W. S. Jackman, geography and history; D. C. Murphy, penmanship and drawing; Miss A. M. Mehaffey, elocution and gymnastics; Miss Lizzie Patton, grammar and rhetoric ; T. R. Wakefield, geography and history ; Miss Ella M. McClure, model school ; Miss Hattie E. Jackman, model school.




IN the act erecting Washington County passed March 28, 1781, Section IX. directs " the courts to be held at the house of David 'Hoge, Esq., until a court-house shall be built or otherwise provided for."


The house of David Hoge here mentioned was situated on the lot that in the plat made in October of that year became No. 58, and is now occupied by the Strean block on Main Street. It was sold during the month of October, 1781, to Charles Dodd on a certificate, and in the first tax levy made for Washington County (which was in September, 1783, the taxes of 1781-82 having been exonerated) occurs this item, " Laid on to pay the Court-House rent to Charles or John Dodd, £40." The amount and the date here given is presumptive evidence that the rent paid was for the years' 1781-82, The treasurer's account of 1783 contains the following items : " To pay Charles Dodd Court-House rent, £15." " To pay James Wilson, by order of Trustees, the rent of a house to hold Court in, £9." The last item shows that one term of court was held at James Wilson's house, who at that time kept tavern on lot 291, where the store of William Smith now stands, on the corner of Main and Beau Streets.

The tax levy laid May 12, 1784, has this item : " Laid on to pay Mr. Dodd for the use of the house Court is held in, £20. Reference to the treasurer's books shows that this refers to Charles Dodd. The tax levy of 1785, made in January of that year, has the following : " For rent of Court-House, £20." The treasurer's account shows .this amount to have been paid to John Dodd,¹ as also the same amount in 1786, as per levy of that year. In 1787 the amount is doubtless covered in a deficiency account of £60, as the treasurer's account shows that John Dodd was paid for " Court-House rent £5," to pay James Wilson, " as rent for house, £6." The above extracts and references show with considerable clearness in what places the courts of the county were held prior to the completion of the first court-house, in 1787.

The law erecting the county provided and declared " That it shall be lawful to and for James Edgar, Hugh Scott, Van Swearingen, Daniel Leet, and John Armstrong, or any three of them, to take up or purchase and take assurance to them and their heirs of a piece of land situate in some convenient place in the said county, to be approved by the President and Supreme Executive Council, in trust, and for the use of the inhabitants of said county, and thereupon to erect, and build a court-house and prison sufficient to accommodate the public service of said county." In pursuance of the authority thus conferred, the trustees on the 18th of October, 1781, purchased of David Hoge, proprietor of the town of Washington, a lot of land on which to erect public buildings; it being the same on which the present court-house, jail, sheriff's residence, and town hall now stand, and which is known it’s the " public square." The description of the lot sold by Hoge is given in his deed to the trus-

¹ The court was still held in the log house on lot No. 58, as this property passed from Charles Dodd to John Dodd. The latter kept a tavern, however, at that time on lot 274, where Hastings' hardware store now stands.

tees, as follows: "A Lott of ground in the said Bassett Town [Washington], fronting and extending along Monongahela Street² Two hundred and forty feet; and in the same manner along Ohio³ street two hundred and forty feet; Thence with the Lott marked in the original plan of the said town, No. 123—that is, number one hundred and twenty-three; Thence with Johnston's Alley two hundred and forty feet to the Monongahela Street aforesaid ; and allso all Trees and appurtenances to the said described Lott or piece of ground belonging ; and allso all the Reversion or Reversions Rents or Services of the premises, and every part thereof." The consideration named by the grantor in his deed, is "for his good will he beareth to the inhabitants of the said county of Washington, and for the sum of five shillings to him in hand paid by the aforesaid Hugh Scott, Van Swearingen, Esqr. Daniel Lite [Leet] and John Armstrong."

The earliest record of any public action taken in reference to the building of a court-house on the ground purchased by the trustees for the purpose, is found in the minutes of the court for the April term in 1782, viz.: " The Court order that the Prothonotary write to the Trustees of the County, informing them of the urgent necessity of a Court House and Goal; and that the Court will find themselves under the disagreeable necessity of representing the remissness of the said Trustees, if something is not speedily done in that respect." This admonition from the court ,or some other cause) had the effect to induce the trustees to commence the erection of a court-house and jail during the succeeding year, but the work proceeded so slowly that it was not until July, 1787, that the building was ready for occupancy. They were built of logs, and situated in the rear of the public ground near the southwest corner. With reference to this building and its location, Prof. John Messenger writes as follows, basing his statement on information given by Mordecai Hoge, son of John Hoge, viz.: " When about six years of age, he (Mordecai Hoge) attended school in Washington. It was held in a hewed log cabin, and corresponding writing-desks, with benches made of long slabs. It stood on the right side of the alley where the worshipers of the United Presbyterian Church are accustomed to put their conveyances, a little below where the old weigh-scales were placed. The court-house and jail at that time were on the first floor, and under the same roof. The room in 'the second story was used for an academy, being the origin of Washington College. The Rev. Thaddeus Todd was the principal."

In the mean time, before the erection of the log court-house and jail, the prisoners of the county had been kept in Charles Dodd's log stable, which had been fitted up and strengthened for the purpose, but which was nevertheless so insecure that frequent complaints and protests concerning it came from the

² Now Main Street.

³ Now Beau Street.


court, the sheriff, and others. In 1784, when some desperate criminals were confined in it, the sheriff was compelled to call on the county lieutenant for a detachment of militia to guard it to prevent escapes. Forty men were called out for this duty under Capt. Joseph Bane, and served several days in July, 1784 and twenty-three men were on duty as guards from August 14th to October 2d following.¹ In December of the same year "The Grand Inquest presented as follows, to wit : At the request of James Marshall, Esqr., High Sheriff of the county of Washington, we, the Grand Jurors for the body of the said county of Washington at December term, 1784, have had view of the Gaol of the said county, and unanimously present that the said Gaol is insufficient.

" JOHN HOGE, Foreman."

In the following year the grand jury (John Hoge, foreman) presented, "That the Jail of said county is in many respects insufficient and a disgrace to the county. That the walls are so weak and ill constructed as to afford no security for the safe keeping of any prisoner, and it would therefore be unjust and unreasonable to make the sheriff answerable for any escape. That it is not above half the proper dimensions, and the windows not placed to receive or circulate fresh air, and that the unfortunate debtor is necessarily without proper accommodations, and must be kept in an impure atmosphere calculated to engender disorder and endanger the lives of the citizens. That we fear those who ought to provide proper accommodations have not correctly estimated the liberality of the citizens of Washington County, and we trust this admonitory hint will induce the commissioners of the county to commence immediately the necessary work for the public security and accommodation."

At the July sessions of 1787, when the new courthouse and jail building was in process of construction and nearly completed," James Marshall, Esquire, Sheriff, Represented to the Court that the place now used for a Gaol is altogether insufficient for the said purpose, and that there is a room in the new Gaol in considerable good condition for confining prisoners, wherefore the Court called upon John Hoge and Andrew Swearingen, Esqrs., undertakers for the new Gaol, who informed the Court that they were at liberty to order the Prisoners into the said room if they thought fit, and thereupon the Court order that the Sheriff confine his prisoners in future in the said room, and also remove those now in confinement thereto."

It appears however that the new jail was nearly as unsatisfactory as Dodd's stable building had been. In 1788 John H. Redick, " Jaylor," presented a bill

¹ In the commissioners' records of 1784 is found this item : " Also laid by order of the Sheriff, to pay the expense of guarding prisoners, &c. £222 0 0." And in the treasurer's account for same year the following: "To pay four pay-rolls for paying guard, £373 9 4. To pay Charles Dodd for victualling Guard, £6 0 6."

for " feeding William Wilson, a criminal, from the 5th day of November, 1787, to the 24th day of February, 1788, at 28. per day, at which time he broke Gaol and was brought back." Other items in his account were as follows : " To feeding Edward Stephens, a criminal, from the 31st day of December, 1787, to the 24th day of February, then broke." " Pot Owens, a criminal from the 26th day of August, 1788, to October, 1788, at 2s. per day. Then convicted and fed on strong victuals to the 23d day of October." Whether Owens " broke" at the last date or not is not stated in the bill.

The court-house building continued in use a little more than three years, and was destroyed by fire in the winter of 1790-91. From that time until the completion of a new court-house the courts were held at the house of James Wilson, as appears from entries of sums of money paid him for the use of his house for that purpose. The second court-house on the public square was commenced in 1791, the work having been let by contract to John Reed, Benjamin Reed, and William Reed, but at what price is not shown. Among the orders drawn on the treasurer in 1791 was the following : "To pay John, Benjamin, and William Reed £300, in orders 51, 52 and 58, of £100 each." In the next year the following appear : " To pay James Marshall for cash advanced and materials furnished on account of the public buildings, £60. . . . To pay John Reed, Benjamin Reed, and William Reed (on their orders), being in full for the Bill against the County according to their contract up to this time, paving and plastering not included, not being perfected, £807 11 1. . . . To pay William Gray for measuring and calculating the Public Buildings, £6 6 1." And on the 8th of January, 1793: "To pay John, William, and Benjamin Reed in full for work done to Court-House, Offices, Gaol, and Well, &c., &c., £157 8 l0."

From the records of the commissioners for 1793 and 1794 is quoted the following : "On the 6th February John Reed proposed contracting with us to do the plastering of the public buildings. The next day, accepted his terms, and made a contract for the same.. . . April 10, 1793, entered into a contract with John Reed (mason) to build a wall around the pub-lick buildings in Washington. . . . Oct. 25 agreed with said Reed to build a stone wall in front of the publick buildings. . . . December, 1793, gave order on Treasurer in favor of John Reed for £100, it being to enable him to go on with the publick buildings. . . . April 30, 1794, met for the purpose of agreeing on some method of having the work of the publick buildings already begun by the Carpenters, and not finished, which we find damaging. Saw said workmen, and they say the want of seasoned stuff has hindered them, but that they will go on as fast as possible. . . . July 7, Allowed bill of the Gaol expense and clearing Court-House &c. as per vouchers for the sum of five dollars and fifty three cents." This last item shows


approximately the date of completion of the second court-house and jail on the public square-July, 1794, -about the time when the lawlessness of the Whiskey Insurrection culminated in the burning of Gen. Neville's house, the robbery of the mail, and the great mustering of troops on Braddock's Field.

The amounts levied to cover expense of court-house, jail, jail-yard, and officers were as follows : In 1792, £1500 ; March 28, 1793, £400 ; March 4, 1794, £1100. Total, £3000. From the completion of the public buildings, in 1794, they were occupied continuously for a quarter of a century, though not without repeated complaints concerning them. A number of extracts from the records are given below, covering the period referred to, and exhibiting matters of some interest in connection with the old buildings, viz.: In an account of Samuel Clarke for goods furnished for court-house from Oct. 21, 1795, to Feb. 25, 1796, are these items : " One finished candlestick, 3s. 9d.; one-eighth pound shining sand, 6d.; Almanack for Commissioners' office, 6d.; one paper Ink Powder, ls. 2d." Account of David Redick, rendered in June, 1796, item-" to Cash paid David Townsend for making Screw and Seal for the County, £3 0 0." Oct. 12, 1799, bill of Joseph Day, $45.66, for lumber, materials, and work on Prothonotary's office. . . . Same for carpenter work at Register's office, £117 8s. July 18, 1796, "Samuel Clark (commissioner) was appointed to have an Iron Chest made for the Treasury." July 19th James Reed was employed " to work , on the Cupola and put up a Conductor." April 25, 1797, "Contract made with Josiah Scott to fence the public. grounds. Robert McGowan furnished 300 chestnut rails for the purpose." Oct. 7, 1797, bill presented by William Seaman "To mending the wall of the Gaol yard after the roof was blown off by the Storm, including the Gaol wall after an attempt to break it, £6 0 0." The public grounds were inclosed " by a fence of fifty-three panels, at 6s. per panel. Four panels in front, the rails shaved ; three Locust posts dressed ; three large gate posts dressed." Bill No. 29, dated July 1, 1797. "Dec. 20, 1797, Paid William Sherrard for Shoreing the Commissioners' office and other things, £1 17s. 6d. During 1797 £200 was expended in " repairing the publick buildings." In 1799 a bill of £189 was allowed to Joshua Cannon " for addition and repairs of court-house ;" and to William Sherrard, £12 0 7, " for Carpenter work at Court House and offices." Similar items occur frequently in the records of the commissioners for the succeeding twenty years.

In 1818, the court-house having become somewhat dilapidated and insufficient for the requirements of the country, the commissioners levied $4000 to be applied in making additions and repairs. On the 23d of February, 1819, they received proposals for enlarging the court-house, "to be done between the June and September terms of 1819, agreeably to plan." Thomas Baird proposed " to furnish everything, brick and stone excepted, not to charge for time of superintendence or procuring materials ; to do the carpenter work, mason work, bricklaying and plastering twenty per cent. lower than established prices," with David Shields and George Baird as sureties. His proposal was accepted Feb. 26, 1819. The addition and repairs were completed in 1819, but not in time for the September sessions. Where that term of court was held does not appear. After the enlargement and repairs. the building remained in use for twenty years.

In 1823 the building of a new jail was agitated and determined on, and in February, 1824, the commissioners concluded a contract with John Wilson and John Orr to build the prison, with the exception of the iron work, which was contracted to James McCoy, the work to be completed on or before April 1, 1825. After the plan had been drawn, a protest was presented to the commissioners against its adoption, suggesting that there be a greater number of cells than was at first proposed. The petition, or protest, concluded as follows : " Permit us to solicit your attention to this important subject, and to request a reconsideration of the plan adopted by you so far as to increase the number of cells or lower apartments, without changing the dimensions of the contemplated building. In making this communication we have no object in view other than the public good; our minds have been drawn to the subject in consequence of an impression that the under story of said building was to be divided into but four apartments." It was signed by David Acheson, T. M. T. McKennan, George Baird, John Wishart, John Koontz, John R. Murdoch, Thomas Officer, Robert Officer, John H. Ewing, Charles De Hass, David Moore, Alexander Reed, Parker Campbell, Thomas Hoge, Thomas McGiffin, Samuel Hazlett, and two hundred and twelve other citizens, and also " Signed by order of the grand jury, Thomas McCall (foreman), David Hillis (secretary). Peter Carney, Hugh Cunningham, Daniel L. Goble, John Case, William V. Leet, Zachariah Cox, John Brownlee, T. J. Halliday, Andrew Yeates, Benjamin Thompson, Frederick Stroutz, James Smith, W. W. Irons." The plan of the building was afterwards changed to some extent, but whether in conformity with the views of the protestants is not shown. It appears that the prison was completed (at least the part of it which was contracted by Wilson &

Orr) in 1824, as a receipt in full is indorsed on the back of their contract, and dated December 28th of that year. This jail was built of limestone, with side walls of the first story four feet in thickness; end walls and partition walls three feet thick, and the walls of the second story two feet thick. The taxes levied to meet the expense of its construction aggregated $3500, viz.: In November, 1824, $2000; in November, 1825, $1000 ; in November, 1826, for " arrears of new prison," $500. The jail answered its


purpose, and continued in use for more than forty years.

On the 18th of October, 1836, a public meeting of citizens of the county was held in Washington, to take into consideration the question of the erection of a new court-house and other county buildings, and, if thought expedient, to take measures in furtherance of the project. John Clever, of East Bethlehem, was chosen chairman, and Robert McClelland (of South Strabane) and William Jacky (of Washington) secretaries. After long discussion, resolutions were passed, setting forth the necessity of new buildings, and recommending that the question be referred to the voters of the county at the next spring elections. It was so submitted at the township elections in the spring of 1837, and the result was a strong vote in the negative. Nothing further was done until March, 1839, when the insufficiency of the public buildings was brought before the grand jury, and by that body referred to the next grand jury, who, after long deliberation, made presentment favorable to the erection of new buildings. The matter then came before the commissioners, who, after examination, reported that five thousand dollars would repair the old courthouse and twelve thousand dollars would be required for a new one. Again it went before the grand jury, who declared the old buildings unfit for public use, and recommended the erection of a new court-house and offices. Thereupon the commissioners decided to build, and advertised in June, 1839, as follows :


"Notice to Stone-masons, Bricklayers, and Carpenters.-In pursuance of the 10th Sec. of the Act of Assembly, passed the 15th April, 1834, two successive Grand Juries of the County of Washington having recommended the erection of new public buildings for the accommodation of the Courts and offices of the County and for the safe keeping of the records, &c.; and the reports of the said Grand Juries having been acted upon and being approved by the Court, the undersigned Commissioners of Washington County will receive proposals at the Commissioners' office on Monday the 15th day of July next, at 10 oclk A.M., for executing the Stone work, Brick work, and Carpenter work of said buildings. Plans and specifications will be exhibited on said day.




"County Commissioners."

Contracts for the work were awarded as follows : to Henry Shearer, for the carpenter work, at $4000; to Freeman Brady, for the stone work, at $1200 ; to Alexander Ramsey, for cutting the stone, at $1233; and to David White, for furnishing and laying the brick, $3000. The work was commenced without delay. The old court-house was demolished, and on the 13th of September the commissioners "made arrangements to dispose of the old lumber of the courthouse." September 25th, " Decided to remove the old Offices." The following extracts from the records of the commissioners show where the courts were held, and some of the public offices located during the construction of the new building, viz.: Aug. 29, 1839, the commissioners entered into articles of agreement " with James L. Porter and Charles E. Jones, trustees of the Methodist Protestant Church, and have' agreed to pay the said trustees the sum of one hundred dollars annually ¹ from the 29th of August, 1839, to the 29th of August, 1843, for the use of the church, with the privilege of leaving the same as soon as the new court-house shall have been completed." Previously (March 20, 1839) they had leased for one year, for use as a sheriff's house, a building belonging to Samuel Murdoch, "at present occupied by Isaiah Steen," and on the 26th of September following they " fixed upon the old commissioners' office and Garrett's lower rooms, and Major Palmer's corner room for the offices, and leased them for one year and six months from date of lease."

An agreement had been made with James P. Millard to furnish e statue of Gen. Washington to be placed on the dome of the new court-house. No record of this agreement is found with the proceedings of the commissioners, but an entry is found dated May 6, 1842, showing that they then addressed a letter to him to the effect " that in consequence of his failure to furnish the Statue for the Court-House in the time agreed upon they would decline receiving it." They afterwards received from him a letter of explanation, in consequence of which on the 27th of May they revoked the action of May 6th, and ordered the statue to be received and placed upon the dome.

The public buildings were completed in the fall of 1842. The commissioners met "on Monday, October 17th, and continued in session during that and the four following days, to wit, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21", whilst Messrs. James Sterritt, of Allegheny County, and James Chambers and William Erret, of Washington County (who had been selected for that purpose), were engaged in measuring the carpenter work of the Court-House." The total cost of the courthouse building was $24,958 ; of the sheriff's house, $4448. During the thirteen years next succeeding the completion and occupation of the new buildings, sums varying from $100 to $300 were expended annually on repairs. In 1856 the sum of $500 was raised for that purpose ; in 1858, $1000; in 1859, $500; in 1860, $500 ; in 1861, $550 ; in 1862, $1000 ; in 1863, $1200; in 1864, $1200; in 1865, $1500.

The building of the present jail of Washington County was proposed in 1865, and decided on in 1866, in which latter year the sum of $1000 was raised for the purpose of commencing on the work. At a term of court held in August of that year the draft and plans of the proposed building, which had been prepared by Barr & Moser, architects, of Pittsburgh,. were submitted to the grand jury, and by them approved unanimously. They were then submitted,

¹ The bargain was evidently changed afterwards to twenty dollars for each term of court, as is shown by the following entry: " Account with Charles E. Jones for use of Church for holding Court from August 29, 1839,-eight terms of Court at $20 each, as per article - $160. Allowance for replacing pews and repairing house- 10/175."


with a certification of the action of the grand jury, to the secretary of the Commonwealth, and approve* At a meeting of the commissioners, held Feb. 28, 1867, " it was this day agreed to proceed at once to the erection of a new jail, under the findings of the grand jury and the direction of the court." On the 5th of March following the commissioners, with their attorney, D. S, Wilson, Esq., conferred with Barr & Moser, of Pittsburgh, in reference to the proposed additions to the court-house, to give additional and much needed space, and to connect the building with the jail. The additions were determined on in accordance with the plans of the architects. April 22, 1867, "this day, under advice of D. S. Wilson, Esq., Messrs. Barr & Moser, architects, of Pittsburgh, were appointed General Superintendents of the erection of the new Jail." Under the architects, Nelson Van Kirk was appointed superintendent and foreman of the carpenter work, and Samuel Hargreaves superintendent and foreman of masonry and brick work. The work proceeded during 1867 and the spring of 1868, and was 'completed in the summer of the latter year. The cost of the buildings was, for jail and enlargement of court-house, $48,500 ; for stone wall, grading, and improvements to sheriff's house, $3500; total, $52,000. In 1879 repairs were made on the jail amounting to $2000, and in the following year the sum of $3550 was expended on the proper ventilation and heating of the court-room. The buildings are now in excellent condition.

The County Home.-An act passed the Legislature of Pennsylvania, April 6, 1830, authorizing Washington County to erect a house for the employment and support of the poor. The commissioners appointed in the act to locate a site for the farm on which to erect suitable buildings were Gen. James Lee, Alexander Reed, Col. Joseph Barr, Gen. Wallace McWilliams, Zephaniah Beall, Esq., William Patterson, of Ten-Mile, and David Eckert. After due examination, these commissioners selected a tract of land in the township of Chartiers and North Strabane, then belonging to Robert Colmery. It contained one hundred and seventy-two acres, and was purchased for the sum of two thousand seven hundred and fifty-two dollars. It was a part of a tract of land originally owned by Andrew Swearingen, and was inherited by Thomas Swearingen, who sold it to John Cook in 1801, from whom it passed respectively to Joseph Swearingen, Joseph Henderson (sheriff), and Robert Colmery. The land was purchased on contract, Aug. 19, 1830, and deed given therefor March 26, 1831. The directors of the poor and of the house of employment (William Hunter, John Watson, and Stephen Wood) advertised Jan. 15, 1831, to receive bids for the erection of a poor-house, at the store of William Hunter, February 1st of that year. A house was erected soon after, which, with repairs, answered its purpose until 1874, when the present house was erected.

On the 28th of June, 1832, the directors of the poor purchased two acres adjoining the other land. Nov. 2, 1861, one acre was purchased, and on the 26th of April, 1865, six acres (part of the Wallace patent) was also purchased, and April 1, 1867, a lot of twenty-eight acres additional was bought of John' Cooke, making two hundred and nine acres now belonging to the farm.

In 1832, Dr. John Logan was chosen superintendent of the county home, and continued till September, 1851, when he was succeeded by Maj. William Wilson, who held the office till April 1, 1858, when John Gamble was appointed. He served in that capacity till about 1872, when E. G. Cundall, the present superintendent, was appointed.

In the year 1837, in accordance with the presentment of the grand jury made June 22d of that year (Robert R. Reed, foreman), a department was added for the better treatment of insane persons and those having contagious diseases.

The estimate of expenses made for the year 1830-31 for the poor-house and building was $1500. For 1832 it was $5000. The estimate from that time to 1855 ranged from $3500 to $6500. In the years 1855 and 1856 $8000 was raised each year, and in 1857 $7000. The estimates ranged from $4000 to $5000 annually till 1864, in which year it was $3000. In 1865, $5000; 1866, $1500. From that time to 1874 no positive data can be obtained from the books. In that year the present buildings were in process of erection, and their cost is given in the budget of taxes for 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, as follows : 1874, $9528.74; 1875, $6955.53; 1876, $2660.14; 1877, $1058.63, making the total of $22,203.44.

The annual expense of the county home from 1874, including the cost of buildings, has been as follows: 1874, $17,553.68; 1875, $15,955.53; 1876, $12,260.14; 1877, $11,857.63 ; 1878, $16,730 ; 1879, $15,845.66; 1880, $13,807.57 ; 1881, $14,406.

Washington County Civil List.-In this list the names are given of persons who have held county offices, and also of those resident in Washington County who have held important offices in or under the State or national government.


Under Constitution of 1776.

Van Swearingen, Nov. 30, 1781; Nov. 10, 1783.

James Marshel Nov. 3,1784; Nov. 21, 1786.

David Williamson, Oct. 26, 1787; Jan. 17, 1789.

William Wallace, Nov. 9, 1790.

Under Constitution of 1790.

John Hamilton, Oct. 21, 1793.

Thomas Hamilton, Nov. 2,1796.

Absalom Baird, Nov. 2, 1799.

George Hamilton, Nov. 6, 1802.

John McCluney, Oct. 21, 1805.

Robert Anderson, Oct. 25, 1808.

George Baird, Nov. 23, 1811.

Thomas Officer,¹ Nov. 1, 1814.

