General. Grand Encampment of the United States, and was first numerically designated as No. 2 ; but after the reunion of all the commanderies of the State, on June 1, 1857, it was changed to No. 3.

It is well equipped with the paraphernalia necessary for the conferring of the orders of Christian knighthood. It has always met in the same rooms with Lodge No. 164.

In August, 1880, the members made a pilgrimage to Chicago, and participated in the triennial grand encampment of Knights Templar held in that city.

On Oct. 20, 1881, the new asylum in Bryson's Building was consecrated by the Grand Commandery of the State with imposing ceremonies, Sir Charles W. Batchelor, of Pittsburgh, acting as Grand Commander. Quite a large number of the Sir Knights from Pittsburgh, Wheeling, and other places were present and participated with the commandery on this occasion.

The membership is composed generally of men of character and influence in all parts of the


National Lodge, No. 81, I. O. O. F.—Established in the borough of Washington, Pa., on Monday, Feb. 13, 1843, by M. W. G. M. Joseph Brown and Grand Sec. William Curtis, of Philadelphia The charter members of the lodge were George Morrison, William Garrety, James W. Smith, D. M. Boyd, James McGugan.

The lodge was established in the loft of a stable rented to them by William Allen, Sr., one lot below the Round Corner. In this room they held meetings for a short time, then removed to the building on the Round Corner, where they remained about ten years, and again removed to Smith's Building, corner of Beau and Main Streets. In 1870 a lodge-room was fitted up in the third story of the Young Building, which they occupied till 1880, when they leased the room opposite on the same floor, which they at present occupy.

The first officers of the lodge were George Morrison, N. G.; William Garrety, V. G.; James W. Smith, Sec. ; D. M. Boyd, Treas.; James McGugan, Asst. Sec. The following is a list of the names of the first members: Alfred Creigh, Alfred Galt, Thomas McKinley, James M. Hutcheson, H. M. Brister, Thomas Logan, Joseph Cooper, William K. Shannon, Michael G. Kuntz, William Wolfe, John Allen, and Edward Johnson. Six of them are still living.

The lodge has a present membership of fifty. William Marshall is the present Noble Grand, and William Shannon, Secretary.

Shakespeare Encampment, No. 20, I.O. of O. F. —This was chartered on the 5th of November, 1845, the following-named persons being designated as charter members : James B. Ruple, William Smith, William Garrity, Thomas S. McKinley, S. B. Hayes,' and William Garton. Meetings were held in the rooms of National Lodge, No. 81, I. O. of O. F. The war of the Rebellion caused a suspension of the meetings from Feb. 24, 1863, to Feb. 25, 1870, at which latter date it was revived. The encampment has at present thirty-nine members and the following officers: T. M. Potts, C. P. ; M. Minton, S. W. ; John Cooke, J. W.; William K. Shannon, Scribe.

William F. Templeton Post, No. 120, G. A. R., Dept. Pa. —This post was organized on the 28th of March, 1879, with twenty-eight charter members and the following officers : C., F. H. Dyer ; S. V. C., James B. Kennedy ; J. V. C., Alexander Hart ; Q. M., George O. Jones ; Adjt., William H. Underwood; Surg., E. L. Christman ; O. D., S. L. Wilson. The meetings were held during the first year in Odd-Fellows' Hall, and in 1880 the post fitted up the room at an expense of twenty-two hundred dollars, and now occupy it as a Grand Army Memorial Hall. The organization from its inception has been very successful, and has always taken a leading part in matters of public interest in the borough of Washington. Under its auspices, during the past two years, courses of public lectures have been delivered in the town hall by distinguished men, these being the only successful courses of lectures which have been had in Washington in a period of eight years. The post has been honored by the selection of department and national officers from its comrades, viz.: 1879-80, F. H. Dyer, A. D. C. to Commander-in-Chief; 1881, F. H. Dyer, Senior Vice Department Commander; 1882, William H. Underwood, A. D. C. to Department Commander. The position of the post has been and is a commanding one by reason of its energy and influence, and its growth has been steady, it having at present (1882) a membership of one hundred and eight. The officers for 1882 are as follows : George O. Jones, C.; James B. Kennedy, S. V. C. ; W. H. Shaw, J. V. C.; Thomas M. Horter, Adjt. ; J. Hamilton Stewart, Q. M.; S. G. Rogers, Chap.; John Templeton, Surg.; J. William Greer, O. D.; Thomas L. Dagg, O. G.

Washington Cemetery.—In the early years the dead of the town of Washington were buried in what is known as the old burying-ground, in the northwest quarter of the town, lying between North Alley (now Spruce) and Walnut Street, embracing lots Nos. 268, 269, 270, 271, 272. It is impossible to ascertain how the first of these lots came into possession of the borough, as no record seems to have been made. They were in use long prior to the incorporation. Additions were made of adjoining lots, to which the borough obtained title. The following history of the Washington Cemetery was written and published in 1859. A few facts are added bringing its history to the present time :

The project of establishing a rural cemetery in the vicinity of Washington was suggested years ago. Many considerations prompted the suggestion. The want of system in the original plan of the old grave. yard, and the absence of taste in all its internal arrangements,—the crowded state of its graves, in


unsightly appearance and neglected condition,—above all, its close proximity to the town and consequent desecration, particularly on the Sabbath, had long been subjects of mournful observation. But the time had not come for the desired change. The necessity for a new burial-place had not impressed itself on the public mind. The natural and instinctive veneration for the old graveyard, coeval with the town's existence, where reposed a generation of the unforgotten dead, forbade its serious contemplation. So the matter rested until 1846, when the town was startled by an attempt to open public thoroughfares through the old graveyard. It was claimed that, according to the original plan of the borough, Walnut Street ran westwardly until it was intersected at right angles by an avenue passing northwardly from Chestnut Street, and that these thoroughfares came together in the heart of the old burial-ground. Accordingly, an

to open them was made to the court: This was strenuously resisted by a majority of the citizens. The application was dropped, doubtless out of respect for the feelings of survivors, as well as due regard for the repose of the departed. But although this effort was not persisted in (and, if it had, perhaps might have been successfully resisted), yet it engendered feelings of insecurity touching the permanency of the old graveyard.

It was not, however, until the year 1852 that any concerted action was taken to provide a more secure and attractive repository for the dead. It is due to the principal of the Washington Female Seminary (Mrs. Hanna) to say that the Washington Cemetery is indebted for its origin to her happily-conceived and well-directed efforts. In the summer of 1852 a number of citizens of the town and vicinity, upon the invitation of Mrs. Hanna, met at the Washington Female Seminary, to take into consideration the propriety of establishing a new cemetery. The result of that meeting was the organization of the present company, and the purchase of the ground upon which the new cemetery is located.

On the 3d day of March, 1853, the Washington Cemetery Company was incorporated, and the first board of managers was organized by the election of the following : Rev. Thomas Hanna, D.D., president; Hon. Jacob Slagle, treasurer; Dr. Matthew H. Clark, John Bausman, Sample Sweney, Alexander Murdoch, David S. Wilson, secretary.