Dickerson Roberts, Nov. 6, 1817.

Robert Officer, Oct. 23, 1820.

Samuel Workman, Oct. 15, 1823.

Robert McClelland, Oct. 27, 1826.

Joseph Henderson, Oct. 26, 1829.

Samuel Cunningham, Oct. 16, 1832.

John Marshel, Nov. 5, 1835.

John Wilson, Oct. 24, 1836.

James Spriggs, Oct. 20, 1837.

¹ Thomas Officer died May 18,1817, and William Carter, coroner, became acting sheriff for the remainder of the term, in accordance with a provision of the Constitution applying to such cases.


Under Constitution of 1838.

Sheshbazzar Bentley, Jr., Nov. 7, 1840.

Jehu Jackman, Nov. 4, 1843.

Alex. G. Marshman, Oct. 23,1846.

Peter Wolf, Oct. 22,1849.

John McAllister, Oct. 23,1852.

Andrew Bruce, Oct. 22, 1855.

Norton McGiffin, Oct. 23, 1858.

James M. Byers, Nov. 18,1861.

Edmund R. Smith, Nov. 8, 1864.

Hugh Keys, Nov. 25, 1867.

William C. Ramsey, Nov.11,1870.

William Thompson, Nov. 21, 1873.

George S. Work, Dec. 20, 1876.

George Perritte, Dec. 4, 1879.


Under Constitution of 1790.

Wm. McFarland, Nov. 30, 1781.

Wm. McFarland, Nov. 10, 1783.

William McCombs, Nov. 1, 1784.

William McCombs, Dec. 10, 1785.

William McCombs, Nov. 1, 1786.

Robert Benham, Oct. 26, 1787.

Robert Benham, Jan. 17, 1789.

Samuel Clark, Nov. 6, 1789.

Samuel Clark, Dec. 14, 1790.

William Siemens, Nov. 18, 1799.

Dorsey Pentecost, Nov. 6; 1802.

Thos. Hutchinson, Nov. 4, 1805.

Dickerson Roberts, Oct. 25, 1808.

Wm. Marshall, Jan. 23, 1812.

William Carter, Feb. 22, 1815.

James Ruple, Nov. 6, 1817.

John Johnson, Oct. 23, 1820.

George Sowers, Nov. 10, 1823.

Alexander Gordon, Nov. 20, 1826.

Moses Linn, Nov. 2, 1828.

James McCadden, Oct. 16, 1832.

John Wilson, Nov. 18, 1835.

John R. Griffith, Oct. 20, 1837.

John R. Griffith, Dee. 23, 1837.

William Tweed, Nov. 7, 1840.

William J. Wilson, Nov. 4, 1843.

Oliver Lindsey, Nov. 24,1846.

James D. Bert, Nov. 9, 1849.

William B. Cundall, Nov. 8, 1852.

Moses Little, Nov. 13, 1854.

Jonathan Martin, Oct. 26, 1858.

John E. Black, Nov. 27, 1861.

Isaac Vance, Nov. 16, 1864.

Chas. W. McDaniel, Nov. 16,1867.

Lewis Barker, Dec. 11, 1868.

Samuel M. Deeker, Dec. 4, 1871.

James Byers, Jan. 2, 1875.

Saml. D. Harchman, Feb. 13, 1871

Charles V. Greer, Dec. 17, 1880.


Under Constitution of 1776.

Thomas Scott, April 2, 1781. 

Alexander Scott.1 March 28, 1789.

David Redick, Aug. 17, 1791.

Under Constitution of 1790.

David Redick, March 14, 1792.

Wm. McKerman, Jan. 11, 1803.

Alex. Murdoch, March 6, 1809.

Alex. Murdoch, Jan. 1, 1815.

Alex. Murdoch, April 9, 1818.

William Sample, May 6, 1819.

Thomas Morgan, Feb. 12, 1821

William Sample, Dec. 30, 1823.

William Sample, Dec. 21, 1826.

Thomas Officer, Feb. 10, 1830.

Thomas Officer, Jan. 25, 1833.

George W. Acheson, Jan. 8, 1836.

John Urie, Oct. 25, 1837.

John Grayson, Sr., Feb. 5, 1839.

Under Constitution of 1790

David Redick, March 14, 1792.

William McKennan, Jan. 11, 1803.

Alexander Murdoch, March 6, 1809.

Alexander Murdoch, Jan. 1, 1815.

Alexander Murdoch, April 9, 1818.

William Sample, May 6, 1819.

Robert Colmery, Feb. 12, 1821.

Joseph Henderson, Dec. 30, 1823.

Joseph Henderson, Dec. 21, 1826.

James Ruple, Feb. 7, 1828.

James Ruple, Feb. 19, 1830.

James Ruple, Jan. 25, 1833.

James Blaine, Jan. 8, 1836.

James Ruple, Feb. 5, 1839.

Under Constitution of 1838.

James Ruple, Dec. 1, 1839. 

Alex. G. Marshman, Dec. 1,1842.

William Hays, Dec. 1, 1845.

Robert F. Cooper, Dec. 1, 1848.

George Passmore, Dec. 1, 1851.

David Aiken, Dec. 1, 1854.

David Aiken, Dec 1, 1857.

David Aiken, Dec. 1, 1860.

William Kidd, Dec. 1, 1863.

William Kidd, Dec. 1, 1866.

Samuel Ruth, Dec. 1, 1869.

James S. Stocking, Dec. 1, 1872.

Under Constitution of 1874.

James S. Stocking, first Monday in January, 1876.

Benjamin F. Hasson, first Monday in January, 1879.

Benjamin F. Hasson, first Monday in January, 1882.


Under Constitution of 1838.

John Grayson, Sr., Dec. 1, 1839.

Ephraim L. Blaine, Dec. —, 1842.

Obadiah B. McFadden, Dec. 1,1845.

James Brown, Dec. 1, 1848.

James Brown, Dec. 1, 1851.

William S. Moore, Dec. 1, 1854.

James B. Ruple, Dec. 1,1857.

James B. Ruple, Dec. 1, 1860.

John E. Bell, Dec. 1, 1863.

John L. Gow, Dec. 1, 1866.

Daniel W. Donahoo, Dec. 1, 1869.

Julius P. Miller, Dec. 1, 1872.


Under Constitution of 1874.

Julius P. Miller, first Monday in January, 1876.

William A. Barr, first Monday in January, 1879.

John W. Seaman, Jr., first Monday in January, 1882.


Under Constitution of 1776.

Thomas Scott, April 2, 1781.

Afexander Scott, March 28, 1781.

David Redick, Aug. 17, 1701.

¹ "PHILADELPHIA, March 28, 1789.

"In Council.

"Whereas, Thomas Scott, Esquire, Prothonotary of the county of Washington bath informed this Council by letter that he hath been elected a representative of this State in the Congress of the United States, and that he is on his way to New York to take his seat as such ; and, whereas, the said Thomas Scott, Esquire, by the acceptance of his appointment as representative in Congress is incapable of discharging the duties of prothonotary of the county aforesaid; and it is, therefore, proper that a prothonotary for the said county should forthwith be appointed in his stead.

"Rewired, That Alexander Scott, son of the said Thomas Scott, Esquire, be and is hereby appointed prothonotary of the county of Washington, in the room and stead of Thomas Scott, Esquire."

Geo. Vallandigham, Nov. 30, 1781.

Thomas Crooks, Nov. 30, 1781.

John McDowell, Nov. 30, 1781.

George McCormick, Dec. 4, 1782.

Demos Ludley, Nov. 10, 1783.

James Allison. Nov. 1, 1784.

James McCready, November, 1785.

James Bradford, November, 1786.

Thomas Marquis, November, 1787.

Henry Van Metre, November, 1788.

James McCready, November, 1789.

William Meetkirke, Nov., 1790.

James Brice, November, 1791.

Zachariah Gapen, November, 1792.

Isaac Leet, Jr., Oct. 24, 1793.

Samuel Clarke, Oct. 23, 1794.

William Zeator, Oct. 24, 1795.

John Cotton, Oct. 19, 1796.

Robert McCready, Nov. 8, 1796.

James Brice, Oct. 11, 1797.

William Campbell, Oct. 19,1798.

Joshua Anderson, Oct. 12, 1799.

Isaac Leet, Jr., Oct. 23,1800.

Robert Machan, Oct. 19, 1801.

John Lyle, Oct. 25, 1802.

Thomas Hopkins, Oct. 24,1803.

Edward Todd, Oct. 22,1804.

John Colmery, Oct. 29, 1805.

Aaron Lyle, Oct. 23, 1806.

Joseph Alexander, Oct. 26, 1807.

William Marshall, Oct. 31, 1808.

Moses McWhister, Oct. 18, 1809.

Isaac Leet, Oct. 29, 1810.

Daniel Kehr, October, 1811.

William Vance, October, 1812.

John Brownlee, October, 1813.

John Reed, October, 1814.

Walter Craig,² October, 1816.

James Gordon,³ March 18, 1816.

David Little, October, 1816.

Jonathan Knight, October, 1816.

Moses Lyle, October, 1817.

John Lacock, October, 1818.

Alexander Scott, October, 1819.

Matthias Luce, October, 1820.

William McCreary, October, 1821.

John Urie, October, 1822.

John McCoy, October, 1823.

Robert Moore, October, 1824.

Robert Patterson, October, 1825.

Wallace McWilliams, Oct. 1826.

Robert Love, Nov. 6, 1827.

Thomas Axtell, Oct. 27, 1828.

Isaac Hodgins, November, 1829.

Samuel Cunningham, Nov. 1, 1830.

James McBirney, Dec. 6, 1831.

William V. Leet,4 June 30, 1832.

James Miller, Nov. 5, 1832.

Jesse Cooper, Dec. 3,1832.

William McElroy, Jan. 6, 1834.

James Lee, Dec. 6, 1834.

Sheshbazzar Bentley, Jr., December, 1835.

Benjamin Anderson, 1836.

Jehu Jackman, 1836.

Matthew. Linn, November, 1837.

Andrew Shearer, Nov. 5, 1838.

James Pollock, November, 1839.

Samuel Linton, Nov. 2, 1840.

Hugh Craig, Nov. 8, 1841.

Thomas Byers, Nov. 7, 1842.

George Passmore, Nov. 6,1843.

James Donahoo, Nov. 4,1844.

Alexander Frazier. Nov. 3, 1845.

Dutton Shannon, Nov. 3, 1846.

John McAllister, Nov. 1, 1847.

John Birch, Nov. 6, 1848.

Andrew Bruce, Nov. 5, 1849.

Samuel Beeket, Nov. 4, 1850.

Isaac Thompson, Nov. 3, 1851.

Thomas McCarroll, Nov. 1,1852.

Daniel Swickard, Nov. 7, 1853.

John Stewart, Nov. 6, 1854.

John N. Walker, Nov. 5, 1856.

Nathan Cleaver, Nov. 3, 1856.

Joseph Vankirk, Nov. 3, 1857.

O. P. Cook, Nov. 1, 1858.

George Taylor, Nov. 7, 1859.

James S. Elliot, Nov. 5, 1860.

Abel M. Evans, Nov. 6, 1861.

Francis Nelson, Nov. 3, 1862.

Joseph W. Cowen, Nov. 2, 1863.

Thomas J. Bell, Nov.7, 1864.

James Walker, Nov. 6, 1865.

Samuel K. Weirich, Nov. 1, 1886.

H. B. McLean, Nov. 1, 1867.

James Kerr, Nov. 2, 1868.

S. P. Riddle, Nov. 1, 1869.

James Craighead, Nov. 7, 1870.

John Hemphill, Nov. 6, 1871.

J. G. Barr, Nov. 4, 1872.

Alexander McCleary, Nov. 3, 1873,

² Resigned March 18, 1816.

³ Appointed to fill vacancy.

4 To fill vacancy.


Joseph A. Gaston, Jan. 4, 1875.

Josiah Cooper, Jan. 3, 1876.

William Hazen, Jan. 3, 1876.

Joseph Gaston, Jan. 3, 1876.

Elijah Townsend, Jan 6, 1879.

M. M. Brockton, tan. 6, 1879.

S. R. Hawkins, Jan. 6, 1879.

William Perrin, Sr., Jan. 2, 1882.

John T. Roberts, Jan. 2, 1882.

I. V. Riddle, Jan. 2, 1882.


Jas. McCreary, 1782 to Feb. 6, 1793.

John Colerich, Sr., Feb. 6, 1793.

Isaac Kerr, Oct. 12, 1799

Robert Moore, Oct. 19, 1801.

John Gilmore, Oct. 4, 1803.

David McKeehan, Oct. 22, 1804.

Alexander Blair, Oct. 29,1805.

William Baird, Oct. 31, 1808.

John Baird, October, 1814.

Robert Jackson, October, 1819.

Thomas Good, October, 1822.

James Palmer, October, 1834.

William Hughes, Nov. 8, 1841.

William R. Oliver, Nov. 6, 1843.

Adam Silvey, Nov. 3, 1845.

David P. Lowery, Nov. 7, 1853.

John Gamble, Nov. 6, 1854.

Elias McClelland, Nov. 3, 1857.

Samuel Linton, Nov. 1, 1858.

Isaac H. Longdon, Nov. 7, 1864.

Joseph A. McKee, Nov. 1, 1869.

John Grayson, Jr., Dec. 5, 1870.

John E. Bell, Dec. 3, 1872 ; resigned July 6, 1874.

Addison Winters, July 6, 1874.

William A. Mickey, Jan. 1, 1879; Jan. 2, 1882.


Andrew Swearinger,² 1783 to June 22, 1795

David Redick, June 22, 1795.

Isaac Kerr, June 23, 1801.

Daniel Kehr, June, 1806.

Robert Colmery, Aug. 18, 1809.

James Blaine, Aug. 24, 1812.

William Baird, Aug. 11, 1815.

Thomas Good, Aug. 11, 1818.

Thomas Good, Aug. 4, 1819.

Thomas Good, Aug. 8, 1820.

Samuel Workman, August, 1822.

James Dougherty, November, 1823.

James Allison, January, 1824.

Isaac Leet, January, 1826.

Samuel McFarland, Jan. 6, 1830.

Samuel Marshall, January, 1832.

Benj. S. Stewart, January, 1833.

Samuel Marshall, January, 1834.

Henry Langley, February, 1835.

Zach. Reynolds, January, 1838.

William Workman, October, 1841

William Hughes, October, 1843.

James D. McGugin, October, 1845.

Robert K. Todd, October, 1847.

Norton McGiffin, October, 1849.

John Hall, October, 1851.

Thaddeus Stanton, October, 1853.

H. B. Elliot, Oct. 22, 1855.

Thomas Martindale, Nov. 13, 1857.

John Q. Bell, Nov. 30, 1859.

James Pollock, Nov. 27,1861.

William S. Moore, Feb. 22, 1862.

I. W. Douds, Nov. 13, 1863.

A. W. Pollock, Nov. 16, 1865.

James P. Hart, Dec. 3, 1867.

James B. Gibson, Nov. 20, 1869.

James P. Sayer, Nov. 17, 1871.

J. C. Trench, Nov. 21, 1873.

A. L. Hawkins, Dec. 16, 1875.

S. C. McGregor, January, 1879.

George L. Hill, January, 1881.


James Marshall, April 4, 1781.

Thomas Stokeley, Nov. 19, 1784.

Thomas Stokeley, Sept. 4, 1790.

James Mashall, Aug. 17, 1791.

Samuel Clarke, March 6, 1795.

John Israel, Jan. 15, 1800.

Isaac Kerr, Dec. 1, 1806.

Isaac Kerr, March 6, 1809.

Isaac Kerr, Dec. 10, 1811.

Isaac Kerr, April 9, 1818.

Robert Colmery, May 6, 1819.

Samuel Lyon, Feb. 12, 1821.

Robert Colmery, Dec. 30, 1823.

Robert Colmery, Dec. 21, 1826.

John Grayson, Sr., March 19, 1830.

John Grayson, Sr., Jan. 25, 1833.

Samuel Cunningham, Jan. 8, 1836.

James Gordon, Feb. 5, 1839.

Constitution of 1838.

George Morrison, Dec. 1, 1839.

James Spriggs, Nov. 12, 1842.

William Workman, Nov. 17, 1845

Odell Squier, Nov. 25, 1848.

John Grayson, Jr., Nov. 22, 1851.

John Meloy, Nov. 14, 1854.

Harvey J. VanKirk, Nov. 13, 1857.

William A. Michey, Nov. 23, 1860.

William A. Michey, Nov. 13, 1863

George Buchanan, Nov. 8, 1866.

F. Y. Hamilton, Nov. 20, 1869.

A. O. Day, Nov. 7, 1872.

A. O. Day, Dec. 16, 1875.

W. H. Underwood, Dec. 12, 1878.

John F. Cooper, Dec. 9, 1881.

¹ Appointed by the commissioners till 1834, when the office became elective.

² Andrew Swearingen, in a report to the commissioners dated Oct. 6, 1797, said, "I had the honor of being your treasurer for twelve years, commencing February, 1783, and ending June, 1785. The total amount of taxes levied in that time was £20,698-5-0."

³ This office was held by appointment till 1839, when it became elective.


James Marshall, April 4, 1781.

Thomas Stokeley, Nov. 19, 1784.

Thomas Stokeley, Sept. 14, 1790.

James Marshal, Aug. 17, 1791.

Samuel Clarke, March 6, 1795.

John Israel, Jan. 15, 1800.

Isaac Kerr, Dec. 1, 1806.

Isaac Kerr, March 6, 1809.

Isaac Kerr, Dec. 10, 1811.

Robert Colmery, May 6, 1819

Samuel Lyon, Feb. 12, 1821

Robert Colmery, Dec. 30, 1823.

William Hoge, Jan. 25, 1830.

William Hoge, January, 1833.

William H. Cornwall, Jan. 8,1836.

James Brown, Nov. 14, 1839.

James Brown, Nov. 12, 1842.

James Brown, Nov. 17, 1845.

F. C. Morrison, Nov. 25, 1848.

F. C. Morrison, Nov. 22, 1851.

Cyrus Underwood, Nov. 14, 1854.

Freeman Brady, Jr., Nov. 13,1857.

William H. Roth, Nov. 23, 1860.

Alvin King, Nov. 13,1863.

M. L. A. McCracken, Nov. 8, 1866.

John D. Charlton, Nov. 20, 1869.

Belden L. Wilson, Nov. 7, 1872.

James A. Galbraith, Dec. 16, 1875.

W. Hughes, Jr., Dec. 12, 1878.

W. Hughes, Jr., Dec. 9,1881.


Jonathan Leet, June 5, 1801.

Jonathan Leet, Dec. 21, 1802.

William Hawkins, May, 1809:

William Hawkins, January, 1812.

J. Mendenhall, September, 1811.

James Reed, July, 1817.

William V. Leet, April 12, 1822.

Stephen Woods, Feb. 8, 1825.

Stephen Woods, May 24, 1827.

James McQuown, May 10, 1836.

E. G. Creacroft, Aug. 27, 1839.

T. C. Noble, March 19, 1846.

H. J. Vankirk, March 17, 1851.

T. C. Noble, Dec. 10, 1854.

Thomas J. Boyd, Dec. 10,1854.

Thomas J. Boyd, Nov. 21, 1859.

Francis Reader, Oct. 28, 1862.

Demos Bennington, Dec. 1, 1865.

Jacob Gayman, October, 1869.

Jacob Gayman, August, 1870.

Jacob Gayman, January, 1872.

Allen J. White, January, 1875.

John H. Moningar, January, 1881.


Until 1809 auditors were appointed by the court. For the period prior to that year, the only names of auditors that can be ascertained are those of John McCluney and William Meetkirk, who held the office in September, 1797, and a " Mr. Bradford," in August, 1798. A " Board of Auditors" is mentioned in the commissioners' records, March 6, 1793. The list from 1809 is as follows :

Thomas Acheson, 1809.

Isaac Kerr, 1809.

Joshua Dickinson, 1809.

Eleazer Jenkins, 1810.

Isaac Kerr, 1811.

Thomas Patterson, 1811.

John Colmery, 1812.

Dickerson Roberts, 1813.

Samuel Scott, 1813.

Isaac Kerr, 1814.

Jacob Crobb, 1814.

James McQuown, Jan. 2, 1816.

John Wilson, Jan. 6, 1817.

William Sample, Jan. 6, 1818.

Richard Crooks, Jan. 4, 1819.

Isaac Kerr, Jan. 3, 1820.

William Colmery, Jan. 1, 1821.

R. Bowland, Jan. 7, 1822.

Joseph Henderson, Jan. 6, 1823.

Joseph Patton, Jan. 5, 1824.

William Welsh, Jan. 3, 1825.

W. Waugh, Jan. 3,1825.

James Gordon, Jan. 2, 1826.

James Orr, Jan. 1, 1827.

Robert Officer, Jan. 7, 1828.

James Gordon, Jan. 6, 1829.

Stephen Woods, Jan. 5, 1830.

Samuel Hill, Jan. 5, 1830.

4 On the 23d of Noveml:er,1789, Presley Neville and Matthew Ritchie were appointed deputy surveyors by Daniel Brodhead, Surveyor-General, "of a district part of Washington County, part whereof has since been erected into a separate county called Allegheny bounded by the great road leading from Fort Burd to the Town of Washington (late Catfish Camp) from thence to the nearest head-waters of Buffalo Creek, thence down said creek to the line of the State, thence along the same to the River Ohio, thence up the same to the mouth of the Monongahela River, thence up the same to the beginning."

On the 2d of February, 1790, David Redick and John Hoge were appointed deputy surveyors by Daniel Brodhead of a district as follows: "Northerly by the great Road leading from Fort Burd to the town of Washington, thence a direct course to the nearest head-waters of Buffalo Creek, and down the said creek to the State line, easterly by the Monongahela River, southwardly by the continuation of Mason and Dixon's line, and westerly by the State line aforesaid."


Robert Officer, January, 1831.

William Hopkins, January, 1831.

James Pollock, January, 1832.

Thomas Enlow, January, 1833.

Benjamin Babbitt, January, 1834.

Jehu Jackman, January, 1834.

Joseph Henderson, January, 1835.

James McClelland, January, 1836.

H. J. Rauhauser, January, 1837.

Henry Langley, January, 1838.

R. Donaldson, January, 1838.

Dickerson. Roberts, January, 1839.

John K. Wilson, January, 1840.

Thomas Watson, January, 1841.

John McCoy, January, 1842.

E. B. Marsh, January, 1843.

Abraham Watring, January, 1844.

Jacob Morgan, January, 1845.

John K. Wilson, January, 1846.

John McCullough, January, 1847.

Joseph W. Cowen, January, 1848.

John Stephenson, January, 1849.

Adam Winnett, January, 1850.

Jelin P. Smith, January, 1851.

J. E. Black, January, 1851.

James Taggart, January, 1852.

Isaac J. Newkirk, January, 1853.

Robert C. Burns, January, 1854.

W. C. King,¹ 1855.

J. D. Irwin, October, 1855.

J. B. Ringland, October, 1855.

Joseph W. Douds. January, 1856.

Isaac J. Newkirk, January, 1857.

John Murphy, Jr., January, 1857.

John L. Phillips, January, 1858.

Samuel Scott, January, 1859.

David Bradford, January, 1860.

James Ely, January, 1861.

Thomas D. O'Hara, January, 1862.

James P. McCord, January, 1863.

D. M. Leatherman, January, 1864.

George Buchanan, January, 1865.

Greer Mcllvaine, Jr., Jan. 1866.

Joseph Linton, January, 1867.

A. B. Darragh, January, 1868.

A. E. Walker, January, 1869.

G. W. Morrison, January, 1870.

Charles Campbell, January, 1871.

Mitchell Smith, January, 1872.

Joseph Linton, 1873.

D. S. Howell,1874.

Samuel Wilson, 1875.

Joseph Linton, 1876.

Joel Truesdale, 1876.

James G. Snee, 1876.

Joseph Linton, 1879.

Joel Truesdale, 1879.

Lasage Crumrine, 1879.

J. A. Clark, 1882.

Joseph Herron, 1882.

Osman McCarty, 1882.


John L. Gow, 1851.

Isaac H. Longdon.

J. C. Gilchrist.

A. J. Buffington.

William Fee.

A. J. Buffington

J. B. McCollum.

E. W. Mouck, elected May, 1881 ; died.

George A. Spindler, appointed to fill vacancy March 1,1882.


1789-81. Thomas Scott, First Congress.

1800-2. William Hoge (resigned in

1804, and his brother, John Hoge, was elected to fill out his term).

1804. John Hamilton.

1806. William Hoge.

1808-14. Aaron Lyle.

1816-22. Thomas Patterson.

1824-26. Joseph Lawrence.

1828. William McCleary.

1830-36. Thomas M. T. McKennan.

1838. Isaac Leet.

1840. Joseph Lawrence (died on the 17th of April, 1842, when Thomas M. T. McKennan was

elected the 22d of May, 1842, to fill out his term).