Immediate steps were taken to procure an eligible site for the contemplated improvement. To aid in this important duty, the board availed itself of the large practical experience of John Chislett, Esq., superintendent of the Allegheny Cemetery. Mr. Chislett visited Washington,, spent several days in explorations, and having expressed a decided preference for the site covered by lands of Alexander Sweney, James G. Strean, and John McClelland, the board, fully concurring in the selection, proceeded at once to purchase the said lands.


The first purchase consisted of 10 acres 86 perches from Alexander Sweney, for $843 ; 9 acres 28 perches from J. G. Strean, for $688.12; 6 acres 19 perches from J. McClelland, for $754.34. Subsequently an additional purchase was made from Alexander Sweney, of 10 acres and 142 perches, for $1088.75. An addition of 30 acres and 127 perches was made Aug. 31, 1859, by purchase of Joseph Huston, and subsequently, April 23, 1862, by purchase of William B. Huston. In November, 1862, February, 1864, and January, 1869, sales were made of parcels that embraced in all an area of about eight acres. The whole cemetery area at present (1882) comprises 68 acres and 130 perches.

The company was very fortunate in the location thus secured. Situate upon the Upper Ten-Mile plank-road, about half a mile from Washington, it is easy of access from town and country. The view from the cemetery grounds is very attractive. From this elevated position the visitor looks down on the town of Washington, spread out upon the beautiful basin formed by Catfish Run, one of the head-waters of Chartiers Creek, and far beyond over a large expanse of rich and variegated scenery.

After the purchase of the grounds, the board proceeded forthwith to inclose them with a high, substantial fence, and to erect a suitable building for the accommodation of their superintendent. They afterwards erected an iron gate supported by permanent stone columns at the main entrance. On the 1st of November, 1853, was made the first interment, that of an infant child of Morgan Hayes.

The clearing and improvement of the grounds, cutting out avenues, etc., necessarily involved a heavy expense. But the board did not falter, believing that the enterprise had its origin in a great public necessity, and that eventually it would overcome all prejudice and find favor with the entire community. Among the reasons why it should and must be so are the following :

First. The absence from this undertaking of any purpose of private speculation. The entire fund arising from the sale of burial lots is specifically dedicated to the purchase and improvement of the grounds. No part of these funds can under any circumstances inure to the benefit of the members of the corporation. Each purchaser of a lot is thus assured that the sum of money which he contributes is expended in improving and beautifying the place, in the midst of which he has consecrated a spot for the repose of his own dead.

Second. The security furnished by the act of incorporation, making the grant of a burial lot not only perpetual, but exempting it forever from every process of law by which the same could be forcibly sold, providing also for the perpetual succession of the board of corporators, thus furnishing the strongest guarantee that the dead shall remain here in undisturbed repose.


Third. The selection of the site with special reference to security from any disturbing causes growing out of the extension of the town and suburbs, and the improvements consequent thereupon, the position being retired, elevated, and at the same time in as close proximity to the town as possible consistent with the great ends already indicated.

Fourth. The fact that it is not for the town only this cemetery has been provided. The object of the company has been to furnish a lasting depository for the dead of the surrounding country. It is needless to say that churchyards or private burial-grounds on farms do not furnish adequate security against change and obliteration. In this country lands are constantly shifting hands. The location of churches must be changed to meet the popular wants. There is no sure guarantee that the sanctity of any such burial-place will be respected after they are gone who are interested in its preservation.

Fifth. The most admirable feature of the present enterprise is the provision made for perpetual care and watchfulness, the entire funds being devoted to present and future expenditures for the progressive improvement of the grounds. Thus the dead not only repose securely here, but their place of sepulture will be made more and more attractive through all succeeding time.

The success of the enterprise is manifested by the steady increase of patronage and favor which has marked its progress. There have been interred within its consecrated grounds the remains of many whose memory will ever be fragrant while worth and virtue are prized. Of such it is eminently proper to mention the Rev. David McConaughy, D.D., fourth president of Washington College, " for he was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith ;" and to say that the grave of the Hon. Thomas M. T. McKennan may be found here on the spot he so much admired long before there was any thought of devoting it to its present purpose. The body of his father, Col. William McKennan, the companion in arms of the immortal Washington, rests by his side within the same inclosure. Here also were brought from the old graveyard for more secure repose, after upwards of forty years' interment, the remains of Gen. Thomas Acheson, who occupied a large place in the hearts of a generation now fast disappearing. Some of his contemporaries, who long stood as landmarks of that fleeting throng, have here found their final resting-place. Of such were Thomas Stockton, Daniel Moore, Thomas Morgan, John H. Koontz, David Acheson, Joseph Clark. Hundreds of other tablets within the consecrated inclosure bear the names of old and honored citizens and families of Washington.

In the eastern part of Washington Cemetery stands a monument erected to perpetuate the memory of the eons of Washington County who lost their lives by wounds received or disease contracted in the service of the Union during the war of the Rebellion. Its position is a commanding one, being visible from an: place in the town, as well as from the approaches ti the county-seat from any direction. The first impuls toward its erection was just after the battle of Gettysburg, which carried off so many of the Washington County soldiers. At first the plan adopted was to receive only subscriptions of one dollar each, and a large part of its cost was defrayed by such subscriptions


although toward the end larger contributions were accepted; but nevertheless the whole people of the county, in all sections, have the honor of aiding in the building of this beautiful structure.

The monument was erected in the summer of 1871, by Joseph Howarth, of Washington, after designs made by E. Morgenroth, of Pittsburgh. The lower base is fourteen feet square, the second ten feet square and three-eighths feet high. The die is nine feet six inches high, enriched in front by a military trophy of cannons, muskets, swords, drums, flags, etc. On the die is an enriched entablature of architrave, frieze, and cornice, nine feet six inches square and three feet six inches high. On each angle of this corpice is a mortar, and in front between the two mortars is an eagle with wings extended. On the cornice is an octagonal shaft or column, which with its base and capital is fifteen feet high and three feet in diameter, representing an. infantry soldier standing at rest, making the total height of the monument forty-one feet. The material is a beautiful sandstone from Massillon, Ohio. Though the entire cost of the monument was but a little over six thousand dollars, 'it is worthy of a critical examination. Four large cannon, which saw service in the war, stand at its four corners.

The following is a list of the presidents, secretaries, and treasurers of the association from its organization to the present time :

Presidents, Rev. Thomas Hanna, 1853 ; Jacob Slagle, 1854 to 1860 ; Dr. Matthew Clark, 1860 to 1878; Colin M. Reed, 1878 to the present.

Secretaries, David S. Wilson, 1853 to 1855; Alexander Murdoch, 1855 to 1861; Dr. Thomas McKennan, 1861 to the present.

Treasurers, Jacob Slagle, 1853; John S. Slagle, 1854 to 1856 ; Alexander Murdoch, 1856 to 1861; D. T. Morgan, 1861 to 1878 ; James R. Clark, 1878 to the


The present (1882) board of managers is composed of Colin M. Reed (president), D. T. Morgan, J. D. Chambers, A. W. Acheson, Boyd Crumrine, Dr. Thomas McKennan, James R. Clark.

Washington Gas-Works.—A meeting of a number of citizens was held on the 26th of August, 1856, to consult upon the propriety of establishing gasworks for the borough of Washington. A charter was procured which designated as managers Colin M. Reed, Joseph Henderson, Simon Cort, Jacob Slagle, Charles W. Hays, Freeman Brady, Jr., J. L. Judson, James W. Kuntz, and Alexander Seaman. A new board of managers was elected Jan. 18, 1857, consisting of Samuel Hazlett, Colin M. Reed, Dr. Francis J. Le Moyne, William Smith, Jacob Miller, Alexander Wilson, and Joseph Henderson. Colin M. Reed was elected president, and William McKennan secretary. F. J. Le Moyne, Samuel Hazlett, and Jacob Miller were appointed to secure a lot of ground for their uses. The necessary buildings were erected, and pipes laid through the streets of the town. Gas was let into the pipes the .first time on Saturday, the 21st of February, 1857, and on the evening of the Tuesday following (February 24th) the streets, stores, and dwellings of the borough were successfully lighted. The pipes were found to have been badly put together ; changes were found to be necessary, and in the following year the works were rebuilt and enlarged. The original cost and the repairs to this time amounted to about thirty-one thousand dollars. In 1868 the pipes in the streets were replaced by larger ones, and clay retorts replaced the metallic ones previously in use. The price of gas in 1857 was placed at four dollars per thousand feet. It has steadily declined since then, and in this year (1882) it is furnished at one dollar and eighty cents per thousand. The amount of gas furnished the past years is four million five hundred and thirteen thousand cubic feet. The officers from the first have been: Presidents, C. M. Reed, 1857 to 1865 ; F. J. Le Moyne, 1865 to 1867 ; C. M. Reed, 1867 to 1882. Secretaries, William McKennan, 1857 ; John C. Hastings, 1858 to 1882. Treasurers, Samuel Hazlett, 1857 to 1858 ; Alexander Wilson, 1859 to 1861; John D. Chambers, 1862 ; John C. Hastings, 1863 to 1882. Managers for 1882, Colin M. Reed, John C. Hastings, D. T. Morgan, A. T. Baird, John D. Chambers, Lewis Barker, Alexander Wilson. 

Washington Coal Company.—On the 24th of August, 1864, Messrs. Parkin, Marshall & Co. purchased eight acres of land of Harry Shirls, and commenced to sink a shaft for coal. After one year's work they reached a vein of coal five feet in thickness. The shaft was sunk bearing to the southwest at an angle of forty-five degrees to the distance of five hundred feet, being about three hundred feet perpendicular. Side drifts were made, one to the northeast, towards the residence of Mr. Shirls, and one to the northwest, towards Shirls' Grove. These drifts were from one-quarter to one-half mile in extent. The company employed thirty miners, and mined one thousand bushels per day. The act of Legislature passed in 1870, requiring coal companies to construct other ventilation and means of escape than by the main shaft alone, caused this company to cease work, as their shaft was so deep that great expense would be incurred. An effort was made to induce the Council of the borough of Washington to become a partner in the company. On the 21st of June, 1871, the Council met to take into consideration the propriety of lending assistance to Parkin, Marshall & Co., who proposed to furnish eight thousand dollars if the borough would furnish seven thousand, the sum necessary to sink another shaft. The burgess was authorized to call a public meeting to obtain the views of the citizens on the subject. The meeting was held and the subject discussed. Col. William Hopkins read to the meeting the act of Legislature forbidding boroughs to sub-


scribe money for any such purpose, after which it was decided to take no further action in the matter.

This refusal discouraged the proprietors, and they abandoned the works. On the 17th of May, 1880, the property was sold to Edward Little, and was soon after vested in the Washington White-Lead Works Company, who now own it.

The Washington Steam-Mill and Manufacturing Company was organized early in January, 1814, for the purpose of making flour and manufacturing other articles. On the 14th of January in that year, David Shields, secretary, issued proposals for the erection of a mill-house forty-seven by fifty feet, four stories high. He also notified stockholders to pay their installments monthly, commencing in February. An act of Assembly was passed Jan. 31, 1814, incorporating the company for thirty years from the passage of the act, and with capital stock not to exceed fifty thousand dollars. The names of the directors mentioned in the act were Alexander Reed, Robert Hamilton, Obadiah Jennings, Thomas Acheson, David Morris, Hugh Workman, and Thomas H. Baird. The company purchased a lot at the foot of Main Street, and erected a large four-story building with a hip roof, forming a large attic. In this building a steam flouring-mill was put in operation. The water for the mill was brought in wooden pipes from a spring a short distance from it, and which is marked on the original plat of the town. In 1816 the property came into possession of Thomas H. Baird. In the next year he added to the business wool-carding and the fulling of cloth, and on June 4th of that year John Brown, agent for Thomas H. Baird, advertised in the Examiner that he would "run this season at the steam-mill in Washington" a new double machine with five cards and two common machines, and June 15th next year (1818) he advertised " warm and cold baths at the Washington Steam-Mill every day in the week, Sundays excepted." In the month of November, 1819, Mr. Baird rented the mill to Abraham Nye and John Unckles, who also carried on the business of fulling and dyeing cloth. In December following Nye retired, and Unckles continued for several years. In 1822 the property was advertised for sale, but was not sold, and in May, 1823, Thomas Copeland advertised that he had rented and refitted it. In 1826, Augustus M. Hazlip rented the property, and continued business for a short time. The property had been rented to various parties from 1819, and during that time fulling and dyeing cloth and the carding of wool was carried on with the manufacture of flour. It had also been advertised for sale several times, but found no purchaser. On the night of the 19th of May, 1831, the building was destroyed by fire. The Mount Hope and Washington Companies with their engines were there and protected the surrounding property, but the mill building could not be saved. The papers of the time complained of the confusion, disorder, and inefficiency of the fire companies. The engines that were in the mill-house were removed by Thomas H. Baird to Monongahela City and placed in a mill in that city owned by him, where they were used many years.

Woolen-Factory.—In the Washington Reporter of August, 1815, is a call for woolgrowers and owners of sheep to meet at the house of John McCluney on the 15th of that month. At that meeting (of which Robert Anderson was president, and John Alban secretary) it was resolved "That a general invitation be given to the wool-growers of Washington and adjacent counties to meet at the house of John McCluney, in the borough of Washington, on Wednesday, the 25th of October next (court week), at one o'clock, to consider the propriety of establishing a woolen manufactory to be vested in stock held by individuals in common."

Ziba Lindley, Thomas Vaneman, and John Alban were appointed a committee to concert with woolgrowers and farmers on the propriety, utility, and most eligible method of carrying into effect the above resolutions. The papers of the time have no account of the next meeting, or of subsequent meetings, in reference to the subject.