1844. John H. Ewing.

1848. Robert R. Reed.

1854. Jonathan Knight.

1856-58. William Montgomery.

1864-66. George V. Lawrence.

1872. William S. Moore.


1835. Joseph Lawrence.



1790. John Hoge. 

1792. John Hoge. John Smilie

1794. Thomas Stokely. Absalom Baird.

1796. John Hamilton. Thomas M. Moreton.

1800. John Hamilton. John Woods.

1806. Isaac Weaver. James Stephenson.

1810. Abel McFarland.

1812. Isaac Weaver.

1814. Abel McFarland.

1816. Isaac Weaver.

1818. Thomas McCall.

1820. Isaac Weaver.

1822. Joshua Dickerson.

1826. Jonathan Knight. William G. Hawkins.

1828. Thomas Ringland. William G. Hawkins.

1834. Isaac Leet.

1838. John H. Ewing.

1842. Walter Craig.

1851. Maxwell McCaslin.

1854. John C. Flenniken.

1857. George W. Miller.

1860. George V. Lawrence.

1863. William Hopkins.

1866. A. W. Taylor.

1869. James S. Ratan.

1872. James S. Ratan.

1875. George V. Lawrence.

1875. George V. Lawrence.


¹ Appointed to fill vacancy.


1781.-James Edgar.

1781.-John Canon.

1782.-Matthew Ritchie.

1782.-William McCleary.

1783.-John Stephenson.

1783.-Matthew Ritchie.

1784.-John Stephenson.

1784.-Matthew Ritchie.

1790.-Thomas Ryerson.

1791.-John Miner, Thomas Scott, Daniel Leet, Thomas Stokely.

1792.-Thomas Stokely, Daniel Leet, John Canon, David Bradford.

1793.-Thomas Stokely, Craig Ritchie, John Minor, Benjamin White.

1794.-James Brice, William Wallace, Benjamin White, Craig Ritchie.

1795.-John Minor, William Wallace, David Acheson, Craig Ritchie.

1706.-David Johnson, William Wallace, David Acheson, William Hoge.

1797.-William Hoge, William Wallace, David Acheson, David Johnson.

1798.-John McDowell, Absalom Baird, Aaron Lyle.

1799.-John McDowell, Samuel Urie, Aaron Lyle.

1800.-John.McDowell, Samuel Urie, Aaron Lyle.

1801.--John McDowell, Samuel Urie, Aaron Lyle, James Kerr.

1802.-Samuel Agnew, Joseph Vance, John Marshal, James Kerr.

1803.-Samuel Agnew, Joseph Vance, John Marshel, James Kerr.

1804.-Samuel Agnew, David Acheson, John Marshal, James Stephenson.

1805.-Samuel Agnew, Aaron Lyle, John Marshal, James Stephenson.

1806-7.-James Kerr, Abel McFarland, Ebenezer Jennings, James Stephenson.

1808.-Abel McFarland, John Colmery, Thomas McCall, Robert Mahon.

1809.-James Kerr, John Colmery, Thomas McCall, Andrew Sutton.

1810.-Thomas Hopkins, John Colmery, Joshua Dickerson, Andrew Sutton.

1811.-Thomas McCall, Richard Donaldson, Robert Anderson, Joshua Dickerson.

1812.-Thomas McCall, James Korr, Robert Anderson, Joshua Dickerson.

1813.-Thomas McCall, James Kerr, James Stephenson, Joshua Dickerson.

1814.-Thomas Morgan, Andrew Sutton, James Stephenson, Joshua Dickerson.

1815.-Thomas Morgan, John Hamilton, James Stephenson, William Vance.

1816.-Joshua Dickerson, Jacob Weirich, James Kerr, William Vance.

1817.-Joshua Dickerson, Jacob Weirich, James Kerr, John Reed.

1818-19.--Joseph Lawrence, Walter Craig, James Keys, John Reed.

1820.-Joseph Lawrence, Thomas McCall, Dickerson Roberts, John Reed.

1821.-Joseph Lawrence, Thomas McCall, Joseph Ritner, John Reed.

1822-23.-Joseph Lawrence, Jonathan Knight, Joseph Ritner, James Keys.

1824.-William McCreary, Aaron Kerr, Joseph Ritner, James Keys.

1825-26.-William McCreary, Aaron Kerr, Joseph Ritner, Thomas Ringland.

1827.-William McCreary, Aaron Kerr, Samuel Workman, Thomas Ringland.

1828.-William Waugh, Aaron Kerr, Samuel Workman, William Patterson.

1829.-William Waugh, Samuel Workman, William Patterson.

1830-31.-William Waugh, Wallace McWilliams, William Patterson.

1832.-William Waugh, Robert Love, Joseph Henderson.

1833.-William McCreary, Robert Love, William Patterson.

1834.-William Hopkins, Joseph Lawrence, David Frazier.

1835.-John H. Ewing, Joseph Lawrence, Edward McDonald.

1836.-Thomas McGiffin, elected to FILL vacancy in place of Lawrence, elected State Treasurer.

1836-39.-Robert Love, William Hopkins, John Parke.

1840.--Jonathan Leatherman, Samuel Livingston, Aaron Kerr.

1841.-Wallace McWilliams, James McFarren, Jesse Martin.

1842.-Samuel Livingston, William McDaniel, John Storer.

1843.-O. B. McFadden, George V. Lawrence.

1844.-Daniel Rider, John Malloy.

1845.-Daniel Rider, Richard Donaldson.

1846.-George V. Lawrence, Richard Donaldson.

1847.-Thomas Watson, Jacob Cort.

1848.-John McKee, Jacob Cort.

1849.-Jonathan D. Leet, Thomas Watson.

1850.-Jonathan D. Leet, David Riddle.


1851.—Hugh Craig, John Melloy.

1852.—John N. McDonald, Joseph Alexander.

1853.—Matthew Linn, John Jackman.

1854.—Samuel J. Krepp, James McCullough.

1855.—George W. Miller, David Riddle.

1856.—John C. Sloan, J. S. Van Voorhis.

1857.—John N. McDonald, James Donahoo.

1858-59.—George V. Lawrence, William Graham.

1860.—John A. Hopper, Robert Anderson.

1861.—John A. Hopper, William Hopkins.

1862.—William Glenn, William Hopkins.

1863.—Robert R. Reed, James R. Kelly.

1864.—Robert R. Reed, James R. Kelly, M. S. Quay.

1865.—Joseph Welsh, James R. Kelly, M. S. Quay.

1866.—John H. Ewing, J. R. Day, M. S. Quay.

1867.—John H Ewing, J. R. Day, Thomas Nicholson.

1868.—A. J. Buffington, Henry J. Vankirk, Thomas Nicholson.

1869.—A. J. Buffington, Henry J. Van Kirk, W. Davidson.

1870.—D. M. Leatherman, W. A. Mickey, William C. Shurlock.

1871.—D. M. Leatherman, W. A. Mickey, William C. Shurlock, George W. Fleeger.

1872.—Johathan Allison, W. S. Waldron, David McKee, Samuel J. Cross.

1873.—Jonathan Allison, A. S. Campbell, David McKee, Samuel J. Cross.

1874.—James K. Billingsley, John Farrar, William G. Barnett:

1875.—John Birch, to fill vacancy caused by death of Mr. Farrar.

1876.—James K. Billingsley, John B. Duncan, Joseph R. McClean.

1878.—John W. Stephens, Findley Patterson, John C. Messenger.

1880.—James K. Billingsley, John M. Boyce, Norton McGiffin.


Dorsey Pentecost, Nov. 19, 1781.

John Neville, Nov. 10, 1783.

David Redick, Nov. 20, 1786.

Henry Taylor, Nov. 6, 1789.


James Edgar, Oct. 20, 1783.

John McDowell, Oct. 20, 1783.


John McDowell, Feb. 4, 1783.

John McDowell, April 4, 1784.

David Redick, Jan. 4, 1784.

David Redick, Oct. 1, 1787.

John Canon, July 7, 1788.

Henry Taylor, Feb. 1, 1790.


William Scott, Dec. 6, 1781.

Andrew Heath, Dec. 6, 1781.


Demas Lindley, Oct. 20, 1783.


James Marshal, April 2, 1781.


John Canon, April 2,1781.

Daniel Leet (resigned March 30 1782, succeeded by James Allison)

William McCleary, Dec. 24, 1781.

Geo. Vallandigham, Dec. 24, 1781.

Matthew Ritchie, Dec. 24, 1781.

James Allison (vice Leet, resigned) March 30, 1782.

William Parker, Dec. 24, 1781.

Agricultural Fairs and Societies.—The first gathering of cattle and sheep in this county for exhibition and sale was in the year 1798 at "tile premises of Daniel Purcel in the forks of Chartiers at the head of John Struther's Mill Dam." It was advertised as " Morganza Fair," to be held on the last Saturday in October of that year. In his advertisement, dated October 1st, Purcel said, " Fifty-five head of Beef Cattle, Working Oxen; Cows, and Sheer

¹ The duty of the Council of Censors was "to inquire and ascertain whether the constitution has been preserved inviolate in every part;" whether it is perfect in all its parts, or requiring amendment; also to review the decisions of the judges of the courts.

² The office of county lieutenant existed in Pennsylvania from 1776 to 1793. It carried with it the title of colonel, and gave to the person holding it the command of the militia and the management of the military fiscal affairs of the county. From Jan. 1, 1793, the office was merged into that of brigade inspector, to which Absalom Beard succeeded

are already entered at this fair, and it is expected more than double the number will be entered before the day of sale. . . . It is proposed that, hereafter, two Cattle Fairs shall be held at the Same place annually ; last Saturdays in May and October every year; when all neighbours having any of the above or other Articles to dispose of are requested' to send them in early in the morning, as the public sales will commence at 10 o'clk precisely. They must be entered at Mr. Purcel's office at least one week before the day of sale, when 6d. per Head is to be paid to him for the Entry. The owners are to prescribe the terms of sale as to credit and payments, and may limit the prices if they think proper, on paying the commission of ls. to the pound, for advertising, Crier, Sale, Bonds &c., &c., &c. Mr. Parcel proposes to provide a Cold Cut &c for those who may wish to be furnished therewith—At 6d. 18. ls. 6d. or is. 10½d. per cut as may be ordered. Cattle sent in from a distance, the day preceding the fair, shall be furnished with Hay, Pasture, Grain, &c., at moderate charges. . . ." No notice was afterwards given of any future fairs as proposed, and it is to be presumed therefore that this was not successful.

An effort to organize an agricultural society in Washington County was made in the latter part of 1818, as appears from a notice in the. Reporter of date December 21st of that year, as follows:


" Gentlemen who are in favor of forming an Agricultural Society in the County of Washington are requested to meet at Mr. Garrett's tavern on Wednesday evening, the 30th instant, at 2 o'clk. P.M."

The meeting was held according to notice; John Cook was chosen chairman, and Samuel Agnew secretary. No proceedings were reported, other than an adjournment to Wednesday, Jan. 3, 1819, at the same place. Of the adjourned meeting no account is given. It is evident that no organization was perfected, as the following notice appeared in the Reporter of Dec. 24, 1821:


" Many gentlemen have been solicitous that a meeting should be called to make the necessary arrangements to form an Agricultural Society. To this object a meeting will be held at the Tavern of George Jackson, in this borough, on Wednesday evening next at 5 o'clk. P.M. The farmers are particularly invited to attend this meeting. The policy and vast importance of such associations must be obvious to every citizen."

In accordance with this call many citizens met at the time and place specified. James Kerr was called to the chair, and Jonathan Knight was chosen secretary. The meeting being informed that the commissioners and grand jury had agreed to the establishment of a society for the promotion of agriculture and domestic manufacture in this county, agreeably to the law passed March 6, 1820, it was resolved. that


Thomas McGiffin, Alexander Reed, James Clokey, James Kerr, and Alexander Scott be a committee to draft articles of association and by-laws,' and that Alexander Scott, Rev. Matthias Luce, William McCreary, William Sample, Robert Colmery, Thomas McGiffin, and Andrew Vanemen be a committee to obtain subscriptions to the agreement, and file with the prothonotary of the county. ¹

The next meeting was held at the same place on the 27th of March, 1822, at which time the constitution was read and adopted, and officers elected of "The Washington County Society for the Promotion of Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures."

A meeting of the president, secretary, treasurer, and board of directors was held "at the house of John Fleming" (late George Jackson), on the 4th of April, 1822, and appointed " Wednesday of the Supreme Court in each year" as the annual exhibition day, and prepared a premium-list. The amount of premiums were fixed on the 26th of June. No account of the exhibition that year is found, but a report was made to the auditors of the county, a copy of which is here given :

To ALEXANDER REED, ESQ., Treasurer to the Society for the Promotion of Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures,


To amount of subscriptions for the year 1822 - $193.00


By cash paid the following persons for rewards and expenses, etc., viz.:

1. Maj. James Dunlap, best year old heifer 

2. William Cunningham, best brood sow 

3. Jane McClelland, best grass bonnet

4. Elizabeth Asher, second-best grass bonnet

5. William Wolfe, best piece of domestic linen

6. Isaac Buckingham, best piece of domestic cloth

7. David More, best bull

8. Jane M. Cully, best piece of domestic flannel best domestic stockings

9. Daniel Leet, best oxen

10. Jane Arden, second-best piece of table-linen

11. Katharine D. Morgan, best piece of domestic flannel

12. Benjamin Williams, best shugar

13. Abner Leonard, best acre of corn

14. George Plumer, best stud-horse

15. Mary Colmery, best piece of plaid

16. James Gordon, best handkerchiefs

17. By cash paid Wm. Carter, for building fences, etc.

18. " Joseph Spriggs, crier

       By outstanding subscriptions for 1822





















Balance in tile hands of the Treasurer


19.75 $193.00


Under the act of March 6, 1820, for the promotion of agriculture and domestic manufactures, William Colmery and Joseph Henderson, two of the auditors of the county, were sworn to execute the duties enjoined upon them by the act. These auditors met on the 18th of March, 1823, and adjusted the account of the treasurer and made report. In the premiums awarded for the year 1823, there was granted to James Gilmore, Esq., $16 for " the best Merino Ram and Two best Merino Ewes and Best Brood Sow." To

¹ A list of the names of the persons (two hundred and fourteen in number) who subscribed to the constitution of the society is contained in the Washington Examiner, of date Oct. 23, 1824, which is in the possession of Dr. Wray Grayson, of Washington.

² Afterwards sold for $16.

William Brownlee, $10 for the second-best merino rams and best ewes3 Enoch Wright, for the best cultivated farm and second-best wheat, $25. Isaac Manchester, second-best cultivated farm, $10. Three hundred and one dollars was paid out in premiums in that year, and on the 31st of December there was in the treasurer's hands $39.40.

In the year 1824 the society received $610.40, including $200 from the county! $595.25 was paid in premiums and expenses. Alexander Scott received a premium for the best merino buck, James Moore for second best, and John Flock, Jr., third best.

On the 20th of October, 1825, an address was delivered before the society at the court-house by the Hon. Joseph Lawrence, and was published by order of the board of directors in the Examiner of November 12th in that year. In May, 1826, Samuel Cunningham, treasurer of the society, advertised that the society, through Mr. Joseph Lawrence, had procured a quantity of white mulberry-seeds, and eggs of the silk-worm for distribution to members.

The first fair of the society was held in the fall of 1822 on a lot owned by John Ruth, east of where the female seminary now stands. That being found too small, the next year (1823) it was held on the farm of John Sample, now owned by William Workman. Later it was held on a lot owned by Samuel McFarland, on the south side of Wheeling road, east of the depot. Here it was held for several years. At these different places the exhibition of stock only was held, and the manufactured articles, fruits, and grains were exhibited on the grounds of the public square. These fairs were held with considerable success till about 1833 and declined; no reports or minutes are found until 1847. On the 10th of September in that year the officers of the society met at the house of S. B. Hays, when it was ordered that the secretary procure some suitable person to arrange the papers of the society, to purchase a minute-book, and that he be authorized to select some person to collect outstanding subscriptions. A constitution was drawn up, in which the first article declares "That this association shall be called The Washington Society' for the Promotion of Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures in Washington County. Any person signing the constitution and paying one dollar shall be a member." To this was appended two hundred and seventy-three names. A meeting was held the next day, September 11th, and committees were appointed to examine stock and articles exhibited at the fall fair. A premium-list was made out amounting to $323. The fair in that year was held on the 15th of October.

The premium-list for 1848 amounted to two hundred and seven dollars. The " Cattle-Show" was held October 5th and 6th. The fair of 1849 was held Octo-

³ In a note in the minutes of the society for this year is the following: "The Merino Ewes exhibited by Mr. Alexander Reed were considered the best, but not being a competitor for the premium It was given as stated."


ber 17th and 18th. An address was delivered on the 17th by John L. Gow, Esq.

At a meeting of the society on the 21st of May, 1850, Thomas M. T. McKennan, Thomas Buchanan, John Bausman, James G. Strean. and Samuel McFarland were appointed a committee "to ascertain whether a suitable piece of ground adjacent to the borough can be rented or purchased for the use of the society." The committee reported in 1852 that they had procured a lot of ground adjacent to the borough for the use of the society, upon which buildings were soon after erected. At a meeting, Aug. 8, 1853, John Bausman, Robert R. Reed, and William S. Moore were appointed to procure an act of incorporation of the society. A committee was also appointed to erect additional buildings for the better accommodation of manufactured articles, and to erect suitable pens for stock. At the fair of 1854, held September 20th, 21st, and 22d, the last day of the fair was devoted to the exhibition of agricultural implements, plowing match, and trial by experiment of various agricultural implements, such as reaping- and mowing-machines.

The committee on incorporation appointed in 1853 for some reason did not accomplish that end. On the 20th of February, 1855, David Clark, John H. Ewing, R. F. Strean, and Wallace McWilliams were appointed to obtain a charter, which was granted by. the court on the 24th of May in that year. The ground where the exhibition was held from 1852 to this time was that on which the Chartiers depot now stands, but in this year (1855) a change was. made to the present site, a part of which they purchased, and the fair was held upon the new grounds in the fall of that year.

On the 22d of May, 1856, a committee reported that they had leased the old fair grounds to Thomas and Alexander McKean for forty dollars. In May, 1859, the society purchased two lots, containing one and three-quarter acres of land, of George Adams and John Wylie. In 1861 a new hall was erected at a cost of four hundred dollars. The following are the receipts and expenses of the years given :




1861 1863 1865 1867 ¹ 1868 1869 1870 1874 1881

$1909.00 1556.04 1773.13 1789.43 1546.78 1546.84 1296.92 1740.82 3435.07

$1903.38 1479.42 1665.46 1797.76 2066.94 1541.92 1264.57 1913.00 3246.74

The following is a list of presidents, secretaries, and treasurers of the society as nearly as can be ascertained :

1822, March 27.—Pres., James Kerr; Vice-Prests., Thomas McGiffin, John Cook, John Hamilton ; Judges, James Kerr, Jonathan Knight, Robert Colmery ; Directors, Lewis Hewit, James Clokey, Andrew Vaneman, Andrew Sutton, Jonathan Knight, James Patterson,

¹ Unpaid premium, $325.50

John McConnell, Joseph Barr, William Hawkins, Daniel Moore; Treas., Alexander Reed; Sec., William Sample.

1823. March 26 —Free., James Kerr; Vice-Prests., Gen. John Hamilton, Gen. Thomas Patterson, Thomas McGiffin; Directors, Lewis Hewitt, James Clokey, Daniel Moore, Andrew Vanemen, Joseph Barr, David Hart, George Baird, John Carter, William Patterson (Ten Mile), and William Brownlee; Trees., Alexander Reed; Sec., William Sample.

1824.—Sec., John H. Ewing; Treas., Alexander Reed.

1825.—Pres , Gen. Thomas Patterson; Vice-Prests., Gen. John Hamilton, Thomas McGiffin, Joseph Lawrence; Trees., Robert Colmery ; Sec., F. Julius Le Moyne.

1826.—Pres., Alexander Reed; Vice-Prests., Thomas McGiffin, Joseph Lawrence, William Sample; Treas., Samuel Cunningham; Sec., F. Julius Le Moyne.

1827.—Pres., Alexander Reed; Vice-Prests., Joseph Lawrence, Joseph Rupert, William McCreery; Treas., Samuel Cunningham; See., F. Julius Le Moyne.

1828.—Pres., Alexander Reed; Vice-Pres., William McCreery; Trees., Samuel Cunningham; Sec., F. Julius Le Moyne.

1829.—Pres., Alexander Reed; Vice-Prests., William Brownlee, Thomas McGiffin, Joseph Ritner; Treas., Isaac Leet; Sec., Joseph Henderson.

1830.—Treas., Isaac Lest.

1833.-Pres., Alexander Reed; Vice-Prests., Joseph Lawrence, Joseph Ritner; Trees., Isaac Leet; Sec., B. S. Stewart.

1847.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Rec. Sec., Joseph Henderson.

1848.—Pres., Col. James Lee, Cross Creek ; Cor. Sec., Robert R.. Reed; Rec. Sec., Joseph Henderson, Esq.; Treas., George Baird.

1849.—Pres., Gen. James Lee ; Rec. Sec., Joseph Henderson; Cor. Sec , Hon. R. R. Reed; Trees., George Baird.

1850.—Pres., Gen. James Lee (Cross Creek); Rec. Sec., William S. Moore, Esq.; Cor. Sec., Robert R. Reed; Treas., George Baird.

1851.—Pres , James Lee; Rec. Sec., William S. Moore, Esq.; Cor. Sec.,

Robert R. Reed; Trees., George Baird.

1852.—Pres., James Lee; Rec. Sec., William S. Moore; Cor. Sec., Robert R. Reed ; Treas., George Baird.

1853.—Pres., .James Lee ; Rec. Sec., William S. Moore; Cor. Sec., Robert R. Reed ; Treas., George Baird.

1854.—Pres., James McCloskey; Rec. Sec., William S. Moore; Cor. Sec., Robert R. Reed; Treas George Baird.

1855.—Pres., David Clark : Rec. Sec., R. F. Screen ; Cor. Sec., R. R. Reed ; Treas., George Baird.

1856.—Pres., David Clark ; Rec. Sec., John Grayson, Jr.; Cor. Sec., R. R Reed; Trees., George Baird.

1857.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Rec. Sec., James F. Gabby; Cor. Sec., R. R. Reed; Treas., George Baird.

1858.-Pres., John H. Ewing; Cur. Sec., R. R. Reed; Rec. Sec., James F, Gabby; Treas., George Baird.

1859.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Cor. Sec., R. R. Reed; Rec. Sec., James F, Gabby; Treas., Jackson Spriggs.

1860.—Pres., John H. Ewing ; Treas., Jackson Spriggs; Cor. Sec., Joshua Wright; Rec. Sec.. James F. Gabby.

1861-62.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Treas., James C. Acheson; Cor. Sec. Joshna Wright ; Rec. Sec., James F. Gabby.

1863.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Trees., James C. Acheson; Cor. Sec., Dr E. Hoffman; Rec. Sec., James F. Gabby.

1864.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Trees., Jaynes C. Acheson; Cor. Sec., Samuel McFarland; Rec. Sec., James F. Gabby.

1865.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Treas., James C. Acheson; Rec. Sec. James F. Gabby ; Cor. Sec., Joshua Wright.

1866.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Trees., James C. Acheson; Rec. Sec David C. Aiken; Cor. Sec., Joshua Wright.

1867.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Treas., James C. Acheson; Rec. Sec., David Aiken; Cor. Sec., George W. Reed.

1868-69.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Treas., James C. Acheson; Rec. Sec David Aiken; Cor. Sec., James B. Wilson.

1870.—Pres., James F. Gabby ; Tress., James C. Acheson ; Rec. Sec., Julius Le Moyne; Cor. Sec., Dr. F. J. Le Moyne.

1871.—Pres., Col. Asa Manchester; Trees., John McElroy ; Cor. Sec., John McDowell; Rec. Sec., Joshua Wright.

1872-74.—Pres. John H. Ewing; Treas., John McElroy; Rec. Sec., James F. Gabby; Cor. Sec., John McDowell.

1875-77.—Pres., John H. Ewing; Treas., A. G. Rapper; Con Sec., John McDowell ; Rec. Sec., James F. Gabby.

1878.—Pres., John McDowell: Sec., James B. Wilson; Treas., A. O. Rapper.

1879-82.—Pres., John McDowell ; Sec. and Treas., A. G. Rapper.


Population.-In the year 1790 Washington County contained 23,866 inhabitants, and in 1800, 28,298. The population of the county at the end of each decade from 1810 to 1880, inclusive, is given below, by townships and boroughs, as shown by the reports of the several United States censuses taken within the period indicated :












Beallsville *

Bentleysville *



Canonsburg *






Cross Creek


East Bethlehem

East Finley

East Pike Run




Greenfield *





Monongahela City

Millsboro *


Mount Pleasant

North Strabane


Pike Run






South Strabane


Washington *

West Alexander*

West Bethlehem

West Brownsville

West Finley

West Middletown

West Pike Run


























































































































































































































































































































































































* Boroughs; all others townships except Monongahela City. 

† Included in population of West Pike Run.

‡ Included in population of Somerset township.

§ Population included with California borough.

Population included in Hopewell township.



THE original owners of the site occupied by the borough of Washington were Abraham Hunter, Martha Hunter, and Joseph Hunter, Jr., who were among the host of applicants who thronged the land-office of the proprietaries immediately after its opening in the spring of 1769 for the sale of the lands which had been ceded by the Indians a few months previously by the treaty of Fort Stanwix. The warrants (one to each of the persons mentioned) were dated June 19, 1769, and were surveyed by James Hendricks on the 11th of November in the same year. The tract of Abraham Hunter (warrant No. 3517) was named " Catfish Camp,"¹ and contained three hundred and thirty-one acres and twenty-one perches, lying on Catfish Run, a small tributary of Chartiers Creek. On the north of this tract was the land of Joseph Hunter, Jr. (warrant No. 3516), named in the survey " Grand Cairo," and containing three hundred and thirty-one acres and twenty-one perches. On the north of the last named, and adjoining it, was the tract of Martha Hunter (warrant No. 3518), named in the survey " Martha's Bottom," containing three hundred and thirty-nine acres, sixty-nine perches, but the borough, when it became such by incorporation, included no part of this tract.

">No information whatever can be obtained of these original purchasers beyond the facts already given. There is no evidence—and very little probability—that they ever resided upon these lands. William Huston was a resident on a tract of land adjoining " Catfish Camp," and on the branch of Chartiers which flows near the original borough line. On that

¹ This name, which was given not only to the tract but also the settlement which afterwards became the town of Washington (and clung to it for many years), was derived from an old Delaware Indian named Tingooqua—in English, Catfish—who lived there, and of whom mention is made in the history of the Indian occupation in this volume. His wigwam or "camp" was on the stream, northeast of Trinity Hall, but it is said that he occupied several different locations in the immediate vicinity at different times. He lived here for some years, but finally removed to the Scioto country and died there.

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tract (at the place where Mrs. Swartz now resides) Huston lived as early as 1774, as is shown by his own affidavit (given in the account of Dunmore's war in the general history of the county), in which he said that in April of the year named Capt. Michael Cresap and others stopped overnight at his house at Catfish Camp while traveling from the Ohio to Redstone Old Fort. He (Huston) was the earliest white inhabitant of the vicinity of whom any information can be gained.

On the 26th of April, 1771, Abraham, Martha, and Joseph Hunter sold their tracts, " Catfish Camp," Martha's Bottom, and " Grand Cairo" (in all about one thousand and sixty acres), to David Hoge, a native of Cumberland County. In 1780, when the erection of the new county of Washington was being agitated, Hoge determined to lay out a town on the lands purchased from the Hunters, doubtless with the expectation that it would become the seat of justice of the proposed county, of which the site of the new town would be within a mile of the territorial centre. He built a log house (on the site of Strean's hardware-store) in the early spring of 1781, and the act erecting Washington County, passed March 28, 1781, directed the courts to be held "at the house of David Hoge, Esq.," and in his log house the first court was so held on the 2d of October in that year. On the 13th of the same month a town-plat was laid out on a part of the tracts Catfish Camp and Grand Cairo by David Redick, surveyor, for David Hoge, and was named " Bassett Town."

It will be noticed that among the names of the grand jury at the first court of the county not a name occurs of any person who was a resident of Catfish Camp or its vicinity. It is not known or believed that David Hoge ever resided here. All traditions unite in locating the cabin of David Hoge in the rear of what became in the town-plat lot No. 58, which was sold soon after the town was laid out to Charles Dodd, on certificate No. 15, dated Bassett Town, Oc-


tober, 1781. In this house Mr. Dodd evidently lived when the court was held here, for rent was paid him "for use of a room to hold court in."

The original plat of Bassett Town was bounded by what are now Malden and Walnut Streets, Lincoln Avenue, and Ruple's Alley. The two principal streets were Monongahela (now Main) and Ohio (now Beau), each sixty-six feet wide, running through the centre of the town at right angles with each other. The other streets were sixty feet in width. The width of the alley is not given. The streets and alleys north from Maiden Street and running parallel with it were named as follows : Water Alley (now Strawberry), Gay Street (later Belle, now Wheeling), Johnson's Alley (now Cherry), Ohio Street (now Beau), Middle Alley (now Pine), Race Street (now Chestnut), North Alley (now Spruce). Walnut Street was the north line and not then named. From what is now Lincoln Avenue (but not then named, that being the eastern boundary line) westward the streets were named as follows : Chartiers Street (now College), Monongahela Street (later Market, now Main), Beau Street (later Front, now Franklin). Four lots marked A, forming a plot two hundred and forty feet square, and lying in the southwest angle of Ohio and Monongahela Streets, were donated by Mr. Hoge for a court-house and prison. Lots 43 and 102 were presented by Mr. Hoge to Gen. George Washington, and were on the corner of Chartiers and Gay Streets. No. 43 is now owned by the Presbyterian Society, and No. 102 forms a part of the college campus. Lots Nos. 171 and 172 were set apart for a place of public worship and a school-house. These lots were fronting on Race Street, and extended along Chartiers Street to Pine Alley, each being a corner lot. They were never used for the purpose designated. In addition to the plot a "Great Plain" was given by Mr. Hoge "for a common," containing seventy or eighty acres. Later it was occupied by William Hoge, and on it he lived and died. It is now owned by Harry Shirls, and his residence is upon it.

The new town was named Bassett Town, in honor of the Hon. Richard Bassett, who was a kinsman of Mr. Hoge. Mr. Bassett was a member of the convention which framed the Constitution of the United States in 1787, and was the first who voted to locate the capital of the nation on the Potomac. He was a member of the Delaware Convention which met at Dover on the 7th of December, 1787, and ratified the constitution of that State, of which he was Governor from 1798 to 1801. He was also United States district judge in 1801-2. His death occurred in 1815.

After the laying out of the town Mr. Hoge immediately commenced the sale of lots by certificates which bore the number of the lot sold, and a proviso that a " house at least eighteen feet square with a stone or brick chimney shall be built thereon on or before the 13th day of October, 1784 ;" and also contained an amount specified to be .paid annually as

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a quit-rent. These certificates passed from one to another, and in most cases deeds were not made till four or five years later. Forty-seven certificates were issued to purchasers of lots dated at Bassett Town, and all were issued in the early part of October, 1781. The name of the town was changed to Washington. in that month, as the following certificate shows :

"WASHINGTON TOWN, October, 1781.

" This will intitle Dorsey Pentecost to receive a sufficient title, subject to one dollar in specie rent per anum per Lott, for the lot marked in the Original plan of said Town 154, provided there shall be erected on each lott a house of eighteen feet square at least with a stone or brick chimney on or before the thirteenth day of October in the year One thousand seven hundred and eighty-four.

"Signed DAVID HOGE."

After the sale of the property by David Hoge to his sons, John and William, the quit-rents were paid to them. In the year 1803, John Hoge received on 120 quit-rents $1500, and- in 1809 on 136 he received $2000. In the same year William Hoge received on 130 quit-rents the sum of $1600, and in 1809 on 147 he received $2180. These rents were bought off from time to time, and mostly ceased about 1860. Demands are still occasionally made, but no attention is paid to them.

The first property to which title by deed was given was the public square sold for a site for the courthouse and prison of Washington County. This deed describes the property as "lying in the town of Bassett Town," and is the only one ever made containing such description. The next deed that appears of record was made by David Hoge to James Marshel, and conveyed lot No. 90 (now occupied by Morgan and Hargraves' store). This lot was sold by Marshel to Hugh Wilson on the 4th of January, 1786. With the "exception of the deed conveying the property to his sons, the two deeds above mentioned are the only ones given by David Hoge. The deeds for the certificates were given by John and William Hoge after their purchase Nov. 7, 1785.

In the year 1784 an incident occurred in the town, which is here related as given by one who was the leader of the party. The facts are given in the minutes of the Supreme Executive Council, of date Philadelphia, Oct. 29, 1790.

Cornplanter, chief of the Senecas, made a speech to the " Fathers of the Quaker State," in which he referred to a treaty made at Fort Stanwix six years before, and also of a talk held between the "Fathers" and the " Thirteen Fires," at Muskingum. After this last treaty Cornplanter was to conduct his people to Fort Pitt. The following is from his speech, and refers to the trip made through Catfish ( Washington) in 1784, as follows:

"After I had separated from Mr. Nicholson and Morgan, I had under my charge one hundred and seventy persons of my own nation, consisting of men, women, and children, to conduct through the wilderness, through heaps of briars, and having lost our way, we with great difficulty reached Wheelen. When arrived there, being out of provisions, I requested of a Mr. Zanes to furnish me and my people with bacon and flour to the amount of seventeen dollars, to be paid for out of the goods


belonging to me and my people at Fort Pitt. Having obtained my request, I proceeded on my journey for Pittsburg, and about ten miles from Wheelen, my party wore fired upon by three white people, and one of my people in the rear of my party received two shots through his blanket.

"Fathers,—It was a constant practice with me throughout the whole journey to take great care o6 my people, and not suffer them to commit any outrages or drink more than what their necessities required. During the whole of my journey only one accident happened, which was owing to the kindness of the people of the town called Catfish [Washington], in the Quaker State, who, while I was talking with the head men of the town, gave to my People more liquor than was proper, and some of them got drunk, which obliged me to continue there with my People all night, and in the night my People were robbed of three rifles and one shot-gun ; and though every endeavor was used by the head men of the town upon complaint made to them to discover the perpetrators of the robbery, they could not be found; and on my Peoples complaining to me I told them it was their own faults by getting drunk." It may be of interest to know the advantages the town of Washington had at that time for supplying men with the liquor "their necessities required The following are the names of those who kept tavern here in that year: James Wilson, John Adams, John Dodd, Charles Dodd, and John Colwell.

On the 7th of November, 1785, David Hoge conveyed to his sons, John and William Hoge, eight hundred acres of land, including the town of Washington, except the southeast quarter of the town, which he reserved for himself; but subsequently, on the 10th of March, 1787, he conveyed to them this quarter also. The names of the streets were changed from the plat of 1781 before the date of the deed. Shortly after this sale an addition was made to the town on the east and south sides, consisting of forty lots and several out-lots.

The town of Washington was originally in the township of Strabane, and the first election of the township was held at "the house of David Hoge, at Catfish Camp." The town remained under the jurisdiction of Strabane until 1785. On the 25th of September, in that year, a petition signed by several of the citizens of the town was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions, requesting to be formed into a separate election district. The petition was granted ; a certificate was sent to the Supreme Executive Council, and was confirmed by that body on the 6th of February, 1786. A petition for the erection of the town of Washington into a separate township is on file in the records of the court, and is indorsed on the back as follows: "Petition of Inhabitants of the Town of Washington to be made a township. September Session. Granted by the Court.'' The petition was signed by Alexander Addison, D. Bradford, James Ross, John Redick, John Hoge, and Reasin Beall.

This petition is without date, but the action of the court was evidently in September, 1788, as the first assessment-roll of Washington borough township that has been found was made April 20, 1789, and is probably the first one after its erection. The following names appear on the roll :

John Atchison, Robert Atchison, John Adams, Samuel Acklin, David Bradford, Reazon, Bell, Samuel Beard, Absalom Beard, Esq., James Chambers, Edward Coulter, Samuel Clark, Alexander Cunningham, John Culbertson, Thomas Clark , Peyton Cooke, John Dodd, John Douglas, Samuel David, John Flack, William Faulkner, Hardman Horn, John Hoge, Esq., John Hughes, Thomas Jeffries, William Johnston, Daniel Kerr, William Kerr, Alexander Little, James Linn, William Meetkirk, John McQuiston, Robert McKinley, William Marshall, Hugh Means, Kennedy Morton, Daniel Moody, Alexander McCoy, William Marts, William McCalmont, George McCormick, John McMichael, Daniel McGlaughlin, Patrick McNight, James McCoy, Sr., Anthony McConoughy, David Parkinson, John Purviance, David Redick, Esq., John Redick, Widow Roberts, Thomas Stokely, Km., Samuel Shannon, Thomas Scott, Esq., Adam Sneider, — Sneider, Andrew Swearingen, William Sherrod, Widow Thompson, Charles Valentine, James Wilson, Sr., Hngh Wilson, Matthew Winton, James Workman, Widow Walker, Daniel Welch, Joseph Wherry, Hugh Workman, James Wilson, Jr., Thomas Woodward. Single men: Gabriel Bleakney, John Black, Alexander Beer, Edward Browner, Sandars Darby, George Douglas, Thomas Davis, James Ewing, Thomas Goody, Joseph Hunt, Daniel Johnston, John Kerns, James Langley, William Linn, James McDermott, Walton Meads, Alexander McCoy, .lames McCoy, John McCoy, Thomas McQuiston, James McCluney, Alexander Miller, William Mitchell, Archibald McDonald, James Read, Benjamin Read, James Rose, James Rony, John Stokely, Benjamin Stokely, John Stevenson, Elisha Fulkerson, James Woods.

In 1792 forty-seven inhabitants of Strabane and Canton townships petitioned the court that the township of Washington be enlarged. The petition was presented in March, 1792, and on the 27th of September the same year it was acted upon, and the following boundaries established : "Beginning at the mouth of Daniel Leets' Run, thence up the said Run to the Head thereof, thence to the most easterly corner of the survey made for James Huston, thence along the easterly boundary of William Huston's survey, thence along the Easterly Boundary of John Dodd's Land to where the great road to Pittsburgh crosses the first Run, thence down the said Run to Chartiers Creek, thence up the said creek to the place of Beginning." Since that time the boundaries have not been materially changed.

Early Settlers of Washington.—David Hoge, of Cumberland County, was sheriff of that county from October, 1768, to Dec. 31, 1770, when he was succeeded by Ephraim Blaine. Soon after this time, as already mentioned, he purchased the Hunter tracts of land in the Chartiers Valley embracing what is now the town of Washington. He laid out the town in 1781 and in 1785 sold the most of it to his sons John and William, who removed to Washington and lived and died there, filling important positions of honor and trust. David Hoge, their father, never made Washington his permanent residence. Of his other children, Jonathan settled near Morgantown, where he lived and died, leaving two children, of whom Bushrod Hoge (well known to the people of Washington) is one. David Hoge, Jr., married Jane the daughter of Thomas Scott, and settled in Washington for a time, and finally removed to Steubenville, where he became agent of the Land-Office. He died there, leaving many descendants. A daughter became the wife of the Rev. Mr. Waugh, a Presbyterian clergyman. He died in Cumberland County and left two sons, William and John H., both of whom were admitted as attorneys in Washington County in 1818 and 1820. He also had three daughters, the


youngest of whom became the wife of Dr. Irwin. Mrs. Daniel Kaine, of Uniontown, is a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Irwin. John Hoge, the oldest son of David Hoge, Sr.; was born at Hogestown, near Carlisle, Sept. 12, 1760, entered the Revolutionary army in 1776, when but sixteen years of age, and became a lieutenant. During the war he visited Washington, and in 1782 settled on the land his father had purchased. On the 7th October, 1785, his father conveyed the greater portion of the large tract to him and his brother William. In 1789 he was elected a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention, and from 1790-94 represented this district in the State Senate. He served part of a term in Congress from 1803-5 to fill a vacancy caused by the resignation of his brother, William Hoge. He built a frame house on the south side of Maiden Street, opposite the old Presbyterian Church (now Hayes' carriage factory). He also kept tavern a few years about 1800. He married a daughter of William Quail. Later in life he retired, to his farm, lying between Washington and Canonsburg, known as the " Meadow Land" (now owned by Maj. John H. Ewing), where he died Aug. 5, 1824.

William Hoge, a younger brother of John, also settled in Washington, and owned a half interest in the property. His farm in the north part of the town is now owned by Harry Shirle. He was elected member of Congress, and served from 1801 to 1803, but resigned in 1804, and was again elected in 1806 and served from 1807 to 1809. He was also elected associate judge, and served from 1798 to 1802. He married Isabella, the daughter of Samuel Lyon, of Cumberland County. He died in 1813, and his widow became the second wife of Alexander Reed.

David Redick was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to this country and settled for several years in Lancaster County. He married the daughter of Jonathan Hoge, brother of David Hoge, Sr. He was a surveyor, and came to the Chartiers Valley with David Hoge, surveyed his lands, and laid out the town under the direction of Mr. Hoge. He remained here and purchased lot 273, on Main Street, where he built and lived till his death. The place is now owned by Alexander Murdoch. He was admitted to the bar in 1782. In 1786 he was elected a member of the Supreme Executive Council, and on the 14th of October, 1788, was chosen vice-president in place of Peter Muhlenberg, who resigned. He held the position until the election of George Ross, November 5th, the same year. Benjamin Franklin was president of the Council at time time he was vice-president. In October, 1787, he was appointed agent of the State for communicating to the Governor of New York intelligence respecting Connecticut claims. In 1791 he was appointed prothonotary of Washington County and clerk of' the courts. He was appointed to survey the Ten Islands in the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers, and to divide the several tracts of land opposite Pittsburgh into building-lots. He was active and energetic in business, prominent in defense of law, order, and the constitution in the time of the Whiskey Insurrection, and was appointed with Mr. Findley to wait upon President Washington to assure him of the submission of those who had been insurgents. He died at Washington on the 28th of September, 1805, and was buried with Masonic honors. He had a son who-became an attorney, but died when a young man. Nancy, a daughter of his, became the wife of Dr. James Stevens, of Washington. They inherited the Redick homestead, where they both lived and died. The present residence was built by Dr. Stevens. Another daughter of Mr. Redick became the wife of Capt. James Anderson, of the United States Army. They later settled in Louisville, Ky.

The ancestors of the Acheson family of Washington were natives of Scotland, and about 1604 removed to County Armagh, Ireland, when, in 1776, Sir Archibald Acheson (one of the descendants) became Baron Gosford, and later a viscount. The descendants of the family who came to this country were of a collateral branch, and settled upon the family estate at Glass Drummond. George, the father of the sons and daughters who came to this country, was born in 1724, and died in July, 1812, aged eighty-eight years. Elizabeth, his wife, was a daughter of David Wier, a Belfast merchant. She was born in 1728, and died July 29, 1808, aged eighty years. They left five sons, —George, John, Thomas, William, and David, and two daughters,—Hannah and Ellen. All the children came to this country except William, who remained on the homestead at Glass Drummond. The first to emigrate to America was John, who about the year 1784 came to Washington, Pa., where he commenced to trade, and soon after established other trading points at Cincinnati and Wheeling. He was also employed by the United States government in furnishing supplies to the army for the Indian wars. His death by apoplexy occurred in 1790, while crossing the Allegheny Mountains on horseback on his way to Philadelphia. He left a widow and two daughters in Ireland. The eldest daughter died young, and Hannah, the youngest daughter, came to this country in 1807 in charge of the Rev. Thomas Campbell. She lived with her uncle David, and died in 1837, aged fifty years.

Thomas Acheson came to this country in 1786, and settled in Washington with his brother John, with whom he became associated in business. After the death of John, in 1791, he entered into partnership with David, his younger brother, and continued the mercantile business as long as he lived. In 1809 he erected the brick building on which the First National Bank building is now (1882) being erected, the old house having been demolished the latter part I of May, 1882. In this house Gen. Acheson lived till his death in 1815. He was commissioned commissary-general of the army of the United States in 1812.


He was a man of pleasing address, and wielded great influence in town and county. He left six children, Elizabeth, George, James C., Hannah, Jane, and Thomas. Elizabeth became the wife of Benjamin Stewart, Esq. ; they both died in 1838. George studied law and died in early life. James C. married and settled in Wheeling, where he died a few years ago, leaving a widow and children. Thomas is the only survivor. Hannah Acheson, a sister of John and Thomas, was married in Ireland to James Shields, and became the mother of four children before she came to the United States in 1800. Of these children William settled in Nashville, Tenn., and died in December, 1837, leaving two children, who were sent to the family of David Acheson, and both died before reaching maturity. Thomas Shields, a son of Hannah, came to Washington about 1820, and became a clerk in the store of his uncle, and remained a few years, when his health failed and he went to South America, and later settled in Nashville, where he died a few years after his brother William. George Shields, a brother of William and Thomas, settled in Washington County, and had two children, Hannah and Thomas, both of whom are living. Ellen Acheson, the youngest daughter of George Acheson, and sister of John and Thomas, married Joseph McCullough in Ireland and settled there. They emigrated to this country about 1791, arriving about the time of the death of her brother John. They removed to Kentucky, where they died a few years later, leaving two children, George and Nancy, who were brought to Pennsylvania, George to Cumberland County, where he grew to manhood and died. His daughter, Ellen, became the wife of the Rev. Dr. A. McGill, of Princeton Theological Seminary. Nancy was placed with her uncles, Thomas and David, with whom she lived until her marriage with the Hon. Thomas H. Baird, with whom she lived many years and left many descendants.

David Acheson, the youngest of the family of brothers and sisters who came to this country, emigrated in the spring of 1788 to join his brothers. As a certificate of character, he brought with him from the pastor of his father's church the following letter : "The bearer, David Acheson, intending to remove to North America, this therefore is to certify that he is a young man of a sober, good conduct, and son of Mr. George Acheson, an elder of the Seceding Congregation of Market Hill, in the County of Armagh, Ireland. This is given under my hand this 30th of April, 1788. David Arnott, Minister." He embarked for Philadelphia on the " Friendship," Capt. Rue, from Belfast, May 14, 1788. A safe voyage was made, and he joined his brothers in Washington, and immediately became associated with his brother John in the contracts for furnishing supplies to the armies of the United States. These contracts continued until the death of John in 1791. Among the business papers of David Acheson were accounts of mercantile expeditions from Pittsburgh to New Orleans in 1790 —91 by John and David Acheson, with a document written in the Spanish language given to David Acheson by the Spanish authorities permitting him to convey his merchandise within their territory. After the death of his brother John he turned his attention to the study of law for a time with James Ross, but soon after abandoned it and became engaged in mercantile pursuits with his brother Thomas. In 1795 (when twenty-five years old) he was elected to represent Washington County in the State Legislature, and again in 1797 and 1804. He was married in the-spring of 1799 to Elizabeth, daughter of Samuel Young, of Philadelphia, who died op the 27th of February, 1800. An infant daughter was left to him, who was placed with her grandmother in Philadelphia, by whom she was brought up. In November, 1802, he visited his parents, and while abroad traveled through Ireland and England, spending about six months. He married as a second wife, Oct. 30, 1805, Mary, daughter of John Wilson, of Washington, and removed to Philadelphia, where he remained nine years, and in 1814 returned to Washington. While residing in Philadelphia four children were born to them,—John, Alexander W., Catharine, and David, who died young. Upon his return to Washington, Mr. Acheson erected the mansion-house now owned by the Rev. Dr. James I. Brownson. He entered into business in Washington, but later in life, by the depression in real estate, he became financially embarrassed and was not again engaged in active pursuits. In 1840, when seventy years of age, he revisited Ireland and remained until the spring of 1842, when he returned home and lived an uneventful life the remainder of his days. In 1848 he was stricken with paralysis, and with mind shattered and bodily powers impaired he lived until Dec. 1, 1851, when he died at home surrounded by his family, at the age of eighty-one years. The following is from an obituary notice of him : " He was an accurate and close observer of public and political affairs as connected not only with our own government, but also with the prominent nations of Europe, of the diplomacy of which, as well as of their policy, there were but few private men of his day, retiring and unobtrusive as he was, who better understood or could more accurately delineate. His . judgment and conclusions, which were always deliberate and well matured by his deep-thinking, strong mind, were valuable and very highly esteemed by those acquainted with him whether in public or private life. Thus during the period of vigorous manhood he enjoyed a most extensive popularity and influence in the State of Pennsylvania particularly, and with many of her most distinguished individuals in her political party history and government he was on the closest terms of intimacy; hence his opinions and counsels were always much sought after and greatly valued. . . . As a private friend and in social life Mr. Acheson was a


man of ardent and sincere attachments, and where personal effort or labor were needed he never faltered or shrunk by reason of apparent difficulty or threatened danger, ever ready and willing to serve his friends, at whatever responsibility or personal risk, by day or night, at home or abroad."

Judge Alexander W. Acheson and Mrs. Dr. James I. Brownson, a son and daughter of David Acheson, are both well-known and life-long residents of Washington.