In 1827, David Acheson erected a woolen-factory, and on the 9th of December in that year offered it for sale, describing it as "a new building, two-story brick house, thirty by sixty feet, and frame adjoining and a dye-house." It was not sold, and on the 11th of September, 1830, Michael Kaine was operating "Acheson's woolen-factory," and in 1832, William Maltby was running it. On the 28th of April, 1836, James Darling & Co. advertised that " having lately purchased the Washington Woolen-Factory, they intend introducing new machines for wool-carding ;" and they further state that " orders may be left at the store of Samuel Hazlett, who will attend to all orders." The building was later owned by Samuel Hazlett, and run as a woolen-factory for a time, then, used for pork-packing, and still later as a dwelling-house. In 1867 it was again opened as a woolen-factory by John Hoon, who placed therein a single hand-loom and one hundred and twelve spindles. On the 1st of April, 1869, John McClean became associated with him. In 1875 a power-loom and carpet-weaving machine were added. In August, 1876, Hoon retired, since which time Mr. McClean has continued the business. In 1877 another carpet-weaver was added. The establishment at present turns out about two hundred and fifty pairs of blankets annually, three thousand yards of flannel, and five thousand pounds of stocking yarn.

S. B. & C. Hayes' Carriage-Factory.—In the fall of 1841 Sheldon B., Charles, and Morgan Hayes, natives of Connecticut, erected a carriage-shop thirty by fifty feet, and two stories in height, on the south part of the lot in the rear of the public square, and commenced the manufacture of carriages. The business increasing, a brick building was added with


steam-power. In 1845, Morgan Hayes retired from the firm and became the foreman. Soon after a third story was added to the main building, and thirty feet to the first floor. On the 8th of November, 1851, the entire building was consumed by fire. On the Monday following the firm purchased of the trustees of the Presbyterian Church the two lots on First and Maiden Streets, with the brick church building (they having recently removed to a new edifice). On the next day after the purchase the hands were all again at work. To this brick building they added a smith-shop thirty by seventy feet. In 1852 a machine-shop was added with an engine of fifteen horse-power. The machinery necessary for the manufacture of doors, blinds, and sash was then added. A boarding-house was built in 1861, and a salesroom in 1862. About this time a seventy horse-power engine was put in. On the 1st of January, 1867, the firm was changed by the admission of Morgan Hayes and Martin Luther. In 1875 the firm was again changed by the retirement of Morgan Hayes and Martin Luther, since which time the firm has been S. B. & C. Hayes. The present salesroom was built in 1875. Water to supply the works is brought from the Lacock quarry through. two thousand feet of pipe. The firm have at present about thirty-five hands employed, and produce annually about one hundred and seventy-five new carriages.

Washington Steam Flouring-Mill.—In 1844, Samuel Hazlett and Daniel Dye erected on the west end of Belle Street (now Wheelie ) a four-story mill, forty by sixty feet, with three run of stones, and commenced operations in the fall of that year. Mr. Hazlett retired after a short time, and Mr. Dye continued till the latter part of 1849, when the property was sold to John McElroy, who took possession in February, 1850. It was operated by him till 1858, and was sold to A. J. Caton. On the 15th of February, 1865, J. M. Wilson and G. M. Warrick became the purchasers, by whom it was remodeled and much enlarged and improved, and by whom it is still operated.

Brewery.—About 1845, Jacob Zelt came to Washington and commenced brewing. Four years later he removed to the west end of Belle Street, and purchased the property he at present owns, and started the brewing in a small way, and by degrees it has been brought to its present capacity. In 1873 the business was placed in charge of his sons, Louis and Adam, who now conduct it. They manufacture about three hundred barrels of beer annually.

Washington Foundry.—In the spring of 1846, Brice, Frisbie & Hitchcock built a brick building,

and in it opened the foundry business, on the corner of College and Chestnut Streets. It was continued by them until about the close of the war. By the death of Brice and Frisbie Mr. Hitchcock became the only remaining member of the firm, and the business was

sold to — Becker, by whom it was sold to Linn, and about 1872 it was in possession of James H. Hopkins, of Pittsburgh, by whom the property is still owned. It is now operated under a lease by Edward Bartlett.

Washington Tannery.—The two-story brick tannery at the west end of Wheeling Street was built in 1862 by Thomas Hodgins and John McElroy, and was operated by them till 1874, when Mr. Hodgins retired, since which time it has been entirely under the control of Mr. McElroy. The power is obtained from a twelve horse-power engine. The tannery contains forty-two vats, with a capacity of tanning one hundred sides of harness leather per week. Six hands are steadily employed.

Steam Planing-Mill.—In 1867, Thomas Walker and William Fitzwilliam purchased a lot of ground on Wheeling Street of the United Presbyterian congregation, and on which the brick church edifice then stood. It was torn down, and the present two-story frame building was erected and supplied with the necessary power and machinery for manufacturing sash, doors, and blinds. The business is now carried on by Walker & Klieves.

Hayes & Wilson Carriage-Factory.—In 1871, Morgan Hayes and John S. Wilson started a carriage-factory in the old Methodist Church, near the corner of Chestnut and Franklin Streets. About twenty men are employed, and one hundred carriages are turned out annually.

Washington Lead-Works (Limited).—In the spring of 1880, Edward Little purchased the property of the Washington Coal-Works and organized the Washington Lead-Works Company, which was composed of Edward Little, W. W. Smith, John A. Best, and Frederick King. The company purchased the land of Mr. Little and erected the present brick buildings. Manufacturing commenced in the last part of February, 1882. Mr. Little retired in about six months, and W. R. Sweitzer took his place. The capacity of the works is one thousand tons per year. This firm manufactures white lead by the American process.

Crown Broom-Factory.—A broom-factory was started Jan. 1, 1881, by John McClean in connection with his woolen-factory. Nine men are employed, and one hundred and twenty-five dozen brooms per week are manufactured, which are supplied to the local and Pittsburgh trade.

Washington County Centennial.—On the 7th and 8th of September, 1881, Washington County celebrated its centennial, under the auspices of the Washington County Historical Society, in Washington borough. Invitations had been extended to former citizens in various parts of the country. The public buildings, stores, and private residences were decked with flowers and evergreens. The columns of the court-house were twined with bands of evergreen and white, on the latter of which were the names of many of the county's honored dead, while on the façade were banners with the inscription, " Washington formed from Westmore-


land, 1781. Ceded Greene, 1796. Contributed to Allegheny, 1788; to Beaver, 1800." Three finely ornamented arches spanned Main Street, one at the intersection of Chestnut, one at Maiden, and one at the court-house, the last of which was divided into blocks set in evergreens containing the names of the townships and boroughs of the county, Washington forming the keystone. Surmounting the arch was the word CENTENNIAL and the figures 1781-1881 in gas-jets, while above all was a large star, also in gas-jets, which when lighted at night produced a brilliant effect.

The days were fine. The exercises commenced at 12 K. on the 7th by a salute and the ringing of the bells of the town. A meeting of the citizens was held at the town hall at 2.30 P.M., and an address of welcome was delivered by Judge George S. Hart. Letters were read from many former citizens of the county, among which was one from the Hon. James G. Blaine. On the morning of the 8th procession formed on College Street, under the direction of Chief Marshal the Hon. John H. Ewing (a citizen who has been a resident of the county since 1810), and embraced one hundred and fifty members of the Washington County Veteran Association, Union soldiers of the war of the Rebellion,, under command of Col. Chill. W. Hazzard. At 9.30 A.M. the procession moved by way of Maiden, Main, and Chestnut Streets to Shirls' Grove, near the northwestern boundary of the town, where a platform had been erected for speakers and seats made for the audience. Music was furnished by the Washington Choral Society, Washington Cornet Band, Fourteenth Regiment Band of Pittsburgh, Amity Band, Monongahela City Cornet Band, and Voss' Wheeling Band. Organization was effected by the appointment of the Rev. John T. Brownlee chairman. After the usual' exercises addresses were delivered as follows: Rev. J. I. Brownson, D.D., on the general history ; Boyd Crumrine, Esq., on the civil and legal history ; Hon. D. Agnew, on Alexander Addison ; John McDowell, on agriculture ; Rev. I. N. Hays, on the religious history ; and Dr. G. W. Barnett, on the medical history of the county. After the delivery of these addresses the meeting adjourned and the audience dispersed. On the evening of the 8th the town was brilliantly illuminated with Chinese lanterns, fire-works, and gas-jets, and from every available point floated flags, streamers, and bunting. The evening passed in festivity, and the Washington County centennial celebration passed into history.



Hon. John Hoge Ewing, of Washington, Pa., was born in Fayette County on Oct. 5, 1796. Though his years in number are almost fourscore and six, he yet lives an honored citizen, enjoying excellent health and wonderful activity of body and mind. Not only does his private business receive his personal attention as if he were of but little more than middle age, but the claims of society and whatever affects the public interest are also not without his personal recognition and support.

Mr. Ewing's father was William Ewing, who was the son of George Ewing, of Peach Bottom township, York County, lying on the Susquehanna and the Maryland line. George Ewing was the cousin of the celebrated Dr. John Ewing, the scholar and divine, who became pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia in 1759, provost of the University of Pennsylvania in 1779, and was one of the Baltimore commissioners to determine the boundary controversy between Pennsylvania and Virginia, and one of the commissioners to extend Mason and Dixon's line in 1784. The Ewings were of Scotch lineage, and their ancestors emigrated from the north of Ireland to East Nottingham, Md., early in the last century. George Ewing never removed from the East, but his son William, who received his education under his distinguished relative's direction, about 1790 came west as a surveyor and settled near Heistersburg, in Luzerne township, Fayette County, where, in the next year, he married Mary, the daughter of Jehu Conwell, who had settled in that neighborhood probably as early as 1768 or 1769. Of this marriage the children were Hon. George Ewing, who early went to Texas under Gen. Sam. Houston, was there appointed a judge, and there his family remain ; Hon. Nathaniel Ewing, late of Uniontown, Pa., deceased, long the president judge of the courts of Washington, Fayette, and Greene Counties; John H., of whom this sketch :is written; James Ewing, late of Dan-lap's Creek, Pa., deceased; Elizabeth, widow of James E. Breading; Maria, widow of Hon. James Veech; Ellen, wife of John H. Wallace ; Louisa, wife of William Wilson; Mary Ann, wife of George Mason, of Muscatine, Lova ; and Caroline, who died in infancy.

John H. Ewing, of this family, came to Washington College at the beginning of the college year in 1810, and made his home with his father's friend, Hon. John Hoge, after whom he had been named. There was no relationship between them, but Mr. Hoge and Mr. William Ewing had been surveyors together in early days, and under Col. Thomas Stokely laid out large tracts of land of the purchase of 1784, north and west of the Allegheny River. After four years at college he graduated in 1814, under the presidency of Dr. M. Brown, and soon afterward beginning the study of the law in the office of Hon. Thomas McGiffin, was admitted to the bar in June, 1818. There were giants at the bar in those days, well remembered by Mr. Ewing, among whom were Parker Campbell, Joseph Pentecost, John Purviance, Phil. Doddridge, Thomas H. Baird, James Ross, James


Mountain, and John Kennedy, some of whom resided in adjoining counties, but regularly practiced at the Washington bar. Hon. Samuel Roberts was president judge while Mr. Ewing was a student under Mr. McGiffin. For a year or two after his admission he was a partner with his preceptor; but Mr. McGiffin, with Parker Campbell and Thomas H. Baird, having taken the contract to construct the road-bed of the National road from Washington to Wheeling, Mr. Ewing assumed charge of the outside business for them, until after a while he and his father, William Ewing, obtained the contract for the road-bed of that improvement from Brownsville to Hillsborough, and in the business connected with that employment he remained until the contract was completed late in the fall of 1820.

Mr. Ewing never went back to the bar, but, having been successful in the contract referred to, he soon afterwards purchased the tract called " Meadow Lands," on the Chartiers, about three and a half miles north of Washington, through which the Chartiers Railway passes. Here he resided with his family until he removed to his present residence on East Beau Street in 1840; for on Nov. 2, 1820, he had married Ellen, a daughter of James Blaine, and sister of Ephraim L. Blaine, and the family consisted of the following children of that marriage in the order of their birth : Margaret B., the widow of Dr. William A. Hallock ; Rev. Wm. Ewing, Ph.D., now in charge of the Miller's Run Presbyterian Church, and of the Canonsburg Academy ; James Blaine (1), died in early years; Elizabeth B., wife of Rev. William Spear, D.D., for several years a missionary in China, and afterwards with the Chinese at San Francisco ; Dr. George Ewing, now in the Department of the Interior at Washington, D. C.; Nathaniel died in his youth; Col. John Ewing, in the iron business at Pittsburgh, and interested in the new iron-works being erected at Canonsburg; Mary L., wife of Rev. Henry Woods, D.D., Professor of Latin in Washington and Jefferson College; Ann Ellen, died young; James Blaine (2), who also died in early years ; Samuel Blaine, now farming upon the " Meadow Lands." But soon after the birth of the last-named son, to wit, on Aug. 26, 1840, the mother of this family died at the new residence in Washington.

On Aug. 12, 1845, Mr. Ewing again married. His second wife was Margaret C., daughter of Richard Brown, who (her father dying in her infancy) was reared and educated in the family of the celebrated minister, Bishop H. B. Bascom, of the Methodist Episcopal Church: Of this union there have been two children, --Clara Bascom, born June 20, 1846, and died about ten years of age; and Florence Bell, born May 25, 1858, now a bright young lady. And at this time, the sons and daughters of the former marriage all having pleasant homes and families of their own, Mr. Ewing, his present wife, and his daughter Florence form a cheerful and happy circle at the homestead.

- 36 -

Mr. Ewing in earlier tears was much in public life. In 1835-36, with Joseph Lawrence and Edward McDonald, he was a member from this county of the House of Representatives at Harrisburg ; he was for four years a State senator, from 1838 to 1842; and for two sessions, 1844-45 and 1845-46, represented the then congressional district of Washington and Beaver Counties in the United States House of Representatives, and again was he brought into contact with the great men of the land, Clay, Webster, Calhoun, and others.