Alexander Reed came to this country from Donegal, Ireland, in 1794. His brother Thomas and his mother's brother, Alexander Cunningham, had settled in the town of Washington some time before. His father, Robert Reed, graduated in Edinburgh, and was a minister of high standing in Scotland, but was called to Ireland to preach against the Arian heresy, then creeping into the Presbyterian Church. Unitarian theology is almost the same as that of Arius. All the books upon its doctrines are said to be lost. The church Robert Reed established at Manor Cunningham (Donegal County, Ireland) had at one time, it is said, a thousand communicants, and his children and grandchildren have been the sole occupants of the pulpit for one hundred and fifty years. It is yet one of the most important churches in that county. Under the training of such a father the son imbibed those principles of morality and religion which formed his character and influenced his conduct through life. The death of his brother occurring soon after his arrival, he became sole proprietor of the store now occupied by his son Colin, and grandsons, Alexander and Colin. He became much interested in developing the agricultural resources of the county, and purchased largely of real estate. In 1821 he bought a flock of imported Spanish merino sheep of Alexander Wilson, of Philadelphia, and began the business of fine-wool growing. He was the first to send wool to the Eastern market. He was also among the first to introduce best English horses and cattle. His father-in-law, Rev. Colin McFarquher, used to say while here on visits to his daughter that her children would see these hills white with sheep. Alexander Reed himself lived to see this prophecy literally fulfilled when Washington C9unty had a :pillion of sheep and was the finest wool-growing county in the United States. In 1826 he sent silkworm eggs to George Rapp, the founder of the society at Economy, who gave them to his granddaughter, Gertrude Rapp, as the seeds of an industry likely to furnish pleasant employment for women. It was not long before both Mr. Rapp and his granddaughter made their appearance here one fair day arrayed in suits of handsome black silk, the result of that gift of silk-worm eggs. This was the beginning of their silk factory, in operation thirty years. It has been idle since 1856. With the existing tariff it was never profitable. They exhibited their silks, satins, velvets, and brocades at fairs in New York and Boston, and Miss Rapp (who is yet a vigorous woman) still shows medals awarded her there. They demonstrated the practicability of silk-making in this country, and anticipated by more than half a century the work of the ladies who recently presented Mrs. Garfield with a silk dress-pattern, thinking it the first silk ever made in this country.

Mr. Reed was one of the original trustees in the charter of Washington College, as well as of the female seminary. He was president of the Franklin Bank from its foundation, and treasurer of the Presbyterian Church from its organization till his death. In all projects and enterprises to advance the interests of town or country, in all the institutions for promoting the cause of education, morals, or religion, he was prominent, active, and efficient. His regard for truth and honesty was the foundation of that universal confidence reposed in him. In all the varied .and multiplied transactions of nearly fifty years his truth and integrity were never impeached, and he was never engaged in a lawsuit.

In 1799 he married Janette, daughter of Rev. Colin McFarquher, of Inverness, Scotland, who came to this country during the Revolutionary war. He preached thirty years in Donegal, Lancaster Co., Pa., in an old church which is yet standing. The children of Alexander Reed were George, Eliza, Colin, Robert R., Alexander, and Sarah. The last two died in infancy. George died at twenty-eight; many cherished hopes for a brilliant future were buried with him. Eliza died while on a visit to Philadelphia, just in bloom of womanhood. Colin is the only one now living, at the age of seventy-seven. In 1835 he married the widow of Lieut. Ritner, United States army, who died at the end of one year, leaving a daughter (Mary), who is now the wife of Henry Laughlin, of Pittsburgh, of the firm of Jones & Laughlin. In 1842 he married Sarah E. Chapman, of Massachusetts, sister of Maj. William Chapman. The children of this marriage were Isabella, Laura, Helen, Alexander, Colin, Robert, Ethelind, and Alice. Isabella married William Copeland, of Pittsburgh, both of whom have been dead many years. Laura is the wife of James R. Clark, and is living now in the old home built by her grandfather Reed. Colin married Miss Ada Brownlee, and is in business with his father and brother Alexander in the same location where, nearly one hundred years ago, it was first established by Alexander Reed. Alexander, Ethelind, and Alice are unmarried. Robert and Helen died in early childhood.

In 1830, Robert Rantoul Reed married the oldest daughter of Judge Thomas H. Baird. The children of this marriage were Ann Eliza, Alexander, Thomas, Janette, George, Ellen, Isabella, Colin, William, Joseph, and Charles. Alexander was a man of mark in the pulpit, an earnest, eloquent, attractive preacher of the gospel. His first charge was the Octorara, one of the long established churches of the Presbytery of


Chester. From there he went to Philadelphia; from thence to Brooklyn. In pastoral work he excelled, and in all the churches he served he is lovingly remembered to this day. After his return from Europe he was called to Denver, where he died, at the age of forty-seven, after a brief but effective work there. His widow (Mary Watson) and children, are here in Washington. Thomas is an eminent physician in Philadelphia. William is preaching in Helena, Montana. George, Colin, and Joseph are in business in Pittsburgh. All the daughters of this family died early. Robert died in the army of typhoid fever. George also was a soldier in the Federal army. Dr. Thomas was a surgeon in the Pennsylvania Reserves during the war. He married Miss Campbell, of Carlisle. George married Matilda McKennan, of this town ; Colin, Miss Lord, of Mississippi ; William, Miss McKnight, of Pittsburgh. The widow of Dr. R. R. Reed is now over seventy, and living among children and sisters.

Marcus Wilson came to America from Coleraine, County of Londonderry, Ireland. He had four children,—John, James, Alexander, and Isaac. John, the eldest, married Catherine, daughter of Christopher Cunningham, in June, 1785, and in June of the next year Marcus Wilson and his family, including the wife of John and an infant son, Nicholas, emigrated to this country. Alexander settled in Philadelphia. James came directly to the town of Washington, where he lived until his death, in 1828, aged seventy years. John, with his family and his father, settled in Philadelphia, where they remained three years, and in 1789 removed to Washington. They started from Philadelphia with all their goods in a cart; on reaching Bedford the cart was abandoned, as bridle-paths were the only roads west of the mountains, and pack-horses were used. John was a cabinetmaker, and at once commenced his business in Washington. He built a house and shop on the lot where A. T. Baird's store now stands. He was elected justice of the peace Feb. 1, 1799, and held the office until the infirmities of age compelled him to retire. He died March 16, 1847, aged eighty-five years. His widow died in December, 1857, aged eighty-eight years. They had twelve children, of whom Nicholas .went South when a young man, and settled in Iberville, La. The second child, Mary, was born in Philadelphia, Nov. 30, 1787, and came to this town with her parents. She married David Acheson, Oct. 30, 1805. She lived a long and useful life, and died Aug. 2, 1872, aged eighty-five years. Martha, the third child of John Wilson, was born in Washington, Feb. 18, 1790. She became the wife of Dr. John Wishart, of Washington, in October, 1827. They remained in Washington. She survived her husband seven years, and died in March, 1871, at the residence of her son Marcus, in Allegheny County. Margaret, another daughter of John Wilson, married William Wilson, of Philadelphia, and lived and died in that city. Jane also a daughter of John Wilson, married George Baird, of Washington, Oct. 25, 1811. For several years they resided in various places, and in 1844 returned to Washington, where she died in 1872. John and A. Todd Baird, of Washington, are her sons.

Marcus, a son of John Wilson, was born in Washington. When a young man he moved to Wheeling, where he died Aug. 1, 1837. Alexander Wilson, an attorney of Washington, is his son. John K. Wilson, also a son of John Wilson, and a native of Washington, married Maria, the only daughter of David Shields and granddaughter of Maj. Daniel Leet. He was for many years a prominent merchant in Washington, and lived in the house where he was born, on the east side of Main Street opposite the court-house. (The site is now occupied by Hastings' hardware-store and the Washington Savings Bank.) About 1830 he removed to Allegheny City, where he still resides. David S. Wilson, a leading attorney of Washington, is a son. Catharine, a daughter of John Wilson, became the wife of Andrew Todd, of Washington. Their son, Alexander Todd, is now an attorney in Washington borough. James, the youngest son of John Wilson, was born in 1806, and when a lad of sixteen years was killed by the falling of the chimney at the' burning of a house on Maiden Street, Feb. 23, 1822.

James Wilson came from Burnt Cabin, Bedford Co., Pa., in 1781, and purchased lot 291, where Smith's store now is. On it he erected a log house, and on the 3d of October, at the first term of court in Washington County, he was licensed to keep a tavern. Later, he bought lot 21 (where Charlton's confectionery-store now is), on the east side of Main Street. This lot. was purchased on a certificate. In 1792 he passed his title to his son Hugh. A deed had previously been made to Hugh (Aug. 15, 1786). A house was built on this lot, which at that time was the largest in the town, and in it the shows that visited the place and various amateur performances were held. Dr. J. Julius Le Moyne first opened his drug-store in this house. After his removal, Mrs. Baker's Female Seminary was located there until her removal, in 1815, to a house on Maiden Street. James Wilson lived in the house he built on the corner of Main and Beau Streets until his death, and his widow lived there several years after. He died in 1792, and by his will left to his wife, Margaret, the use of two hundred acres of land adjoining the town until James, the youngest son, should be of age ; then the farm was to be divided equally between James, Thomas, and John. Hugh, the oldest son, had been provided for by property set oft' to him previously, among which was the lot on Main Street near Maiden. The house and lot where James Wilson, Sr., lived and died was left to his youngest son, James, but it later came into possession of Hugh Wilson, by whom it was owned many years. A daughter (Matty) of James Wilson became Mrs. Bryson James, the youngest son, was, a coppersmith, and lived in the town several years.. Of the other sons, except Hugh, nothing is known.


Hugh Wilson, in addition to the property obtained from his father, purchased of James Marshel, in 1786, the lot on which now stands Morgan & Hargreaves' store. He opened a store on lot 21 before 1795, and was a merchant many years. He married for his first wife Rachel (daughter of Isaac Leet and sister of Maj. Daniel Leet), by whom he had five children,—Rebecca, Margaret, Rachel, Hugh W., and Eliza.

Rebecca became the wife of James Blaine, who in 1809 opened a dry-goods store next door to Hugh Wilson. Later, he purchased the stone house built by David Bradford. In this house they both lived and died, leaving no children. He was elected justice of the peace in 1817, and served three terms. He was also county treasurer from 1815 to 1817. Margaret, the second daughter Of Hugh Wilson, became the wife of John Marshel, the son of Col. James Marshel. He was sheriff of the county in 1835, and before the expiration of the term was appointed cashier of the Franklin Bank (now the First National). This position he retained till 1857, when he resigned, and returned to a farm near Washington, where he died. Mrs. Dr. Matthew H. Clark, of Washington, and Mrs. S. A. Clark, of Pittsburgh, are his daughters. Rachel, the third daughter of Hugh and Rachel Wilson, became the wife of Richard Harding, and settled first in Alabama and later at Wheeling. Mrs. Harding now resides at Philadelphia with her daughter, Mrs. Rebecca Harding Davis, well known to the public as an authoress. Mrs. John L. Gow, of Washington, is also a daughter of Mrs. Harding.

Hugh W. Wilson, the only son of Hugh and Rachel, settled in South Strabane, on the farm his grandfather purchased, and where his father built the residence in which James W. Wilson, the son of Hugh Wilson, now lives. Hugh Wilson, after the death of his first wife, married Margaret Fleming, a widow, with one daughter, who afterwards became the wife of the Rev. John McFadden, of Pittsburgh. By the second wife he had one daughter, Eliza, who became the wife of the Rev. Thomas Swain, of Philadelphia, who was pastor of the Baptist Church at Washington, Pa., from 1846 to 1850. After his resignation as pastor of the church they returned to Philadelphia. After the death of Margaret, the second wife, Hugh Wilson married a Miss Spencer, an English lady, who survived him several years.

David Bradford was the son of James Bradford, who settled in North Strabane township. He was a native of Maryland, and came to this county in 1781 ; was admitted to the bar in 1782, and appointed deputy attorney-general the next year. When the convention of the four western counties met at Pittsburgh, Sept. 7, 1791, he was one of the three representatives from Washington County. He was elected to the State Legislature in 1792. He was active in inciting the people to the Whiskey Insurrection. When the amnesty proclamation was issued, Bradford was one of the few excluded. He fled down the Ohio River and settled at Bayou Sara, La., where he remained till his death. He erected the stone house on Main Street, now owned by Mrs. R. Harding, and lived there during his residence in Washington. He was a brother-in-law of Judge John McDowell and Judge James Allison.

Van Swearingen was a resident of Fayette County from about 1774 to 1781, when he was chosen sheriff of Washington County, and for several years thereafter was identified with its interests. He purchased large tracts of land in all parts of the county. He was a resident of the town of Washington while he was acting in an official capacity, but it is not known that he owned any property in town. His only daughter Drusilla became the wife of Samuel Brady, the famous Indian fighter and scout. Later in life he removed to Brooke County, Va., where he died Dec. 2, 1793, in the fifty-first year of his age. He was a brother of Andrew Swearingen, of Chartiers township.

Matthew Ritchie's first appearance in the county was under an appointment from the State of Virginia in the year 1777, to tender the oath of allegiance to the people in the counties of Yohogania, Monongalia, and Ohio. On the 24th of December, 1781, he was appointed sub-lieutenant of the county; elected representative in 1782, '83, and '84; justice of the Court of Common Pleas of the county in 1784; and on the 5th of December, 1789, was appointed with Presley Neville as deputy surveyor of a part of Washington County. He purchased of George Washington the tract of. land known as " Washington's lands," in Mount Pleasant township. He resided in Washington, where he was engaged in merchandising, and so continued till his death. He was also engaged with his brother John, and David Bruce, in merchandising in Burgettstown. He died in 1798 at Washington, and left the property in Washington to his wife Isabella and to his brothers, Craig Ritchie, of Canonsburg, and John Ritchie, of Washington, and the lots and store in Burgettstown to his brother Craig. He owned the following lands in equal shares with Presley Neville : One tract on Saw-Mill Run, one hundred acres on Robinson Run near Gabriel Walker's, one tract on King's Creek, and one adjoining Old Blaziers of three hundred acres, and three tracts owned in equal shares by Neville, Ritchie, and Charles Morgan.

Alexander Cunningham was a native of Donegal, Ireland. He emigrated to this country about 1783, and in May of 1784 purchased on certificate lot No. 18 in Washington, on which later the Globe inn was built, and now occupied by John Allen's confectionery-store. Later, he purchased lot 275, where A. B. Caldwell's store now stands. On this lot he built a store-house and dwelling, and opened a store which he kept during the remainder of his life. He also bought the Yeates tract of land that is now in Franklin township. Later this tract came into possession of Alexander Reed, and it is now owned by William


Paull and Hiram Warne. Mr. Cunningham married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Scott, and lived in the house on lot 275, where his death occurred in 1806. His children were all born here. Jane, the eldest, became the wife of Matthew Dill, son of Thomas Dill. He was engaged in business with his father-in-law from about 1803 till the death of Mr. Cunningham. Samuel, the second child, was born Oct. 8, 1788, and when twenty-one years of age married Maria, daughter of David Morris, on the 26th of March, 1811. She died a short time after marriage, and on the 23d of March, 1815, he married Sarah, daughter of the Rev. Lyman Potter, of Steubenville. After this marriage he removed to a farm now owned by Wilson McClean, where he lived six years and then returned to town. He had been a merchant in town before going to the country, and on his return entered the store of Alexander Reed as a clerk. He was county commissioner in 1830, and sheriff from 1832 to 1835. Upon the organization of the Franklin Bank in 1836 he was appointed teller, and remained as such till failing health compelled him to resign: He died on the 17th of May, 1875, leaving an adopted daughter, Miss Rebecca Cunningham, now a resident of Washington. The residence of Samuel Cunningham was the house now occupied by A. T. Baird on Maiden Street. Of the other children of Alexander Cunningham, Thomas F. studied law and was admitted to the bar in Washington County. He removed to Mercer County, Pa., where he became prominent as a lawyer, and was elected a member of the State Senate. He died many years ago, leaving numerous descendants. John Cunningham, a son of Alexander, studied medicine with Dr. James Stevens, of Washington ; practiced at Florence, Hanover township, and is now living at an advanced age in Wooster, Ohio. Two daughters of Alexander Cunningham, Elizabeth and Sarah (twins), married and settled in Butler County, Pa. Alexander Cunningham, Jr., settled in Nashville, Tenn., where he became a banker, and is still living. William, the youngest son of Alexander, married Miss McClure, a niece of John Hoge, and settled in Butler County, Pa.

Hugh, Samuel, and James Workman came to this county about 1781. They all purchased lands outside the borough, but Hugh, about 1789, built a tannery on the lot now owned by William Smith and Mrs. Clark. His house was where the depot of the Hemp-field Railroad now stands. He carried on the business many years, which was finally transferred to his son Samuel, who, in 1837, sold it to David Wolf. Hugh Workman died in 1843, aged eighty-four years. He had three sons, Hugh, James, and Samuel. Hugh started a tannery on the corner of College and Maiden Streets, but died early, and it passed to other hands. James also died when a young man. Samuel, in 1819, assumed the editorial management of the Reporter, while his brother-in-law, William Sample, was acting as prothonotary. He was treasurer of the county in 1822, sheriff from 1824 to 1827, member of Legislature from 1828 to 1830, and secretary of the land-office under Governor Wolf. He died in 1841. William Workman, of Washington, is a son of Samuel. Margaret, a daughter of Hugh Workman, became the wife of William Sample, the owner and editor of the Reporter. They settled in Washington, where she died. Another daughter became the wife of Samuel Hughes. They settled in South Strabane, on the farm where John Little now lives.

Michael Kuntz emigrated from Germany to America, and settled in Lancaster County, where he lived several years; While living there his wife died, leaving a son John. He married a second wife, by whom he had two sons, George and Jacob. In the spring of 1788 he came to Washington, bought the lot on which Vowell's drug-store now stands, and built a cabin upon it, and lived there that year, and in the fall returned to his home, where he remained during the year 1789. In the spring of the next year, when his son John was seven years old, he removed his family to Washington. In 1791 he was licensed to keep a tavern, and kept it one year. He was a member of Lutheran Church in Lancaster County, and in 1792 rode to his old residence to be present at the dedication of a church at that place. He died the next year after his return, July 10, 1793, leaving three sons, John, George, and Jacob. John and George were both hatters, and opened shops in Washington. They were both in business in 1808, and were still in business in 1838. Henry Kuntz, a son of John, kept a book-store many years in Washington. The only descendant of John now living is Miss Sarah J. Kuntz. George opened a shop where Alexander McKinley now lives. In 1814 he bought the lot on Wheeling Street, and built the residence where his widow still lives. He married a daughter of Henry Westbay, of Canonsburg, and by her had five sons. Michael, James, and Stephen are now well-known residents of Washington borough. Jacob Kuntz, the youngest son of Michael, was a tailor, and worked in a shop where Sharps' building now is. He married the daughter of Ludowyck Smith, and later in life he removed to the farm inherited by his wife. Mrs. John Zediker, of South Strabane township, is a daughter of Jacob Kuntz.

Thomas Stokely, who in 1781 was captain of a militia company in Westmoreland County, soon after came to this county, and purchased a large quantity of land, especially in the southwestern part of the county. He was frequently mentioned in the old records as " Thomas Stokely, Land Jobber." He was elected a member of the House of Representatives in 1792, and State senator in 1794. He was in the war of 1812. During his residence in Washington he lived in a house on Wheeling Street, on the lot now occupied by the African Methodist Episcopal Church. He moved from Washington to Brownsville, and later to Coon Island, Washington County, where he died, and was buried with military honors, Col. James Ruple with


his company from Washington attending. At his death he was in possession of all the lands he had bought, and was one of the largest land-owners in the country. His son Samuel was educated at Washington College, studied law, and settled in Steubenville, Ohio, where his descendants live and own the Wells' property. His daughter also married and settled there.

Alexander Addison came from Ireland to this county in 1784 or 1785 as a licentiate of the Presbytery of Aberlow, Scotland. The Presbyterian Church of Washington extended to him a call on the 20th December, 1785, which he accepted, and he continued to reside here both as pastor and judge of the courts to the latter of which he was appointed in 1791) for ten or twelve years. Later he resided in Pittsburgh. He purchased the " Washington lands" of Matthew Ritchie, and sold a portion, and the remainder was sold by his widow. Mrs. Addison lived in Washington after her husband's death many years. He died Nov. 27, 1807. His son Alexander became an attorney of Washington County, and died from the results of an injury he received at the burning of Thomas M. T. McKennan's office in February, 1822. More extended mention will be found of Judge Addison in connection with the bench and bar of the county.

Col. James Marshel, a settler in Cross Creek township, purchased lot No. 90 of David Hoge on a certificate, receiving his deed from Mr. Hoge in February, 1785. This lot was where Morgan & Hargreave's store now stands. He sold it the next year to Hugh Wilson. He lived in the town during the terms of the various offices he held of county lieutenant, register, recorder, and sheriff. In 1794 the military headquarters were upon the lot he then lived on, and the United States forces were encamped on the college grounds.

James Langley and his brother, who settled in Erie County, Pa., came from Market Hill, Ireland, to this county and town about 1790, where the Achesons ;with whom they were acquainted) had previously located. James purchased of the Hoges lot No. 93, on Main Street, just above the Valentine House, and where his grandson, John Lockhart, now lives. On this lot he built a log house, in which he lived and opened a store: Later this house was removed to the lot of Col. James Ruple, and a frame building was erected (on the site of Mr. Lockhart's store), which he used as a store. In 1818 he built the brick house now the residence of Mr. Lockhart, which was used as a store and dwelling. In 1860 the frame building was removed and the present store erected. The counters now in Mr. Lockhart's store have been used through four generations;—James Langley, his sons, Henry and James Langley; John Lockhart, his stepson, and now by John W. Lockhart and his son, James L. Lockhart. James Langley left two sons, James and Henry, who both lived bachelors and died here. The wife of James Langley, Sr., was the widow of William Lockhart, of Beaver County, Pa., having four children, one of whom, John, was in business with his stepfather from1810 to 1820, when he removed to Illinois; James Langley died in 1830. James and Henry Langley succeeded their father in business: Henry was prominent in the Baptist Church, and later in the Church of the Disciples.

Isaiah Steen came to this town about 1794 and purchased a lot on East Beau Street of John Hoge, on which he afterwards erected. a house that was known for many years as " Castle Crack," now owned and occupied by Maj. John .H. Ewing. He was for many years a " manufacturer of Windsor chairs." His children were John and a daughter, both of whom were gifted in drawing and painting. For many years specimens of their skill were in the houses of the early families. Isaiah Steen lived here till his death, at an advanced age.

Joseph Huston, a cousin of William Huston, built the stone house long known as " The Buck" tavern, and commenced' keeping public-house in 1796, and so continued till his death, in 1812. He left a widow and three sons—Cyrus, Joseph, and Hamilton—and four daughters—Sally, Isabella, Elizabeth, and Polly. Cyrus settled here, followed the trade of cabinet-maker, and died here. Joseph and Hamilton now reside in Ohio. Sally became the wife of James Meetkirke, son of William. He was a chair-maker, and lived and died here. Elizabeth married William Oliver, a hatter, who lived here many years, but while on a trip to the East disappeared, and was never again heard of. Polly became the wife of Zachariah Reynolds, who was for a time clerk in the prothonotary's office, and finally settled on his father's farm in South Strabane.