Besides the building of the National road (generally called the Cumberland road), Mr. Ewing has been prominently identified with another public enterprise of great importance to Washington County. As early as 1831¹ he was associated with Hon. Thomas H. Baird in the contemplated construction of a railroad up the Chartiers Valley ; the latter gentleman taking the leading part, and chiefly at his own expense procuring a survey to be made by Charles De Hass, a civil engineer of that day. The people were not then ready to support the undertaking, and it was abandoned, to be renewed again thirty years afterwards, when, after the road-bed was partly graded, a failure again followed. Not until 1869 was a successful effort made and the road constructed by the Chartiers Valley Railway Company.. From the very beginning of these enterprises Mr. Ewing has been a prominent actor, and chiefly to his efforts and personal sacrifice is the final success to be attributed.

After declining a renomination for Congress in 1846, Mr. Ewing did not again enter public life, but, outside of the public enterprises in which he was engaged, has devoted himself to his private business, which has been somewhat extensive. His farm on the Char-tiers, comprising about six hundred acres, is underlaid much of it with the best quality of bituminous coal, the mining and sale of which he personally superintends. He also owns a large tract of land near Burton Station, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, in West Virginia, which is devoted to sheep- and wool-growing.

He has been especially interested in the educational institutions of the county. For many years, perhaps almost 'since its organization, he has been a member of the board of trustees of the Washington Female Seminary, and since 1834 a member of the like board of Washington, now Washington and Jefferson College. At the annual meeting of the board of trustees of the college in 1879, that body addressed a letter to Mr. Ewing, which was printed in the public press and is here copied :

¹ The corporators of this, among the earliest railroads projected, and called the Washington and Pittsburgh Railroad Company, were Thomas H. Baird, T. M. T. McKennan, James Ruple, John K. Wilson, Isaac Leet, John Watson, and John II. Ewing, of Washington County ; and Christopher Cowan, William Lea, James Herriot, John McKee, Francis Bailey, and Ross Wilkins, of Allegheny County. (See Charter, Penn. L. 1801, p. 145.)


" WASHINGTON, PA., July 1, 1879.


"Dear Sir,—Your fellow-members of the board of trustees of Washington and Jefferson College desire you to accept their congratulations on this occasion. Your membership in the corporation of Washington College, extending from the annual commencement in 1834 to the union of the colleges in 186.5, and thence coming down by unbroken continuance in the board of Washington and Jefferson to the present time, has completed a period of forty-five years. An active and influential connection with collegiate education, surpassing in length all precedent in the history of this institution, and seldom equaled by that of any other in our country, deserves emphatic recognition, both for its tokens of providential goodness to yourself and for the great service which it has enabled you to render.

" Your brethren of the board rejoice with you in your continued health, in the signal preservation of your bodily and mental faculties, and in the multiplied mercies which gladden your age. You have by reason of strength been carried beyond the limits of fourscore years, yet by a seeming suspension of nature's decline your strength has not turned to labor and sorrow. The companions of your early manhood have been called away, or else have sunk into decrepitude, whilst your eye is not dim nor your natural force abated. We joyfully recognize as still abiding the same clear judgment, firm purpose, inflexible rectitude, and generous kindness from which the institution of our common care, as well as all other interests intrusted to your management, have through past vicissitudes so largely profited. And whilst we record our thanks in our own behalf, as well as in the behalf of our community and country, for the educational and other benefits secured in part by your vigilant energy, we cannot but hope also that for years to come you may be kept for like usefulness by the same heavenly care.

"We trust, honored sir, that you will accept this joint expression of personal regard and official recognition, the offering of which affords us so much pleasure. Years of intercourse, under the struggles and solicitudes incident to the guardianship of a college, great at once in its history and prospects, have led us more and more to appreciate the practical (witness of your views, and the characteristic urbanity with which they have been maintained. The college and community, as well as ourselves, owe you a large debt of gratitude. Your earthly reward must come largely in the self-approval of conscious duty, and in the grateful remembrance of the rising generation. Long may you live to fulfill the trust of your high position with the energy which your juniors have both admired and envied, and may your life's evening be illuminated with a cloudless sunset.

" With high regard, we remain as ever your friends and well-wishers,

"Charles C. Beatty, President;

Jas. I. Brownson, Vice-President;

Thomas McKennan, Secretary ;

A. T. Baird, Treasurer;

D. S. Wilson, Solicitor and Trustee.

James Allison ; John N. McDonald ; Samuel J. Wilson; A. W. Acheson ; Robert Alexander; R. Sherrard, Jr.; A. S. Richie ; Alexander Wilson ; Alexander M. Gow ; W. W. Smith ; T. D. Ewing; John C. Hervey; D. C. Houston; V. Harding; C. M. Reed, Sr."

Since 1852 Mr. Ewing has been a trustee of the First Presbyterian Church of Washington, enjoying the most pleasant relations with its pastor, Rev. J. I. Brownson, D.D., and the congregation ; indeed, in all relations of life he has been peculiarly fortunate and happy. One feature of his personal history is worthy of special mention. In old colonial times, by the authority of law, " peace-makers" were regularly appointed to compose the differences of litigants, though not thus specially commissioned under any legal appointment ; perhaps no other individual has so often and so successfully intervened between ,parties in legal contests and brought about satisfactorily the compromise of their controversies. Called in for the purpose by the friends of the parties, his excellent judgment and good sense and good humor have always made his intervention acceptable. May his worth a friend and his usefulness as a citizen remain in us yet for years to come.


Among the persons connected with that public life of Washington County that enters into its proper history is Mrs. Sarah R. Hanna. Besides being prominent because of her strong force of character, she was for many years conspicuous as the principal of the Washington Seminary for young ladies, which under her management grew into an institution of far more than local interest. It is proper, therefore, that in a history of the county there should be some account of her life and work.

Mrs. Hanna, whose maiden name was Sarah R. Foster, was born in Hebron, Washington Co., N. Y., Nov. 10, 1802. Her parents belonged to the class known as Scotch-Irish, a class that so largely predominated in the settlement of this part of Western Pennsylvania. Their life was a plain one, but was marked by sound practical sense and thorough integrity. It was also adorned by earnest piety. Mrs. Hanna refers but sparingly to her home and friends, but if she does speak of them it is to mention their Christian influence and the part it had in fashioning and determining her life.

When quite young she engaged in teaching in the country schools. The work was hard and the compensation slight;, it awakened in her a wish, however, to gain a better education. When this was suggested to her parents they did not agree to it. It was at a time when the education of girls was not so common as it is now. Her father thought she knew enough for the work she was then doing, and could not foresee that she would ever do anything better. Some time later, however, when the death of her mother had changed the home life, and softened perhaps the disposition of the father, he made no objection to her proposals, and she therefore, in 1833, entered the ladies' seminary at Troy, N. Y.

This institution was under the care of Mrs. Emma Willard, who was one of the foremost educators of girls in the country. Miss Foster conceived a great admiration for her, and yielding herself implicitly to her care, felt the power of her strong nature ill all her intellectual and moral life. In her later years she spoke affectionately of her, and, ranking her among the best women who had ever done a public service, was ready to pay her the tribute of a pupil's gratitude.

Having spent two years in Troy she sought a situation as teacher, and was recommended by Mrs. Willard to the trustees at Washington. They, however, had made an engagement with another lady, Mrs. Biddle, who is mentioned in the history of the seminary as one of its principals. Though thus interrupted, she persevered and came West, and stopping at Cadiz, Ohio, she there opened a school and offered


her services to the public. They were to some extent appreciated. Her school grew in size and interest. Acting upon the impulse that guided her in so much of her subsequent life, she, at her own expense, added rooms to the school building, and still increasing the strength of the school, challenged the citizens to establish a seminary ; they hesitated, and finally declined.

Just then she received an invitation from the trustees of Washington Seminary to' become its principal. This she accepted, and entered upon her duties in the spring of 1840. The school was not then prospering. It was in that condition of half hope and half despair that required unusual effort not only to make it successful, but to save it from utter failure. With characteristic energy she began her work. The conservative spirit of the community and trustees was strong, but she resolutely, yet with h woman's adroitness, began to oppose it. " Just let me try," she would say when some of her innovating plans were presented, and the result would be that her point was gained and her wisdom justified.

As the excellence of the school increased its popularity extended. It grew to be known as one of the foremost institutions in the West. The names of Mrs. Hanna and the Washington Seminary were .among the most respectable in connection with the cause of education. Though the town was a secluded one and difficult of access, pupils came from a great distance and from many directions, attracted by the reputation of the school and the character of the principal. Business in the town was slow; its life was not energetic. The college did a good work, but it gathered little strength. No commercial enterprises attracted the eye of the public. The surrounding country, though picturesque in a varied scenery, was destitute of objects and places of interest such as excite local pride and the curiosity of strangers. But there were the seminary and Mrs. Hanna; they were always interesting. Governors, senators, Presidents, and all other visitors of distinction were taken to see them. It has been related of one .of these guests, a then President of the United States, that he said Mrs. Hanna was the only woman whose strength of personality made him lose his presence of mind.

In 1848, Miss Foster was married to the Rev. Thomas Hanna, pastor of the Associate Church at Cadiz, Ohio. He, subsequent to the marriage, changed his residence to Washington, bringing with him his five children, where he was chosen pastor of a congregation in the Associate Church, of which church also Mrs. Hanna was a member. The girls of the family enjoyed the advantages of the school, some of them growing into Useful teachers afterwards, while Dlr. Hanna, by appointment of the trustees, officiated as superintendent. The motherly relation thus established was of the pleasantest kind, and was marked,. as respected the conduct of Mrs. Hanna, by many

acts of special generosity.

In connection with her school in Washington she established and tried to manage two others of a similar kind, one in Xenia, Ohio, the other in Wheeling, Va. She devoted money and energy to the effort of making them successful, but they were failures. The money was lost and her expenditure was without return. In giving advice to her pupils after she had been taught by that experience, she warned them against attempting more than one school at a time.

Mrs. Hanna was a large woman, of unusual physical strength and of commanding presence. When in her prime she moved and acted like a queen. Her walk on the street indicated the strength of character that appeared in her conduct of the school. Earnest, resolute, energetic, noble, she bore herself as if she felt the worth of her womanhood and the importance of her mission. Kind to all, she yet demanded the respect due her character. For herself as a woman she asked nothing, but for herself as a person and as one doing the world's work she required all proper acknowledgment.

Intellectually she was strong, though her mind ,vas not of that finer mould that shows itself at its best in work strictly literary. She did indeed publish a book, but it was a compilation from the Scriptures rather than a product of her own. Several pamphlets printed under her name were of the same. general character. She was not widely read, and in no department of study could she have been claimed as an authority. her life was not given to effort in that direction. It is hardly possible, perhaps, to tell what she might have done in literature, for her life was so greatly occupied with matters of administration that she had little time for other pursuits to which she might have been adapted. As she was her strewth was not in the more graceful accomplishments, literary or any other, but rather in that firmness of purpose, that strength of will, that determination, skirl, sagacity, and consecration to a single aim that characterized her in all her work. She was less contemplative than active and enterprising. Her mind was of the heroic cast, and a gentleman who knew her intimately was accustomed to say that he often 'thought her admirably fitted for commanding an army and conducting a campaign.

In religious character Mrs. Hanna was strong in her convictions and devout in her observances. Having been reared in the Associate Church, she remained a member of it till it became the United Presbyterian through union with the Associate Reformed. She is still in the same communion. It was a maxim with her that her charity to other churches was best exhibited by loyalty to her own. While, therefore, strictly true to her profession, she sacredly respected the convictions of all others, and in private life and in her public capacity she gained the respect of all who knew her for intelligent fidelity to her faith.

Mrs. Hanna's influence in the community was greater perhaps than that of any other citizen. This


was due not solely or chiefly to her position, but to her character and strong personal force. She made herself felt upon the people. She made her home in the seminary a place of social power as well as of mental instruction. It was the centre of advanced social influences. Her hospitality was generous and dignified. She understood the moral and practical benefits of an attractive table, and how to make her guests feel amidst liberal festive enjoyments the infinitely greater pleasure of cultivated social intercourse and well-bred courtesy. It was only natural that having such a character as she possessed she should surround herself with teachers sharing her spirit, and thus increase the influence that made the seminary for many years a place of social power for all the community.

But her life was felt in other ways. In all her dealings she was fair and open, up to the point of magnanimity. Nothing. so 'excited her disgust as personal meanness. In her business transactions she sought to teach a lesson in good morals. She wished people to learn how to be both honest and generous. Her whole life was a protest against pettiness. A gentleman who knew her habits in this respect always failed in language when he came to speak of them, but looking off to the horizon and with a full sweep of his arms expressed his admiration. It was by putting this disposition into her work that she succeeded in accomplishing so many things in a community that responded but slowly to appeals in behalf of enterprise. When she advised street-crossings, she set the example of putting down some herself. When she sought the establishment of the cemetery, she enforced her counsel by liberal help. When the congregation of which she was a member hesitated about building a new house of worship, she urged it on and was foremost with her contributions. Few people, perhaps, realize the extent to which her influence was given in the earlier days of the town to its improvement; fewer still appreciate the practical aid she gave to all its enterprises.

Mrs. Hanna's graduates are living in all parts of the country, and many of them are missionaries in foreign lands, but no matter where they reside they remember her with the affection of children. Upon all of them she left the impression of her noble life.

As time went on the infirmities. of age gathered upon her, and though very strongly attached to her school and its work, on the 28th of March, 1874, she resigned her position as principal. When released from her duties she retired to private life. The rest to which she was so well entitled came almost too late, for broken health has caused her much .suffering. Without being burdened .by its care she has interested herself in establishing missionary societies in the church in which she has her membership, and has thus been instrumental in beginning a work that promises to be widely useful. Taken all in all she has been one of the most useful and conspicuous of

Washington County's citizens, . and the undimmed honor with which her age is crowned is a becoming tribute to a well-spent life.


The history of Washington County would not beat all complete without a sketch of the life of William Hopkins.

It was well said by the Rev. Dr. Brownson that" in sympathy, purpose, activity, and achievement he belonged to Washington County. Few, if any, of her sons have commenced in an earlier or continued to a later age in her public service. No one of her citizens, it is believed, has given more years to the service of his native State."