Capt. William McKennan was a son of the Rev. William McKennan, a Presbyterian clergyman of New Castle, Delaware, where William was born in 1758. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Thompson and niece of Governor Thomas McKean. At the breaking out of the Revolution he was a merchant, which business he gave up and joined the Delaware line (" Blue Hen's Chickens") as captain of a company, and served during the war, receiving a wound at the battle of Brandywine. After the war he returned to his home and remained a number of years. In 1798 he removed to Charlestown (now Wellsburg, West Va.), and in 1800 to Washington County, Pa. He was appointed in 1801 prothonotary of the county by Governor McKean, and removed from West Middletown, where he resided, to the county-seat, where he lived the remainder of his days. He held the position of prothonotary during Governor McKean's administration, which was till 1809. He was also a trustee of Washington Academy and Washington College. His death occurred in January, 1810, at' the age of fifty-two years, leaving a widow (who died in 1839) and five sons and one daughter, viz.: William, John T., Thomas M. T.,


David, James W., and Ann E. William, the eldest son, was educated at Washington College, became a teacher, and emigrated to Ohio, where he died. John T. was educated at, Washington Academy, became cashier of the Monongahela Bank of Brownsville, Pa., and died Sept. 18, 1830, while on a visit at Reading, Pa. Thomas M. T. McKennan was also educated at Washington College. He entered the office of Parker Campbell as a law student, and was admitted to the bar in the twenty-first year of his age, on the 7th of November, 1814. At the next June term of the court he succeeded Walter Forward as deputy attorney-general for the county, and acted until March, 1817, when William Baird commenced to act. His rise at the bar was rapid, and he was soon employed in all important cases, maintaining a front rank in the profession while he lived. In 1831 he was elected a member of Congress of the United States, and continued four terms at a sacrifice of personal interest, and declined a renomination. Upon the death of Joseph Lawrence, in 1842, he yielded to the urgent solicitations of the people and the demands of his party, and served during the remainder of the term. As "chairman of the committee of the whole," for the space of two months, in the first session of that year, he rendered efficient aid to the paramount industrial interests of the country, and increased a reputation already national. He was chosen a Presidential elector in 1840, and was president of the Pennsylvania Electoral College of 1848. His influence with the incoming administration was potent, and the more appreciated because unselfish and disinterested in its exertion. Common consent assigned him a place in the cabinet of 1849; and when in the following year President Fillmore called him to the Secretaryship of the Interior, all parties hailed the appointment as one eminently merited. A reluctant acceptance of the. office was granted, only to be recalled after' a few days' experience. Wearied by the ungenial details of official business, and disgusted with the importunities of the place-hunters attracted by his patronage, he resigned his position near the Executive and returned to his cherished home and the friends whom he loved. Soon afterwards he received and accepted the presidency of the Hempfield Railroad Company, and while engaged in the administration of its affairs died at Reading, Pa., on the 9th of July, 1852. Mr. McKennan's connection with Washington College was longer and more intimate than that of any other individual. Entering the academy at a very early age, and matriculating as a member of the first Freshman class, he passed through the entire curriculum of studies with credit to himself and to his instructors. Such was his rank as a scholar that, in February, 1813, he was appointed tutor of ancient languages, and acted in that capacity for eighteen months. In April, 1818, he was chosen a member of the corporation, where he continued throughout his subsequent life—for thirty-four years—the able counselor and guardian of the college. Two of his sons, Judge William McKennan, of the class of 1833, and Dr. Thomas McKennan, of the class of 1842, have served in the board of trustees. His youngest son, John, graduated in 1851, and another son, Jacob B., was for a time a student in the college.

David McKennan, a son of Capt. William McKennan, was also educated at Washington College, after which he learned the trade of tanner, and resided at Brownsville, where he died comparatively young. James W. McKennan, the youngest son of Capt. William, graduated at Washington College, and became adjunct professor of languages; studied theology under the Rev. John Anderson, D.D., and entered the ministry of the Presbyterian. Church. He was pastor of Lower Buffalo Church from 1829 to 1834, and later pastor of a church in Indianapolis. His health failed and he retired from duties, and removed to Wheeling (where his daughter resided), and died in that city in 1861. Ann E. McKennan, the only daughter of Capt. William McKennan, became the wife of the Hon. Thomas Gibbs Morgan, of Louisiana, (a native of this county), a prominent lawyer of Baton Rouge. She died young, leaving one son, Philip Hickey Morgan, who is the present minister of the United States to Mexico.

Obadiah Jennings was a native of New Jersey, and son of the Rev. Jacob Jennings. He was born Dec. 13, 1778, and came to Dunlap's Creek, Fayette County, with his father, who became pastor of the Presbyterian Church at that place. He was educated at Canonsburg Academy ; studied law with John Simonson, of Washington, and was, admitted to the bar of Washington County in 1801. He opened an office in Steubenville, and in 1811 came to Washington and built a small one-story brick office on Maiden Street, below John Baird's. His residence was in the meadow at the south end of First Street. After a practice of a few years he studied for the ministry, and was licensed to preach in 1816. He became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Steubenville, where he remained till 1823. On the 8th of October in that year he received a call from the First Presbyterian Church of Washington to become their pastor, which he accepted. He was installed the 23d of the same month, and remained pastor till 1828. During his residence here as pastor he resided where the public school building now stands, and later where J. W. Donnan now resides. He also taught a young ladies' school in 1824-25. Upon his retirement from this church he accepted a call from a Presbyterian Church in Nashville, Tenn., where he lived till his death, in 1832.

Robert Hazlett, a native of Ireland, was educated at Edinburgh University, and soon after married and settled there for a time. Soon after the close of the Revolutionary war he emigrated with his family to this country and settled near Chambersburg, leaving one son at home with his grandparents. At this place the most of his children were born. About


1795 he emigrated to Washington, Pa., and purchased of the Hoges, lot No. 92 on Main Street, where he erected a dwelling. He opened a store first near Hugh Wilson's, on Main Street near Maiden, and late in 1797 moved to where William Arbuckle lived. Still later he moved the store into the house where he lived. He continued in business till his death in 1818 or 1819. Robert Hazlett left six children, all of- whom went West except Samuel. Mary became the wife of a Mr. Cummins, and mother of Drs. R. H. and James Cummins, now of Wheeling. The rest settled in Zanesville, Ohio. Samuel, the youngest son of Robert Hazlett, was born in Washington in 1798, and after his father's death continued the business with his mother for a short time, and purchased the rights of the heirs. He then continued as a merchant until the establishment of the bank on the 1st of April, 1837. From that time he continued in the banking business till his death in November, 1863. Samuel Hazlett and Mrs. Dr. Wray Grayson, of Washington, are children of Samuel Hazlett. One son lives in Pittsburgh and one in Wheeling.

Hugh Wylie came to this town before 1796, and on the 26th of July in that year he purchased of John and William Hoge lot 283 on Maiden Street, where J. Shan Margerum's store now is. In 1803 he was appointed postmaster, and his office was located in his house. He was a merchant also, and kept the post-office till his death in 1828. His son David acted as deputy postmaster. After his father's death he retired to his father's farm in Chartiers township, and lived there till his death. His sons now own the farm. Hugh Wylie was an elder in the Presbyterian Church of Washington. As postmaster he was frequently asked for letters by people from out of town who were at church Sundays. As a matter of accommodation this request was granted, until the hour of the service became a regular hour of distribution on Sundays. Attention was drawn to this after a time, and it was thought to be not right. The matter was brought before the church and decided adversely to the action of Mr. Wylie, and upon his persisting he was expelled. It was carried to the General Assembly that met at Pittsburgh in 1810, and the decision was affirmed. In 1812 a petition of citizens of Washington was presented to the General Assembly asking them to reopen the case and reconsider their action. The petition was not granted.

Robert Hamilton was a blacksmith and wool-carder. He was mentioned as a blacksmith in the assessment roll of 1799. In the year 1810 he owned three lots, "on which are, a Smith Shop, Dwelling House, Machine House, and an unfinished brick house," at the lower end of Maiden Street. He carried on the business of wool-carding till 1815; when he retired from personal attention of the business, but still retained an interest. He advertised May 20, 1816, that " he will run four wool-carding machines and one picker at Thomas H. Baird, Esqr.'s steam-mill opposite his old stand." In 1815 he opened a store in the brick house where he lived, and kept it till his death in 1823, and his widow continued the business many years later. He married the daughter of Mitchell, of Washington. Mrs. Charles Sisson, a daughter of Robert Hamilton, lives in the brick residence where she was born in 1811. The old frame dwelling and other buildings are still standing below the brick house, and are now used as dwellings.

Patrick Bryson emigrated from County Down, Ireland, and in 1796 settled at Washington, on Catfish Run. He bought a lot of Hugh Workman, and erected a horse-mill on the lot now owned by the Vankirks. It did the grinding for many miles around, but little was done with it after 1822, when it was sold to Thomas Jones, who erected it on Chestnut Street. Bryson lived at this place during his lifetime, and died in 1860, aged ninety-five years. His wife died at the same time at eighty-four years of age, and they were buried the same day. William Bryson, of Washington, is a son of Patrick Bryson.

James Shannon, Joseph and Thomas Reynolds came from Baltimore to Washington in 1803 with their families. They were all shoemakers. Shannon opened a shop where Vowell's drug-store now is and kept a shop there many years, and the Reynolds' worked for him. In 1812 he moved his shop to where Thomas McKean's tobacco-store now is. He was prominent in connection with the Methodist Church, and active in all its work. He left four sons and three daughters. Robert settled in Cincinnati ; William, James, and Frank remained in Washington, and still reside there. Mrs. Eliza Harter, Mrs. Dr. J. S. Reed, of Pittsburgh, and Mrs. Henrietta Beck, of New Orleans, are daughters of James Shannon.

Alexander Murdoch was the youngest son of John Murdoch, who settled in what is now North Strabane township in 1778. He was born near Carlisle, Pa., in 1770. When quite a young man, he purchased the Canonsburg mills, with a large tract of land extending from the present site of the mills up Chartiers Creek and embracing the land now occupied by the Hodgen's tannery. From these mills, at an early period, he loaded two large flatboats with flour and saddlery, and landed them safely at New Orleans. He returned from this trip on horseback through an almost unbroken wilderness. In 1803 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Matthew Henderson, of Chartiers township. In 1809 he was appointed by the Governor prothonotary of the Court of Common Pleas of Washington County, and held the office until 1819. Upon his acceptance of this office he sold the Canonsburg property and removed to Washington. Soon after, he built the brick house on the corner of Main Street and Pine Alley, now owned and occupied by his eldest daughter, Mrs. Mary M. Gow. Subsequently he purchased the lot on the corner of Main and Beau Streets, and built thereon what is


now a part of the " Fulton House." He moved to this building in 1822, and resided there until the spring of 1828, and was engaged during this period in the mercantile business. Having in the mean time purchased a part of the tract of land of over four hundred acres, known as " Morganza," two miles below Canonsburg, on Chartiers Creek, he, with his family, took possession of the same in 1828, and remained there until his death, which occurred in 1836. His widow survived him twenty-seven years, and died in Canonsburg, March, 1863, aged eighty-three years.

The surviving children are Mrs. Mary M. Gow, of Washington ; Mrs. Sarah B. Muller, of Nelsonville, Ohio; Mrs. E. M. Wilson and Anne, of Moberly, Mo.; and Alexander Murdoch, of Washington.

Esther, the daughter and youngest child of John Murdoch, Sr., was married in 1803 to Hugh Hagarty, a merchant, who subsequently came to Washington, and opened a store in the building now occupied by Mrs. Gow. Mr. Hagarty left Washington and located in Florence, Ala., where he soon after died.

Mr. and Mrs. Hagarty had two children, John and Samuel. John owned and commanded a number of steamboats on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, and had many warm friends in Washington, with whom he frequently visited. He died a few years since, in Cincinnati. Samuel died many years ago, in the State of Indiana. Mrs. Hagarty died soon after the birth of her second child.

John Grayson, who was for more than half a century a citizen of Washington, and for over forty years editor and publisher of the Washington Examiner, was a son of Robert Grayson who, with his sons William and John, aged respectively two years, and nine months, sailed from Ireland in the brig " William," arriving at New Castle, Del., in June, 1784. The following sketch of John Grayson is from his diary :

"My father proceeded to Mifflin, where he made his lodgement for a short time, until after the death of my mother, then with brother William and myself removed to Carlisle. My inclination turned upon the printing business at quite an early age, as much perhaps as from anything else, and perhaps more from observing with very great interest and attention some printing-type, among the sweepings of a printing-office. I went home resolving in my mind to learn the printing business and no other. Accordingly, at a suitable age, my father placed me with George Kline, of Carlisle, to learn the ' art, trade, and occupation of a printer,' himself providing clothing, etc. Although discouragements met me and induced relinquishing my intention; having determined upon the matter, I resolved to go through ; and can say with all seriousness in my own heart, my duties were performed faithfully and honorably. In the winter of 1805 went to Philadelphia, obtaining a situation in the book printing-office of William Duane, editor of The Aurora, whose office was in Franklin Court. Continued to reside in Philadelphia until the summer of 1806, when, the yellow fever making its appearance there, went to Trenton, N. J. Worked with James Oram, book-printer, during the summer. Returned to Philadelphia; and between that city, New York, and the city of Baltimore, spent the remaining days of my journeyman-printer life.

"June 18, 1812.—The same day war declared by Congress (about noon the Declaration was received by express from Washington) against Great Britain. Being in the city of Baltimore, gave myself mind, heart, and body to be a soldier while the war lasted. The city was in extreme frenzied excitement; business almost suspended ; the population in masses in the streets, and agitated as if a hostile army had invaded their homes. About simultaneously with the declaration of war, Congress had promptly passed a bill providing for accepting the services of fifty thousand volunteers, signed by President Madison. Under this act many young men volunteered, and we signed our names at a rendezvous immediately opened at a tavern in Pratt Street, east of the basin. Opposite, across the street, was a large building used for a riding-school. Before many days plenty of volunteers signed for filling the company, and many were excluded. We drilled daily in the 'above building, and became pretty fair soldiers at least in evolutions of the drill. . . .

"Went through several promotions and served until close of the war, thus completing three years on the, Niagara and Northern frontier,—one as a volunteer in the Baltimore volunteers, and two in the regular army ; obtained a furlough for three months from this date, Nov. 7, 1814 ; return to duty ; no operations of this division of the army of any importance from date until the news of peace having been concluded at Ghent was received. Now that war has happily terminated, my anxieties are for private life and active business. A military one—in peace—affording very little pleasure to me. In the arranging of the peace establishment am retained and assigned to the corps of artillery in my present position as second lieutenant from the date of my commission as such in the infantry (2d June, 1814). Report to Adjt.-Gen. Parker at Washington City, who solicits me to remain in the service, offering some inducements to do so ; that I should be stationed at Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, or any other post I should choose. Gen. Parker was particularly kind, but I had joined the army because there seemed to be a necessity,—my country engaged in war with a foreign nation. Now that an honorable peace was obtained, and our just claims granted, I felt as standing in the way of some worthy young man who wished to make arms his profession. I therefore preferred returning to private life and the printing business. Forthwith resigned my commission Sept. 7, 1815, Thus completing three years in the service on the Niagara and Northern frontier, one as a volunteer in the Baltimore volunteers, and two in the regular army.


"Return to the city of Baltimore; enter into the book and job printing as partner with James Kennedy; married to Martha, daughter of John and Mary Wray, by Rev. James Inglis, D.D., May 9th, 1816." From Baltimore he removed to Philadelphia, and thence to Washington, Pa.

The causes that brought him to this town are related in the history of the Examiner and his connection with that paper. During his long residence in Washington he filled important offices of honor and trust, having been elected to the offices of register in 1830; protonotary, in 1839; associate judge, in 1843. Served as trustee of Washington Female Seminary from its organization till his death, and pension agent from 1853 to 1861. He died on the 11th of March, 1871, in his eighty-eighth year. Of his children, Thomas W. resides in Meadville, Pa., John in Pittsburgh, and Dr. Wray Grayson and Miss Martha Grayson are residents of Washington.

James McDermott, who came to this place at an early day and became identified as a printer with the Reporter, and has also 'served the town many years as postmaster, is now eighty-seven years of age and still a resident of the town. He was born about one and a half miles from Gettysburg, April 24, 1795, and resided at home till he was about fourteen years of age, when he was apprenticed to Robert Harper, then editing the Adams Sentinel at Gettysburg. In 1814 he was drafted into the United States army and placed under command of Capt. John McMillan. On the 1st of November the company marched to Erie, Pa. Later he was a participant in the battles of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane, and other battles and skirmishes in Canada. After his return home he visited Gettysburg, Washington, D. C., and Martinsburg, Va., and worked a short time in each place. In the latter part of 1817 or the first part of 1818 he came to Washington, Pa., and entered the office of John Grayson on the Examiner, where he remained six or seven months. In the latter part of 1818 he entered the office of the Reporter, and remained with that paper through all its various changes for thirty-two years up to 1850. In March of that year he was appointed postmaster and served four years, and as deputy during the term of David Acheson, his successor. Upon the election of Mr. Lincoln as President in 1860 he was again appointed and served four years, after which he served in an official capacity for a short time in Harrisburg.

Col. James Ruple was born in Morris County, N. J., Feb. 18, 1788. His father was of German parentage, born in' Philadelphia about the year 1740, and removed to New Jersey prior to, the Revolution. In 1794 be removed to Washington County, and located about two miles north of Prosperity, near the line of Morris and Finley townships. He died the following year. Col. James Ruple spent his early life upon the farm, but before he reached his majority came to the town of Washington, and learned the carpenter and joiner trade with Samuel Hughes. Shortly after the declaration of war, in June, 1812, he volunteered his services, and was chosen first lieutenant of Capt. Sample's company, and upon the formation of the regiment was made adjutant. The regiment was ordered to Black Rock; he remained in the service until the troops were discharged. In 1814, when Washington City was threatened, he again quit his business, uniformed his apprentices, and started with the company for the seat of war. They were, however, ordered to return before, they reached the State line. Shortly after that time a volunteer regiment was formed, and he was chosen colonel. In 1817 he was elected coroner, and served three years. In 1828 he was appointed clerk of the courts of the county by Governor Shultz, and in 1830 was reappointed by Governor Wolf, and served six years. In January, 1839, he was again appointed to the same office by Governor Porter, and in October of the same year was elected, under the amended Constitution, for three years. His death occurred on Jan. 8, 1855.

Parker Campbell was admitted in 1794 to practice at the bar of Washington County. He resided where C. M. Reed now lives. He erected the building on the northeast corner of Main and Beau Streets, where he had his office.

Joseph Pentecost, son of Dorsey Pentecost, was admitted to the bar in September, 1782. He married a daughter of Thomas Scott, and lived in Washington and Canonsburg. He came into possession of the Pentecost lands in North Strabane township, and built the large house now owned by John Gamble. His residence in Washington was on Beau Street, west of the public ground. James Ashbrook, brother-in-raw of Joseph Pentecost, and son-in-law of Dorsey Pentecost, was also an attorney, admitted to the bar in 1798. The three last mentioned were prominent attorneys in Washington, and are more fully noticed in the history of the bar of the county.

Early Business Interests.—The earliest reliable information of manufactures carried on in the town of Washington is contained in "The American Museum or Universal Magazine" of parch, 1792, in which the towns of Washington, Pittsburgh, Bedford, and Huntington are compared, as follows :

"The towns of Washington, Pittsburgh, Bedford, and Huntington, in Pennsylvania (the nearest of which is 150 miles from a seaport), exhibit the strongest proofs that manufactures are the best support of the interior landed interests, and are necessary at once to the accommodation and prosperity of the cultivators of the middle and western country. The following table contains an account of the population of these villages, which is not exaggerated." Only Washington and Pittsburgh are here given, viz. :




Clock and watch makers



Skin dressers and breeches makers

Tanners and curriers



















Reed makers 

Saddler makers 

Saddle-tree makers 

Spinning-wheel makers. 


Maltsters and brewers 





Stocking weavers 




Total manufacturers 

Total number of families
















































The number of merchants is not given, and it is a matter of conjecture as to who they were. On the 17th of August, 1795, three years later, a newspaper called The Western Telegraphe and Washington Advertiser was established by Colerick, Hunter & Beaumont, and from its columns are obtained many of the earlier notices of business establishments. The first which appeared was that of Hugh Wilson, dated Aug. 13, 1795, in which he says he " has a large and general assortment of Dry-Goods." On the 3d of October "The Master Saddlers of Washington County are requested to meet at the house of John Fisher, in Washington, on business of importance." Samuel Clarke, on the 27th of the same month, advertised "a neat and general assortment of Dry-Goods." On the 7th of December, the same year, James Neilson advertised that " he is going over the mountains for a new assortment of Goods . against Christmas." In the same mouth Matthew Ritchie & Co. offered a " General assortment of Goods." Dr. A. Baird had just opened a drug-store " in the House lately occupied as a tavern by William Meetkirke." John Reed "continues the Brewery business at his Brewery near Washington," and Gabriel Blakeney, " having quit business," advertised for settlement. Jedediah Post advertised as a watchmaker in the town of Washington, and James Buchanan, on the 20th of December, informed the public that " he has commenced the Blue-Dyeing Business at Mrs. Wilson's, opposite the Court-House," where Smith's store now stands. In February, 1796, Dr. Absalom Baird advertised a large assortment of cloths of all kinds, and that he had " left his Medical Books with William Meetkirke, Esqr., for collection of accounts." Alexander Reed & Co., on the 8th of March, 1796, advertised as follows: "Have just received a quantity of Port, Sherry, Lisbon, and Teneriffe Wines of the best quality, which they will sell on Moderate Terms ; also some good Jamaica Spirits." April 18th, William Erskine advertised spinning-wheels, and that he had moved into Belle Street, next door to Mr. Moore, tailor. David Acheson, on the 29th of April, announced that he had on hand an " assortment of Dry-Goods, Hardware, Queensware, &c."

On the 17th of May, 1796, Alton Pemberton advertised " To Storekeepers and others" that "he will in a few days open a most elegant, extensive, and well-chosen assortment of Dry-Goods, &c., . . . as they were all imported immediately under his inspection from the first manufactures in Europe." His store was in the house of Mr. Beaumont, near the market-house. The firm was changed to Bartholomew, Connelly & Co. on the 4th of October, 1796, and the business was removed to the house of John Colerick. On the 29th of June, the same year, Robert Adams, boot maker, advertised that he had "commenced business in Town at the house of Patrick Moore." Isaiah Steen announced Aug. 11, 1796, that " he has commenced the business of Windsor-Chair Making in Washington in the house lately occupied by John Fisher ;" later he was in the yellow house opposite Mr. Acheson's store, and was for many years in the old market-house. Thomas Wells was a watch-and clock-maker " at the house of Widow Wilson, near the Market-House," in September, 1796. Daniel Thompson was a " Breeches-Maker, next door to James McCluney's store." Robert Hamilton was a whitesmith, and occupied a shop next door to Joseph Huston's Tavern, "The Buck.'" Later he built the brick house now occupied by his daughter, Mrs. Charles Sisson, where he kept a store. James Mc Cluney was a brother of John McCluney (at one time sheriff of the county). James advertised Dec. 10, 1796, to sell off all his dry-goods, hardware, etc., but that he would continue to carry on the nailing business and sell lumber of all kinds. He died at New Orleans Nov. 2, 1799. The following quotation was given after remarks upon his death in one of the village papers : " There cracked a noble heart."

Hugh Workman's tan-yard was mentioned in December, 1796. James Dougherty was a tailor, and in that month had " just opened at the house of Mrs. McMillon, on Market Street." Alexander Reed & Co. offered (Jan. 4, 1797) " a large and elegant assortment of Goods," cloth coatings, cassimeres, flannels, linens, etc. John Johnston at the same time was selling dry-goods, hardware, etc. Thomas Thompson, on the 6th of May in that year, "informs the public that he has removed from Hamilton's saw-mill to Washington, next door to Mr. James McCluney's, where he proposes to manufacture Umbrellas and Sword Canes." He married a daughter of Thomas Scott, and later edited a paper in Washington. James McCammant was a gunsmith at this time, and opened a shop in the tavern of William McCammant. James • Wilson was a coppersmith, and in June, 1797, announced that he had "opened a shop at the house of John Wilson, cabinet-maker," now the site of A. T. Baird's store. James Wilson was a son of James and a brother of Hugh Wilson. His mother lived on the corner where Smith's store now stands. Robert Hazlett announced on the 22d of December, 1797, that he had "removed his store from the house adjoining


Hugh Wilson to the house where William Arbuckle, Hatter, lives." Isaiah Steen advertised in the Herald of Liberty, May 18, 1798, that he had removed his shop from John Scott, innkeeper, to the house of Dr. John Culbertson, and continued the business of Windsor chair making. On the 24th of April, David Acheson offered to exchange for property in this town a lot of ground "in the town of Cincinnati, North Western Territory." On the 8th of August, 1798, Robert Anderson and William Hutchinson opened a shop three doors below Mr. Purviance's tavern for conducting the "Clock and Watch-making business in all its branches." At the same time Thomas Wells had removed his business of clock- and watch-making from the Widow Wilson to a house below Mr. Valentine's tavern on Main Street. On the 11th of October, 1798, John Templeton commenced the tanning business at the tan-yard formerly occupied by James Brotherton, in the rear of Mr. Colerick's printing-office, then on Main Street, just north of where the Fulton House now is. May 30. 1799, John Watts advertised a brick-yard to rent adjoining the town of Washington. He also offered brick for sale at six dollars per thousand.

At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town of Washington, assembled at the court-house at ring of bell on Wednesday, the 25th January, 1798, to consult whether it will be proper to introduce the smallpox into their families at this time, the following persons being present answered as follows, to wit :

Mr. Redick in the chair;

Isaac Kerr, secretary.

Matthew Ritchie, no.

John Mitchell, no.

Samuel Arbuccle, no.

John Johnston, no.

Samuel Day, no.

Isaiah Steen, no.

David Morton, no.

Samuel Clarke, no.

Bruce Deckar, no.

Robert Hamilton, no.

Alex. Cunningham, no.

John Simonson, no.

Thomas Thomas, no.

Alexander Addison, no.

William Kerr, no.

John Ustick, no.

David Morris, no.

William Marshal, no.

John McCammant, no.

William Sharard, yes.

John Clark, no.

Henry Tarr, no.

Charles Fox, no.

John Dehuff, no.

John Wilson, no.

David Redick, no.

Joseph Huston, no.

"Resolved, That it is agreed that no person here present shall introduce the inoculation into their family without first having given like public notice as at this time, so that the inhabitants may have an opportunity of remonstrating against it, or take such measures as may be necessary.


In the year 1798 George Henry Kepple was the assessor, and was instructed to assess every freeman not following any occupation or calling one dollar and fifty cents each ; mechanic or tradesman, thirty-three cents each ; broker, banker, lawyer, or physician, one dollar and fifty cents each ; each tavern-keeper, shop-keeper, or persons retailing goods, wares, or merchandise, eighty-three cents; persons, professions, or occupations not before mentioned, one dollar and thirty-three cents; persons holding slaves under forty-five years of age, one dollar each. He was also instructed to return all transfers of real estate made since the return of 1796. The following is the list of occupations given :

Retailers of Goods and Store-keepers, David Acheson, Gabriel Blakeney, Alexander Cunningham, John De Lille, James Langley, James McCluney, Hugh Wilson, Matthew Ritchie, William Arbuckle, Robert Hazlett, Daniel Moore, Samuel Clarke, Alexander Reed, John Ritchie, Henry Purviance, and Hugh Wylie.

Physicians, Absalom Baird, John Culbertson, and J. Julius Le Moyne.

Tradesmen, John Bollen, John Choleric (Colerick), Elias Crawford, James Chambers, Patrick Coveney, John Dehuff, Joseph Day, John Horderharder (Harter), Isaac Jones, Robert Anderson, Daniel Kehr, William Kehr, Michael McFall, William Aikins, Alexander Little, Jacob Lockman, John Leard, Daniel Leach, William Marshall, David Morris, Daniel Moody, William McCammant, James McGowen, Alexander Miller, Joseph McMootrey, James Reed, James Simms, Joseph Seaman, Jacob Shaffer, William Sherrard, Thomas Townsend, James Dougherty, David Updegraff, Henry Tarr, R. Curry, John Wilson, Hugh Workman, Samuel Woods, John Morrow, Samuel Arbuckle, Robert Hamilton, Peter Wagner, John McCammant, Isaiah Steen, Thomas Thompson, Daniel Thompson, Thomas Wells, J. Johnstone, and Andrew McClure.

Tavern-Keepers, John Scott, Thomas Officer, Michael Dolin, Joseph Huston, Thomas Jenny, Philip Milchsach, John Purviance, Samuel Shannon, Charles Valentine, Charles Fox, David Morris, and William Frazer.

Baker, Peter Sires.

Butchers, John Sellers and J. Clark.

Attorneys, George Henry Keppele, John Simonson, Parker Campbell, James Allison, Joseph Pentecost.

Schoolmasters, William Porter and William Little.

No occupation given, Alexander Addison, William Meetkirke, David Redick, John Watt, David Hoge, Thomas Stokely, Hugh Means, William Hoge, and John Hoge.

Tailors, Archibald Carr (Kerr), James Dougherty, James Dunlap, William Lytle, William McCammant, and Patrick Moore.

Blacksmiths, Matthew Collins, Robert Hamilton, John Laird, William Marshall, Joseph Seaman, William Wilson, and William Ward.

Gunsmith, John Dehuff.

Clock and watchmakers, John De Lille, Thomas Hutchinson,¹ and Thomas Wells.

Wheelmaker, William Erskine.

¹ Thomas Hutchinson manufactured the tall Dutch clock, many of which are still in existence.


Stocking-weaver, John Harter.

Cabinet-makers, Archibald Homes, Alexander Lytle, John Wilson, and Stephen Way.

Turner, Christian Keiffer.

Mason, John Keady.

Clerks, Isaac Kerr, Thomas Fletcher, John McCluney, and Thomas Thompson.

Nailor, Abraham Latimore.

Windsor chair makers, Isaiah Steen and John Loge. Weavers, John Martin, James Reed, and James Simms.

Coopers, Edward Nelson, Joseph Huston.

Saddlers, Alexander Peoples and James Smithers.

Coppersmiths, Archibald Thompson, David Updegraff, and James Wilson.

James McGowen was a reed-maker, Peter Wagner a baker, Robert Mulligan a brickmaker, and Joshua McCroskey and Henry Tarr were potters.

On the 3d of April, 1809, the Washington Theatrical Association advertised to " perform at Mr. Steen's New House the admirable comedy of ' The Rivals." The new house mentioned was known as " Castle Crack," and is the dwelling now owned by Maj. John H. Ewing.

Following is a list of taxables in Washington in 1800:

Attorneys, James Allison, James Ashbrook, Parker Campbell, Thomas Johnston, Henry G. Keppele, Joseph Pentecost, and John Simonson.

Store-keepers, Thomas and David Acheson, Robert Hazlett, Alexander Cunningham, James Langley, Daniel Moore, John Ritchie, Alexander Reed, Robert Ritchie, Hugh Wilson, Hugh Wylie, and John Wallace.

Silversmiths, Robert Anderson, Jacob Schaffer, and James Stevenson.

Gentlemen, George Allison, Gabriel Blakeney, Samuel Clark, John Colerick, Sr., David Hoge, Andrew McClure, Thomas Swearingen, and Thomas Stokely.

Physicians, Isaiah Blair, Absalom Baird, and Frederick L. Conyngham.¹

Shoemakers, John Bollin, Abraham Cazeer, Gerrard Greer, John Hanna, Daniel Kerr (formerly spelled Kehr), Samuel Kirkbride, Philip Milchsach, and William Marten.

Revenue Officer, James Brice.

Hatters, Joseph Climson, John Koontz, William Shannon, and Robert Thompson.

Tanners, Christian Branize, John Templeton, Hugh Workman.

Butcher, John Clark.

Printers, John Colerick, John Israel, and John Speers.

Saddle-tree makers, James Chambers, Joseph Day, Henry Ewen, Jonathan Hook, John and Samuel

¹ The name of Dr. J. Julius Le Moyne is given as innkeeper, but the name is crossed out.

Mitchell, Simon Panioste, William Sherrard, and Michael Cooke.

On the 3d of April, 1809, George Bertie, "clock and watch-maker and mathematical instrument maker," announced that he had moved from the house " formerly occupied by Robert Anderson to the brick house adjoining." Robert Anderson, who opened a watchmaker shop in 1798, was elected sheriff of the county in October, 1808, and George Bertie succeeded to the business.

Of merchants not before mentioned, there appears, in 1809, James Brice, Cunningham & Dill, Samuel Cunningham, David Cooke, James Blaine, James Dunlap (also brigade inspector and tailor), Thomas S. Good (whose store was at the corner of Pine Alley, on the west side of Main Street; later he erected an oil-mill in the rear of the lot), Abraham Latimore, Thomas McFadden, and David Shields.

Attorneys mentioned in this year, not before noticed, were Sampson S. King, John Marshel, Thomas S. McGiffin, Jonathan 'Redick, Thomas Baird, John Tarr, and John White.

Clergymen, the Rev. Matthew Brown and the Rev. Thomas Campbell. The names of Dr. David G. Mitchell and Dr. Henry Stephenson appear for the first time. The printers were William Sample, editor of The Reporter, Thomas Thompson, editor of The Western Corrector, and Alexander Armstrong, editor of the Western Telegraphe.

In the year 1808, John Scott was contractor for carrying the mails, and in 1810 was a "stage-master." On the 5th of June, 1809, Hamilton, Mills & Gourly advertised " that their machines were in complete order, and that wool will be taken and carded at former prices."

On the 27th of November, 1809, James Blaine advertised that he had just opened in the stand between Hugh Wilson's and Acheson's a cheap assortment of dry-goods, groceries, hardware, china, glass, etc.

James Dunlap announced on the 28th of May, 1810, that he had just opened a general assortment of merchandise, and also that military uniforms were a specialty. At this time he was brigade inspector, and lived in the house now owned by ----- Keochline, at the southeast corner of Maiden and Main Streets, and is unchanged to this day. He remained in this place till 1816, then removed to a farm a few miles from Washington, and opened a tavern called " Mount Vernon Hotel," and on the 1st of April the next year laid out a town called Williamsburg. In

182.5   removed to Washington, and kept the "Jackson Inn." Williamsburg later became "Martinsburg," and is also known as " Pancake."

In the year 1810 the borough of Washington contained a population of 1292, and manufactured the following : flax linen, 2004 yards; value; $1307.10; tow, 601 yards ; value, $202.50; cotton, 1736 yards; value, $1724.35; linsey, 665 yards; value, $433.58. Total value, $3661.48.


There were in the town 153 spinning-wheels, 97 hand-cards, 8 looms, 179 horses, 222 neat cattle, 133 common sheep, and 8 of mixed breeds.

On the 2d of July, 1810, James Dougherty moved his store to the house formerly occupied by Mrs. Mary Dodd, nearly opposite the court-house, and next door to Cunningham & Dill. In 1811 the Rev. Thomas Campbell lived near the college, and Thomas Ledlie Birch (afterwards famous as a preacher) advertised drugs and medicines for sale. David Eckert was a saddler, and his dwelling and shop were in the brick house opposite the sign of the "Globe," and next to the bank. George Lockart, cabinet and chair-maker, " lately from Philadelphia," advertised that he had commenced business next door to James Langley's store. James Meetkirke, in May, 1811, advertised that he " wants flaxseed in exchange for Windsor chairs, which he manufactures." Libes Hatman had a bakery opposite the "Rising Sun," on Market Street at the corner of Chestnut. Sampson King, captain United States infantry, advertised, May 11, 1812, that he had opened a recruiting-office at Washington, and offered a bounty of sixteen dollars, and addition of three months' pay and one hundred and sixty acres of land. On the 25th of May, 1812, Kline & Landis opened a "new saddler-shop" in the house of Joseph Patton, hatter, on Main Street, where David Eckert formerly had his saddler-shop.

On the 11th of April, 1814, William Hunter announced that he had commenced mercantile business " in the house lately occupied by Dr. Le Moyne, next store below Mr. John Lockhart's store," the site now occupied by Michael Koontz. Later Mr. Hunter purchased the property now occupied by Samuel Hazlett's bank, where he lived and was in business many years. Thomas Brice in April, 1814, moved from Amity to Washington, and opened a store next above the bank. In August the same year, Dubuisson advertises that he has arrived from Philadelphia, and " Cleans, separates, files, plugs, and extracts teeth ; sets straight those inclined to any direction, and makes and places artificial ones." On the 1st of May, 1815, George Bertie, watchmaker, advertises that he has removed to the house adjoining Daniel Moore's store. Mrs. Bertie adds " that she continues to work at the millinery business in its various branches." Isaiah Steen in May, 1816, informs the public that in addition to his Windsor and fancy chair making " he has recently engaged an artist, by whom he will be enabled to carry on miniature, portrait, sign, and ornamental painting in a superior manner." On the 28th of April, the next year, G. Harrison advertises to "paint Portraits, Miniatures, Signs, etc., and to teach Drawing." On the 19th of May, 1817, William McMullin commenced the cut and wrought nail business in the blacksmith-shop on Wheeling Street, and in August following Joshua Monroe and William Campbell opened a nail-factory on Main Street, oppo-

- 32 -

site Mr. Greggs. Robert Young was a book-binder in the town some years prior to 1819, and on the 18th of January in that year advertised that he " intends removing to Pittsburgh about the 1st of April next." A stone brewery was built on the property of Gen. Thomas Acheson, about 1819, and operated by Thomas & J. Cummings for many years. A large and extensive business was done. The building was eventually pulled down, and the stone used for foundations in the town. The property is now owned by Judge A. W. Acheson.

The following is a list of persons who were engaged in business in the town in the year 1838, as shown by the assessment roll of that year : Merchants, Chamberson Anderson, David Clark, Catharine Campbell, Henrietta Gregg, Elizabeth Garrett, Samuel Mount, Robert McElheney, James Orr, Alexander Reed, Colin M. Reed, James Stewart (also a tobacconist), George K. Scott, William Smith, Robert Tener, John K. Wilson, Marsh & McMichael, Daniel L. Shields, Henry Kuntz, Alexander Sweeney, James and Henry Langley.

Attorneys, Alexander W. Acheson, Daniel T. Baldwin, Joseph Henderson, Isaac Leet, John S. Brady, Thomas McGiffin, Thomas M. T. McKennan (deputy attorney-general ), William Waugh, John L. Gow, and Zachariah S. Yarnall.

Physicians, J. Julius Le Moyne (also druggist), F. Julius Le Moyne, Samuel Murdoch (druggist), James Stevens, John Wishart, and William B. Lank.

Stage proprietors, Scott & Stone (also in the oyster business) Daniel Moore.

John Hutchinson, stage agent.

Early Taverns.—The tavern kept by William Huston in 1774 was located just beyond the limits of the town on property now owned by Mrs. Swartz. A part of the old Huston farm is now embraced in the present limits of the borough. The first person to keep a public-house within the limits of Washington as then defined was James Wilson. He purchased a lot of David Hoge on the northwest corner of Beau and Main Streets, and at the first term of court in Washington County, held in October, 1781, he was licensed " for keeping a public-house of entertainment at Catfish Camp." He erected a log house, in which he opened his tavern, which he kept until his death in 1792. At this house the Hon. William A. Atlee and the Hon. George Bryan, judges of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, were in the habit of stopping when holding Courts of Oyer and Terminer in Washington County. The house was kept as a tavern as late as 1840, and in later years was weatherboarded. It was finally torn down, and Smith's store was erected upon its site. The property was owned many years by Hugh Wilson, son of James.

John Dodd was one of the original proprietors of land adjoining the town of Washington. Very soon after the town was laid out he purchased lot 274, on the east side of Main Street, and in 1782 was licensed


to keep a tavern. Hc built a log house on the site now occupied by Hastings' hardware-store and the Washington Savings-Bank. In this house he kept tavern till his death. in 1795, which occurred when returning from New Orleans. The deed for this lot bears date July 27, 1786, but this with lot No. 58 were purchased on a certificate, as was the case in the early lots. Judge J. C. Chambers, of this county, is a descendant of John Dodd.

Charles Dodd, a brother of John Dodd, was licensed to keep a tavern in April, 1782. He kept in a log house which stood on lot No. 58, now occupied by Strean's hardware-store. At this place the first courts were held, and in a log stable in the rear the prisoners of the county were confined. The deed of the lot was made to John Dodd May 30, 1789. On the 13th of August, 1792, John Dodd sold the house and lot to Daniel Kehr, who kept tavern a year or two, but later followed his trade of a shoemaker in the same house many years. His son, Isaac Kehr (afterwards spelled Kerr), succeeded to the property and lived there till his death.

At the September term of court (1783) John Adams was licensed and kept tavern till 1789. John Colwell was licensed in 1784. At the September term in 1785, Hugh Means, Samuel Acklin, and William Falconer were licensed. Acklin kept till 1788, and Falconer till 1791. William Meetkirke, who was for many years a justice of the peace, kept tavern where Mrs. McFarland now lives from June, 1786, to 1793.

Maj. George McCormick, who purchased large tracts of land in the northern part of the county, was licensed to keep tavern in Washington in 1788. The following quotation from Col. John May's journal (page 99) refers to his house: " Thursday, Aug. 7, 1788, set out from the hotel at four o'clock, and at half-past eight arrived at Maj. George McCormick's in Washington, where we breakfasted. This is an excellent house, where our New England men put up."

Hugh Wilson (son of James) was licensed in September, 1789; John McMichael and John Purviance in 1790. The latter owned lot No. 278, where the Fulton House now stands. He kept tavern as late as 1808, but resided here till the summer of 1817, when he removed to Claysville and laid out the town in that year.

Charles Valentine purchased the lot on which the Valentine House now stands, and built upon it a log house, which he opened as a tavern upon receiving his license at the September term of court, 1791. This house, named "The White Goose," he kept till 1805, when he went into other business and died in 1809. It was kept by John Retteg from 1806 to 1810, and opened as "The Golden Swan." Juliana Valentine kept it from 1810 to 1819. In June, 1819, John Valentine advertised that he had just opened the house at the sign of " The Golden Swan." Later it was kept by Lewis Valentine, and in March, 1825, John Hays opened it. In March, 1827, it was kept by Isaac Sumny, with the sign of " Washington Hall." Its changes have been numerous, but it is the oldest tavern site in the town. It is now known as the Valentine House, and is kept by William F. Dickey.

Michael Kuntz was licensed in September, 1191, and kept one year where Vowell's drug-store now stands. J. Neilson, John Fisher, Samuel McMillan, and John Ferguson were each licensed December, 1793 ; Daniel Kehr in 1795.

Joseph Huston, a cousin of William Huston, was licensed January, 1796, and opened a tavern in the stone house on the east side of Main Street below Maiden, at the sign of " The Buck." He kept there till 1812, and his widow Elizabeth succeeded him. Hc kept a short time there, rented the property to James Sargent, who continued till April, 1815, when she again became the hostess, and kept it till after 1820.

James Workman was licensed in 1797. He opened a house of- entertainment, which he kept till 1818, when he retired to a farm out of town. In April, 1816, he advertised that he had opened a public-house at the sign of " General Andrew Jackson," on THC west side of Main Street, just below the sign of " The Globe."

Samuel Thomas was licensed to keep tavern in September, 1797. He had purchased Lot No. 18, and in this year opened a tavern upon it. After a year he rented it to David Morris, who soon after purchased it, receiving his deed in 1804. From the time he took possession of the property till his death in 1834 the house was known as the " Globe" inn.

The lot No. 18 was first sold by David Hoge to Alexander Cunningham in May, 1784, who conveyed it to Samuel Shannon the 30th of August the same year. On the 25th of May, 1804, Shannon conveyed to David Morris all his right, title, and interest. The deed has not passed in all these years, and on the 2d of June in that year a deed was made from Mr. Hoge to David Morris. He was licensed first in 1798, and opened the " Globe" tavern, where John Allen now lives, on Main Street. After the house came into his possession it was enlarged and improved, and became known as one of the best hotels between Washington, D. C., and Wheeling. This famous hotel was kept by David Morris till his death, Jan. 1, 1854. It was than continued by his widow a short time, and the property was sold to Thomas Morgan, who kept the post-office there the latter part of his term. An account of the many famous dinners served in the "Globe Inn" would be tedious. The last incident of any moment in connection with the old tavern occurred in 1833. On the 16th day of April in that year Lieut. T. W. Alexander, of the United States army, having in charge as prisoners of war the renowned Black Hawk and five other Indians of the Sac and Fox tribes, arrived in this place by one ,of the stages on the old National road, being on their way to the


seat of government. They were all head men of their tribes, who were taken prisoners by Gen. Atkinson during the war of the summer previous. The names of the Indians were Ma-ka-tai-mesh-she-ka-kai, or Black Hawk ; We-pe-kie-shich, or the Prophet ; Nai-po-pe, or Broth ; Mesh-she-was-kuck, son of Black Hawk ; Pa-me-ho-its, brother of the Prophet ; Pa-we-shich, son of the Prophet.

An accident occurred to the stage in coming down Market Street, in which Sergeant Greene, one of the party, had his arm broken above the elbow, and Black Hawk, his son, and the son of the Prophet were slightly hurt. The accident caused a delay of several days, and gave " our citizens an opportunity of gratifying their curiosity with a sight of these celebrated wild sons of the forest, who had so recently caused such terror and distress to a portion of our pioneer settlers in the Far West."

In October, 1797, John Scott opened a tavern (which was formerly occupied by John Fisher) at the sign of the " Spread Eagle." It was opposite David Acheson's store.

In February, 1801, William McCammant opened a tavern at the sign of the " Cross Keys," on the southeast corner of Main and Wheeling Streets, opposite the " White Goose" (now the Valentine House). He remained as landlord until his death, in 1813. His widow, Mrs. Mary McCammant, continued till April, 1815, when she rented the property and moved to the southeast corner of Market and Beau Street, nearly opposite the court-house, where she opened a public-house at the sign of "General Washington." She was at the old place at the sign of the " Cross-Keys" as late as January, 1831, and advertised for that term of court the following prices : dinner and horse-feed, twenty-five cents; jurors and others attending court, two dollars per week.

Christian Keiffer kept tavern in February, 1805, at the sign of " Washington." John Rettig was licensed in 1806, and kept the stand formerly known as the " White Goose," at the corner of Market and Wheeling Streets, under the name of " The Golden Swan." Later he kept tavern in another part of the town, and was killed by falling down a well. His widow, Elizabeth Rettig, succeeded him in the business.

Matthew Ocheltree was licensed in February, 1807, and opened tavern at the old stand formerly kept by James Wilson, and where Smith's store now stands. He remained at this place till about 1812.

John McCluney in November, 1808, advertised that he had just opened a travelers' hotel opposite the court-house, at the sign of the "Indian Queen," where he kept for several years. In 1815 he opened a public-house formerly kept by Thomas Officer at the sign of the "Green Tree," at the north end of Market Street. Thomas Officer opened the " Green Tree" tavern in July, 1809. The house is yet standing.

John Kline in April, 1815, moved' from the Cross-Roads, nine miles west of Brownsville, and opened a public-house (formerly kept by Michael Ocheltree) at the sign of "General Wayne.*

James Garrett, in September, 1816, opened a public= house at the sign of the "Rising Sun," near the corner of Market and Chestnut Streets, where John and Andrew Best now reside. It was kept by Garrett till 1822, when James Briceland, from Briceland Cross-Roads, rented it and kept one year, when Garrett again took possession, and Briceland removed to "the Public-House and Stage-Office lately kept by Samuel Denniston." On the 1st of December, 1824; Gen. Andrew Jackson, family, and suite came to Washington and stopped at Briceland Inn. Several of the citizens of the town breakfasted with him, after which they escorted him as far as Hillsborough.

Richard Donaldson opened a public-house in the year 1805 on the southeast corner of Market and Beau Streets, where the " Fulton House" now stands, where he kept till 1815, when he moved to the old Workman stand opposite the seminary, and now occupied by Mrs. Sarah Hanna. This house had been kept prior to this time by - Surratt. In April, 1823, Richard Donaldson moved to the brick' house at the east end of Maiden Street, at the sign of " Commodore Perry."

Dr. John Julius Le Moyne was licensed in August, 1798. He opened a tavern in his own house and kept till 1806.

James Sargeant soon after the death of Joseph Huston in 1812 rented the tavern known as "The Duck," and kept it till 1815, when he removed to the corner of Main and Wheeling Streets, at the sign of the "Cross-Keys," where he kept till 1818. The next year he opened a hotel where the Fulton House now stands. David Wilson opened a house of entertainment in 1802, and continued till 1818. William Wilson kept a tavern on Wheeling Street from 1801 to 1808.

John Fleming in April, 1820, opened a public-house opposite the market-house, "lately occupied by James Sergent." The house was then known as the "Philadelphia and Kentucky Inn." During the month of January, 1821, on the occasion of the wedding of the daughter of Mr. Fleming, the house caught fire and was partially destroyed. A daughter, Mary, six years of age, was burned to death.

Samuel Denniston in May, 1821, informed the public that he had removed from Greensburg, Westmoreland Co., to Washington, Pa., and commenced keeping public-house in the new and eligible brick house at the corner of Main and Maiden Streets, opposite where the United States turnpike road enters Main Street from the east, at the sign of .the "Travelers' Inn and stage office." In 1823, James Briceland was the proprietor, and in 1825 James Dunlap kept it with the sign of " Jackson Hotel." This was the present Auld House.

In 1822, John N. Dagg opened "The Rising Sun,"


formerly kept by James Garrett and James Briceland. On the 7th of April, 1827, he moved to the " Eagle Inn," opposite the Rising Sun, on Main Street, and later to what is now .the Valentine House, after which he kept the Mansion House for several years. In 1836 John Irons opened it and occupied for a year or two, when Dagg again took possession and kept it many years.

In April, 1821, Enoch Miller opened a hotel in the west end of the borough, in a large brick house nearly opposite the (old) Methodist meeting-house, on the National road, at the sign of " General Brown." Soon After, he opened the " Fountain Inn," which was in a brick house on Chestnut Street. He was succeeded in March, 1823, by George Ringland, who kept it a year or two.

John Wilson was first licensed to keep a tavern Sept. 1, 1806, and kgpt till 1812. On the 7th of May, 1831, John Wilson opened a tavern opposite the court-house, called " John Wilson's Tavern." This was on the site of the old John Dodd tavern, and the present site of Hastings' hardware-store. Mr. Wilson kept there many years.

In September, 1832, William J. Brown opened a hotel on the east side of Main Street, bctween Maiden and Wheeling (where Jacob Miller's hardware-store now is), with the sign of the " Farmers' Inn." Later he changed the sign to " The Black Bear." It is related of him that at this time he made arrangements with a painter to paint the sign ; and after beating him down on the price the painter finally agreed to paint it, and did so. The next rain storm washed it all off. Brown was angry, and the painter told him if he would pay his price, he would paint a bear that would stay and chain him to a post; which he did, and the bear remained there many years. There were many other taverns in the town besides the ones mentioned, but those given were the principal ones.

The names given below are of those who kept the public-houses in the years given :

1826.—Robert Boyce, William P. Biles, Richard Donaldson, Philip Harton, John Wilson, Henry Koch, Robert Clokey, and James Fleming.

1836.—John Irons, John Bradfield, Daniel Valentine, Sarah Beck, John Flender, William J. Brown, and Sarah Hartzell.

1838.—William J. Brown kept the "Black Bear ;" John N. Dagg, the Mansion House ; Elizabeth Fleming kept "The Buck ;" Joseph Hallam, where Smith's store now is ; Sheldon B. Hays, the " Green House," now the Gow property ; Otho Hartzell, the " Cross Keys," where Warrick's store now stands ; William Paull, where Mrs. Sarah Hanna now resides; James Searight, where the Auld House now stands ; Daniel Valentine, the Valentine House; and John Wilson, where Hastings' hardware-store stands.

1844.—The Mansion House was kept by S. B. Hays. This tavern was the headquarters mostly of the stage-line " Good Intent." The " Green House" was then kept by Daniel Brown; "The American" was then kept by E. R. Lane, and was the stopping-place of the stage-line of which Mr. Lane was the agent; the Fulton was then kept by Henry Fulton ; "The Washington," where Morgan & Hargreaves' store now is. The Valentine House and "The Buck" were still open. The present hotels of Washington are the Fulton House, kept by Thomas Hall ; the Valentine House, by William F. Dickey ; the Auld House, by A. Sargent.

Borough Incorporation and List of Officers.—The first movement having for its object the incorporation of the borough was made in 1796. The Western Telegraphe of date February 2d in that year (the paper then having been published about six months) contained the following article: " We must have a law of Incorporation, Besides regulating the streets; a corporation could do many other useful and necessary things. It could regulate the market-house, adjust weights and measures, keep the market-house clean, prevent (what will soon destroy our market) people from buying up provisions before they reach the market-house, and take care that the provisions be wholesome and good. It could make provision against a calamity which every reflecting man must dread—fire. In vain is our fire-engine if we want water, and it is well known that in a dry season there is not a tenth part of the water necessary in case of a fire breaking out, yet there is no authority to dig wells in the streets. I propose that the people of this town meet at the Market House on Saturday next, at three o'clock in the afternoon, to consult on a petition to the Assembly for Incorporating This Town.


Several articles were written in reply to the above. The meeting referred to in the article was held, but no action was taken, and the subject was not again seriously agitated until January, 1810, when a meeting was called, and a petition drawn up which was signed and sent to the Legislature, which resulted in the passage of an act granting a charter dated Feb. 13, 1810, with the powers usually conferred on boroughs. The first section provided and declared :

"That the town of Washington, in the county of Washington, shall be, and the same is hereby, erected into a borough, which shall be called the Borough of Washington, and shall be comprised within the following boundaries, viz., Beginning at a post on the land of James Asa-brook ; thence by land of Robert Anderson, Thomas Officer, and others, south seventy-seven degrees, west one hundred and fifty-nine and one-half perches to a poet; thence by land of Thomas Jones, William Hoge, and others, south fourteen and three-fourth degrees, east one hundred perches to a post; thence by land of James Ashbrook, William Sherrard, and others, south thirteen degrees, east sixty-three and one-half perches to a post; thence by land of John Hoge south fifty-one and one-half degree, east twenty-nine perches to a post; thence by land late of John. Simonson, Hugh Workman, and others, north seventy-seven degrees, east one hundred and twenty perches to a post; thence by land of Thomas McFadden, Daniel Rehr, and others, north four and one-half degrees, west eighty-four perches to a post; thence by land of Robert Hazlett, Isaiah Steen, and others, north ten degrees, west one hundred and two perches to the place of beginning."


The minutes of the burgess and Council of the borough from the incorporation in 1810 to the 28th day of March. 1864, covering a space of fifty-four years, are not to be found, although diligent search for them has been made in years past and at the present time. A few of the ordinances passed in the early years of the borough are gleaned from the newspapers of the time. The first of any interest was passed on the 17th of June, 1810, as follows : " Footways on Main Street shall be made twelve feet in width from the front of lots to curbstone, not less depth than eighteen inches. Eight feet from curbstone on each side of Main Street shall be paved and residue turnpiked.


" Chief Burgess."

The ordinance was published in the Reporter, and in the next issue David Morris and Matthew Ocheltree, street commissioners, advertised that they were prepared to receive proposals for paving and turn-piking Main Street. The lines of the pavement then laid are yet to be seen, extending eight feet from the curbstone on Main Street.

On the 10th of February, 1812, Alexander Reed and John Wilson, burgesses, gave to Daniel Kehr a receipt for $46.25, which he advanced to the borough of Washington towards paving the Main Street, conformably to ordinance No. 15, passed July 13, 1810. This receipt implies that a later ordinance, supplemental thereto, was passed.

In 1811 the following ordinances were passed, viz.: Imposing a fine of one dollar " for galloping a horse within the bounds of the borough, or driving a waggon, cart, sled, or sleigh faster than a slow trot ; for riding or leading a horse on foot-ways, .50 ; for violation of the Sabbath laws agreeably to State laws, $4.00." The Reporter of Aug. 17, 1812, contains an advertisement for proposals to lay sewers in Maiden, Belle (now Wheeling), Chestnut, and Beau Streets, six feet in breadth, eight feet high, and walls to be two feet thick, and not less than forty-two feet in length. These sewers were built, one on Chestnut Street, west of Main Street, near where Wiley's wool-house now stands ; one on East Beau Street, near the Methodist Church ; one on Belle Street (now East Wheeling), near Rogers' livery-stable; and one on East Maiden Street,.east of the LeMoyne residence, and west of the residence of Mr. J. Chambers. The history of the market-house, fire department, and other matters pertaining to the borough will be found under separate heads, the facts having been gleaned from the newspapers, the public records, and other


Application was made to the Court of Quarter Sessions in May, 1852, for a charter under the act of Assembly, April 3, 1851. Decree was made May 18th, and its privileges were extended in accordance therewith. The borough lines were extended northwest, west, and southwest by an ordinance passed May 30, 1854, to take effect June 10th the same year; and again to the southeast, east, and northeast of Main Street, by ordinance passed Dec. 22, 1854, to take effect Jan. 6, 1855.

The following additions have been made to the borough. On the 1st of December, 1849, twelve lots were added by William Hopkins, known as Hopkins' Addition. On the 20th of April, 1850, fifty-six lots were added by David Lang, known as East Washington. A street was laid through the centre known as Independence. By an act of Assembly, passed April 3, 1851, provision was made for the enlargement of the borough limits, and June 10, 1854, and Jan. 6, 1855, they were extended. On the 3d of September, 1873, Linn's extension was surveyed, containing one hundred and seventy-six lots, embraced within the limits of the old Pittsburgh road, Pine Street, and Front and Sixth Streets. On the 9th of April, 1874, an addition was made, containing thirty lots, by N. K. & R. L. Wade, known as Wade's Extension. Ritner's Extension, consisting of twelve lots, was surveyed in February, 1875, from Chestnut Street to the extension of Walnut. And in April, the same year, six lots were added called Hayes' Extension. In December, 1881, Wolfe and Whittlesey's Addition was made to Wade Avenue, consisting of seven lots sixty by two hundred feet.

A list is here given of the borough officers of Washington from its incorporation to the present time, viz.:


1810-11.—Alexander Reed, John Wilson.

1812-13.-David Morris, Thomas Officer.

1814.—Daniel Moore, James Orr.

1815.—David Shields, John Wilson.

1816.—Alexander Murdoch, Alexander Reed.

1817.—John Wilson, David Morris.

1818.—James Blaine, James Shannon.

1819-22.—James Blaine, John Gregg.

1823.—James Orr, James Ruple.

1824-25.—James Ruple. Daniel Moore.

1826-28.—Samuel Workman, James Orr.

1829-30.—James Orr, John Kuntz.

1831.—George Kuntz. James Orr.

1832.—John S. Brady, John Wilson.

1833.—Archibald Kerr, John Wilson.

1834.—Archibald Kerr, James Ruple.

1835.—Archibald Kerr, James Ruple.

1836-37.—John R. Griffith, James Ruple.

1838.—John L. Gow, James Ruple.

1839.—James Blaine, John R. Griffith.

1840.—Robert Officer, John S. Brady.

1841-42.—Robert Officer, George W. Brice.

1843.—Robert Officer, Thomas McGiffin.

1844.—Isaac Leet, James Langley.

1845.—Matthew Giffin, Sample Sweeney.

1846.—L. P. Hitchcock, John L. Gow.

1847.—William McKennan, Alexander Murdoch.

1848.—James Ruple, James Langley.

1849.—Collin M. Reed, Alfred Creigh.

1850.—William Hopkins, Collin M. Reed.

1851.—Alexander W. Acheson, Peter Reimund.

1852.—Alexander W. Acheson, Hugh W. Reynolds.

1853.—William Workman, Charles W. Hays.

1854.—Charles W. Hays. James Spriggs.

1855.—Alexander Murdoch, Samuel Cunningham.


1856.-Jacob Slagle, James Brown.

1857.-James B. Ruple, William B. Hopkins.

1858-59.-James W. Kuntz, James Rush.

1860.-James W. Kuntz, Thomas J. Walker.

1861-62.-James W. Kuniz, James Rush.

1863.-James W. Kuntz, Alfred Creigh.

1864-65.-Andrew Brady. James Rush.

1866.-Charles Hays,   Smith.

1867.-H. J. Vankirk, John Hoon,.

1868.-John D. Boyle, John McElroy.

1869.-John D. Boyle, Isaac Y. Hamilton.

1870.-John D. Boyle, Theodore F. Slater.

1871.-Samuel Hazlett, Theodore F. Slater.

1872-73.-Samuel Hazlett, J. H. Little.

1874.-Samuel Hazlett, J. C. Acheson.

1875.-J. L. Judson, J. C. Acheson.

1876.-J. L. Judson, William S. Bryson.

1877.-H. J. Van Kirk, William S. Bryson.

1878.-H. J. Van Kirk, Alexander Rankin.

1879.-Samuel Hazlett, Alexander Rankin.

1880.-Samuel Hazlett, John H. Murdoch.

1881.-J. Carter Judson, John H. Murdoch.

1882 -.J. Carter Judson, J. Frank Taylor.


1810-11.-Hugh Wilson, Thomas Acheson, Hugh Workman, Robert Anderson, Parker Campbell.

1812.-John Scott, Matthew Dill, Hugh Workman, Parker Campbell, Thomas McGiffin.

1813.-Thomas McGiffin, Parker Campbell, Daniel Moore, James Orr, Hugh Workman.

1814.-Parker Campbell, Thomas Officer, Thomas McGiffin, Hugh Workman, David Morris.

1815.-James Orr, Parker Campbell, Hugh Workman, Thomas McGiffin, Daniel Moore.

1816.-Thomas McGiffin, James Lattimore, James Blaine, Parker Campbell, George Baird.

1817.-Alexander Reed, James Blaine, James Lattimore, James Orr, Thomas H. Baird.

1813.-Thomas M. T. McKennan, Hugh Workman, John Wilson, James Garrett, William Hunter.

1819-20.-Hugh Workman, John Wilson, William Hunter, Thomas W T. McKennan, James Garrett.

1821-22.-Thomas M. T. McKennan, John Wilson, David Eckert, James Stevens, John Koontz.

1823.-Hugh Workman, Thomas M. T. McKennan, Jacob Slagle, John Wilson, James Stevens.

1824-25.-Archibald Kerr, Thomas Good, James Lattimore, Thomas M. T. McKennan, James Kerr.

1826.-Thomas M. T. McKennan, Thomas McGiffin, George Kuntz, John S. Brady, John Wilson.

1827.-Thomas M. T. McKennan, George Kuntz, John Wilson, Jacob Slagle, George L. Morrison.

1828.-Thomas M. T. McKennan, George Kuntz, Jacob Slagle, John K. Wilson, Samuel Hazlett.

1829.-George Kuntz, Jacob Single, Thomas M. T. McKennan, William Robinson, William Hunter.

1830.-Thomas M. T. McKennan, William Robinson, John K. Wilson, James Shannon, John Wilson.

1831-32.-William Robinson, John K. Wilson, John Wilson, James Shannon, William Baird.

1833.---Hugh Workman, Isaac Leet, George Kuntz, Thomas Officer, John Morrow.

1834.-Isaac Leet, John K. Wilson, Thomas Officer, George Kuntz, John Morrow.

1833.-John K. Wilson, Isaac Leet, James Shannon, John L. Cow, John Wilson.

1836.-Isaac Leet, John Morrow, John N. Dagg, Andrew Shearer, John Bradford.

1837.-John N. Dagg, Andrew Shearer, John Morrow, John L. Gow, George Brack.

1838.-George Black, John Morrow, Andrew Shearer, John R. Griffith, Robert Officer.

1839.-Alexander W. Acheson, Henry Langley, John Bert, James Patterson, Peter Wolfe.

1840.-Peter Wolfe, Alexander W. Achesen, John Morrow, Oliver Lindsey, Adam

1841-42.-Alexander W. Acheson, Oliver Lindsey, Peter Wolfe, Matthew Giffin, James Brown.

184:3.-Alexander W. Acheson, George W. Brice, George Lonkert, John S. Brady, John Grayson.

1844.-Peter Wolfe, John R Griffith, John Bert, Oliver Lindsey, Jacob Kissler.

1845.-Oliver Lindsey, John Bert, Peter Kennedy, William Smith, David

1846.-Joseph Henderson, George Lonkert, James Brown, John Morrow, Thomas Logan.

1847.-James M. Hutchinson, T. W. Grayson, James Brice, Robert Officer, Alfred Thirkfield.

1848.-John Morrow, William Hopkins, Charles W. Hays, Oliver Lindsey, Jacob Slagle.

1849.-William Hopkins, Charles W. Hays, Oliver Lindsey, Jacob Slagle, Peter Kennedy.

1850.-Jacob Kissler, John S. Brady, Philip Kuhn, John Bausman, Thomas B. Bryson.

1851.-Oliver Lindsey, Sample Sweeny, Collin M. Reed, Thomas W. Grayson, Freeman Brady, Sr.

1852.-Oliver Lindsey, Freeman Brady, Sr., John Wiley, James Brown, William McKennan.

1853.-John Wiley, John Morrow, William R. Oliver, James Rush, William T. Fleming.

1854.-Dr. M. H. Clarke, Collin M. Reed, Jacob Kessler, J. L. Judson, James D. Bert.

1855.-Thomas W. Grayson, H. W. Reynolds, A. R. Friable, John McClelland, T. S. McKinley.

1856.-Thomas B. Bryson, Dr. J. It. Wilson, Simon Curt, L. W. Stockton, John McElroy.

1857.-Charles W. Hayti, Thomas B. Bryson,, James W. Kuntz, S. R. Withrow, John McAllister.

1858.-Jacob Goldsmith, N. F. Brobst, John Prigg, W. H. Stoy, David Wolfe.

1859-60.-Charles W. Hays, James Walton, William T. Fleming, James W. Humphreys, Jackson Spriggs.

1861.-John Prigg, Freeman Brady, Jr., Andrew Brady, Charles W. Hays, Alexander Frazier.

1862.-John Prigg, Andrew Brady, Thomas D. O'Hara, Charles W. Hays, Samuel Beatty.

1863.-William T. Fleming, John Prigg, John Naughton, John W. Lockhart, Janice Walton.

1864.-Jacob Miller, Alphens Murphy, A. J. Caton, Thomas Seaman, Patrick Waldron.

1865.-Ira Lacock, John Nanghton, William Drury, G. J. Dagg, Adam H. Ecker.

1866.-Thomas J. Hodgins, Nelson Vankirk, Thomas Walker, David Aiken, William Fitzwilliams.

1867.-J. E. Acheson, Thomas McKean, C. V. Greer, Alexander Seaman, John Hallam.

1868.-John Templeton, William H. Taylor, R. W. Davie, George O. Jones, Samuel Hazlett.

1869.-Alfred Creigh; Adam C. Morrow, J. L. Judson, James Houston, A. B. Caldwell.

1870.-J. L. Judson, George S. Hart, Dr. A. Creigh, Martin Luther, James Huston.

1871.-George S. Hart, Martin Luther, F. J. Wiley, John V. Wilson, James Huston.

1872.-Enoch Dye,      Fulton, John V. Wilson, F. I. Wiley, John D. Braden, J. N. Haines.

1873.-Enoch Dye, John D. Braden, Joseph Spriggs, A. Rankin, J. N. Haines.

1874.-Joseph Spriggs, A. Rankin, A. T. Bated, Thomas Walker, George M. Warrick.

1875.-George M. Warrick, Thomas Walker, John Hoon, A. T. Baird, John S. Wilson,.

1876.-Samuel Decker, M. L. A. McCracken, E. L. Christman, John. Hoon, John S. Wilson.

1877.Samiel Decker, D. L. Christman, Thomas M. Wiley, John McElroy, John Hoon (removed).

1878.-Thomas M. Wiley, Thomas Walker, John Baird, John S. John McElroy.

1879.-John McGuffie, John Munn, John Baird, John S. Wilson, Thomas Walker.

1880.-James Hall, Jr., John M. Horn, Charles W. Scott, W. J. Doyle, John P. Linn, J. P. Miller, John Bane, Nelson Van Kirk, R. H.: Baker, Isaac Sharp, John Munn, John McGuffie.


1881.-1st Ward, J. R. Clark, John McGuffie, William Hutson ; 2d Ward, C. W. Scott, F. Berthell, R. L. Thompson ; 3d Ward, B. J. M. Brown, W. J. Doyle, J. H. Kennedy; 4th Ward, Nelson Van Kirk, J. W. Beck, Henry De Normandie. 

1882.-1st Ward, James C. Acheson, Jacob Cline, John M. Broden; 2d Ward, Dr. George A. Dougherty, Edward Little, Michael 'Ryan; 3d Ward, William Green, William A, Mickey, John H. Kennedy; 4th Ward, Nelson Van Kirk, Alexander Agnew, Jacob Beck.


1810-11. David Shields.

1812-14. Samuel Cunningham.

1815-16. John Cunningham.

1817-31. John Marshall.

1832-33. Samuel Doak.

1834. Henry Langley.

1835-40. George W. Brice.

1841-42. Robert K. Shannon.

1843-44. Henry M. Brister.

1845-46. James McKinley.

1847. David Wherry.

1848-50. William J. Wilson.

1851-54. Joseph O'Hara.

1855-62. William B. Rose.

1863. Ashford Engle.

1864. Henry Brown. ¹

1865. Thaddeus Stanton.

1866. J. G. Ruple.

1867. John Aiken.

1868. Joseph A. McKee.

1869. John Waldron.

1870. Wesley, Wolf.

1871. W. H. McEnrue.

1872-73. L. M. Marsh.

1874-80. Robert S. Winters.

1881-82. Samuel C. Clark.


1810-12. Daniel Moore.

1813-15. Alexander Reed.

1816. Daniel Moore.

1817-19. John Barrington.

1820-35. John Gregg.

1836-56. George Kuntz.

1857-62. George Baird.

1863-65. George Kuntz.

1866. David Aiken.

1867. John C. Hastings.

1868. John Aiken.

1869. L. R. W. Little.

1870-71. M. G. Kuntz.

1872. L. R. W. Little.

1873. D. M. Donahoo.

1874. L. M. Marsh.

1875. A. M. Todd.

1876. J. W. McDowell.

1877. George O. Jones.

1878. James Mitchell.

1879. James Kuntz, Jr.

1880. Clark Riggle.

1881. Finley B. Hallam.


1864-65. George S. Hart.

1866-67. D. S. Wilson.

1868. H. J. Van Kirk.

1869. D. F. Patterson.

1870-71. Braden and Miller.

1872. George S. Hart.

1873. J. T. Judson

1874-75. John Aiken.

1876. J. R. Braddock.


1879. John W. Donnan.

1880. C. M. Ruple.

1881. H. J. Van Kirk.


John Hoge, Nov. 21, 1786.

Thomas Scott, Nov. 21, 1786.

Thomas Stokeley, Sept. 3, 1787.

Absalom Baird, March 3, 1789.

Gabriel Blakeney, Feb. 26, 1793.

William Meetkirke, Feb. 26, 1793.

Samuel Shannon, May 26, 1795.

John Wilson, Feb. 9, 1799.

Absalom Baird, May 2, 1799.

William McKennan, Jan. 2, 1804.

Alexander Lyttle, April 6, 1805.

John Colmery, April 1, 1811.

James Orr, Feb. 8, 1812.

David Little, Dec. 11, 1813.

James Blaine, Jan. 1, 1817.

Joshua Monroe, March 12,1819.

Richard Johnston, March 22,1819.

Daniel Palmer, May 7, 1819.

Matthew McNary, Dec. 4, 1820.

David Quail, Jan. 31,1822.

John Marshall, May 20, 1822.

Thomas Morgan, Dec. 3, 1823.

Matthew Linn, Dec. 20, 1825.

Thomas Smith, Jan. 23, 1826.

James McDowell, May 19, 1830.

Dickerson Roberts, May 8, 1833.

Archibald Kerr, Nov. 14, 1835.

George W. Brice, April 14, 1840.

James Blaine, April 14, 1840.

George W. Brice, April 15, 1845.

James Blaine, April 15, 1845.

George Baird, April 11,1848.

George W. Brice, April 9, 1850.

J. Lawrence Judson, April 13, 1853.

George W. Brice, April 10, 1853.

J. L. Judson, April 13, 1858.

William Hughes, April 13, 1858.

John Grayson, Jr., April 14, 1863.

J. L. Judson, April 14, 1863.

John Grayson, Jr., April 14, 1868.

William Hornish, April 14, 1868.

D. M. Donahoo, April 15, 1873.

Clark Riggle, Jan. 21, 1874.

D. M. Donahoo, Jan. 26, 1874;

March 25, 1878.

Henry Kantz, March 25, 1878.

¹ Resigned April 18th, Thaddeus Stanton appointed to fill vacancy.

² Washington township was an independent district from its erection in 1786 to 1803, when it was joined with Strabane as District No. 1, and so remained till 1838, when it again became a separate district.

Market-House.-In the spring of 1795 it was resolved by the citizens of the town of Washington in meeting assembled that a market-house was needed, and Alexander Addison and Dr. Absalom Baird were appointed to procure subscriptions for that purpose and make arrangements for its erection. The commissioners' records for that year show no account of a plat of ground granted to the borough, and yet tradition and later records indicate that the market-house of this date was erected on the northeast corner of the public square. It was nearly finished in August of that year, as the following notice, published in the Western Telegraphe of Aug. 24, 1795, will show :

"WASHINGTON, 5th August, 1795.

"A Market-House being finished in the town of Washington, the inhabitants of the town and its neighborhood were by public notice requested to meet at the Market-House on Wednesday, the 5th of August, at half-past six o'clock in the afternoon, to consult on what days it would be proper to hold a market for the sale of provisions in this Market-House.

" A very full meeting accordingly took place this evening, and it was agreed that the following notification should be published in the newspapers: The inhabitants of this town and of its neighborhood have hitherto suffered many inconveniences; the people of the town from the inconstancy and uncertainty of supply of provisions; the people of the country from being obliged to hawk their articles from door to door without the certainty of a demand or sale. Both these inconveniences may now be remedied, if the people of the country will bring in their different articles of provision at fixed periods, and sell them at the Market-House; and if the people of the town will buy only there at those periods. As the propriety of this is manifest, it is expected that both parties will contribute to carry it into effect. It is therefore proposed that hereafter there shall be two Market Days here each week, Wednesday and Saturday, and that provisions be brought to the Market-House as early as possible on the morning of those days and continued till sold or till ten o'clock forenoon.

"It was also agreed by all present that none of them would, after the first publication of this notice, buy any provisions in this town on the mornings of those Market days in any place but in the market until after ten o'clock forenoon.

"N. B. Those who have not paid their subscription for building the Market-House are desired to pay them immediately to Alexander Addison or Absalom Baird; otherwise the subscription will be put into the hands of a Justice of the Peace to collect."

On the 1st of September, 1795, the opening of the market-house was advertised as follows in the Telegraphe : " A market for produce or provisions will be opened at the Market House in the town of Washington, on every Wednesday or Saturday from early dawn till ten o'clock in the forenoon; and by agreement no produce or provisions of any kind shall be purchased in the town within the above periods, except at the market hours only."

Upon the incorporation of the borough in 1810 the Council passed additional laws regulating the markets. The growth of the town soon demanded larger accommodations, and on the 20th of February, 1812, a town-meeting was called at the court-house " to take into consideration the subject of changing the site of the market house," and on the 24th of February " A Citizen" makes the following inquiry in the Reporter: " By what authority do the Commissions of this County enter into any agreement for the absolute and permanent disposition of the public ground

“By whom was that public square granted? To whom?