The grandfather of our subject, John Hopkins, with his brother Richard, came from Scotland and settled in Maryland. John married Ellen Wallace, daughter of Howard Wallace, of his adopted State. From this union sprung eleven children. One of the sons, Thomas Hopkins, was a major in the Revolutionary army. Subsequently he removed to Washington County, Pa. He was a member of the Legislature when it met in Lancaster.

Maj. Thomas Hopkins married Catherine Hurd, who was born near Londonderry, Ireland. Catherine was brought to America by her father when she was about fifteen years of age, and she was married to Thomas Hopkins about a year afterwards. She was a woman of strong character, of good education, of great amiability, and of renowned piety. For many years she was an active and zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

To this couple were born ten children. The fifth, William Hopkins, was born in Washington County on Sept. 17, A.D. 1804. Although he received only such education as the schools of that day afforded, he was a reader, an observer, and a thinker, as his career fully showed. After leaving school he learned the trade of a tanner, and carried on that business for some years successfully.

Col. Hopkins' public career commenced at the early age of twenty-three. In 1827 he was commissioned by Governor Shultze as justice of the peace for Pike Run township. " In that comparatively humble office his capacity for public employment soon attracted the attention of his fellow-citizens."

In 1831 he was elected county auditor.

In 1834 he was elected to the State Legislature, and was re-elected in 1836, 1837, 1838, and 1839. He was Speaker of the House in 1838, 1839, and 1840. He was first chosen Speaker of the House at a time of the greatest public excitement, known as the Buckshot war. Military surrounded the State-house, and a bloody collision was imminent. Referring to Col. Hopkins in this connection, Hon. George W. Woodward, in the Constitutional Convention, said, "You, sir, and most of the members of the Convention, will


refer to a period in our civil and political history of great interest, when but for the wisdom and firmness of this man, our Commonwealth might easily have been involved in the horrors of civil war. I have always felt that the public owed more to those qualities of that individual man for averting those calamities than to all other influences which were in operation at the time."

In 1840, Col. Hopkins was appointed commissioner of the Cumberland road by Governor Porter, which office he filled until 1842, when he was called into Governor Porter's cabinet as Secretary of the Land-office.

Subsequently Col. Hopkins held the office of commissioner of the Cumberland road for five years.

In 1844, and again in 1848, Col. Hopkins was a candidate for Congress. Although there was a large Whig majority in the district, Col. Hopkins was so popular that he came within fifty-eight votes of being elected in 1848.

In 1852 he was elected Canal Commissioner, and served in that capacity for three years with that ability and integrity for which he was distinguished.

When not employed in more enlarged spheres of usefulness, Col. Hopkins was always interested and active in local affairs, and never refused his services to his friends and neighbors. In 1849 he served as a member of the Borough Council of Washington. In 1850 he was elected burgess. In 1857 and 1858 he served as assistant burgess. In his later years he was engaged in the banking business. He was deeply interested in the public school system, and served as school director.

In 1861 he was again elected to the House of Representatives, and was re-elected in 1862. In 1863 he was elected to the State Senate, and for three years was recognized as a leader in that body. He was through life an ardent Democrat.

In 1872, Col. Hopkins was elected a member of the convention to revise the Constitution of Pennsylvania. He was chairman of the committee to revise and report amendments to the declaration of rights. It was he who penned the preamble, which was unanimously adopted, in these words : " We, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, recognizing the sovereignty of God and humbly invoking His guidance in our future destiny, ordain and establish this Constitution for its government."

While a member of the Constitutional Convention, Col. Hopkins started for a' short visit to his home. On the cars he contracted a severe cold, which settled upon his lungs in the form of pneumonia, of which he died on March 5,1873, after only a few days' illness.

When but eighteen years of age Mr. Hopkins was married to Rachel Herron, the only daughter and the youngest of ten children of James Herron, who when a mere lad came from Ireland with his father, Charles Herron. The mother of Mrs. Hopkins was Rachel Reed, of Lancaster, Pa. Honor, integrity, and independence were characteristics of the Herron.

The marriage of Mr. Hopkins at so early an age proved an exceedingly happy one. No household was ever presided over by a more affectionate wife and devoted mother. Much of Col. Hopkins' success in life was due to the fact that he had a wife " whose price was above rubies."

There were three children born to this couple. Andrew, the eldest, for many years was an able and prominent journalist, having edited at different times papers in Washington, Pa., in Pittsburgh, Erie, Williamsport, and Harrisburg. The only daughter, Kate M., is at home, the solace of her aged mother. James Herron, the youngest son, is sketched elsewhere in this volume.

The most marked traits of the character of Col. Hopkins are thus grouped by Rev. J. I. Brownson, D.D. : "Such a man could not but be extensively known and respected. In fact his mental force, discriminating judgment, urbanity, integrity, and kindness, joined with his facility as a writer and speaker, rising above the defects of early education, were a continual pledge of public favor and success. He was very firm in adhering to his own views, but considerate also of the opinions and feelings of others. In co-operation or in opposition he commanded respect. In private life, also, it was impossible not to realize the power of his politeness and his delicate regard to the sensibilities of all about him. His fondness for children seemed to increase with his years, showing itself both in a desire for their enjoyment and for their good. His fine business capacity was often taxed for the benefit of others, especially widows and orphans. In the hallowed circle of home he was the central object of uncommon reverence and affection, answering to his own peculiar love and tenderness within his domestic relations. But better than all is the witness he leaves behind him in his confession and life as a disciple of Christ, and in the repose of his heart upon the divine promises when called down into the valley. and shadow of death."

Another said of him, " His judgment was remarkably sound and accurate, and, with his inflexible honesty, made him in public a leader of men, and in private life a trusted and confidential adviser and counselor. Few men in this county, or indeed in the State, have managed so many trusts, public and private, as were committed to him during his long and eventful life, and still fewer have discharged so many trusts so skillfully, so judiciously, and so successfully."

In the Constitutional Convention Judge Black, referring to the death of Mr. Hopkins, said,—

" I do not underestimate the very high qualities of my surviving associates in this body. I do not think, indeed, that any man here appreciates their various abilities and virtues more than I do; but I devoutly believe that there is no man in this convention that we could not have spared better than him who has gone.

" I do not propose to give an analysis of his character, and it is not necessary to repeat his history. I may


say, for I know it, that' he was in all respects the best balanced man that it was ever my good fortune to know. His moral and personal courage were often tested; he was one of the most fearless men that ever lived, yet all his measures were in favor of peace, and every one who knew him testifies to the gentleness and kindness of his manner."

Mr. Biddle said, "I well recollect being struck with the commanding figure and strongly-marked countenance, in the lineaments of which were unmistakably written simplicity and directness of purpose, integrity, and unswerving firmness. . . . He has rounded off a life of great moral beauty, of great usefulness, of great dignity by a fitting end, and he has fallen before decay had begun to impair his faculties."

The high appreciation of Col. Hopkins by the community in which he lived so long was strikingly marked at his funeral.

" During the day, while the body lay at the late residence of the deceased, it was looked upon by a large number of people, and as the hour for the services drew near the crowd in and around the house grew to immense proportions. The sorrow of the community was demonstrated by the closing of the public schools, and in many instances by all cessation from business. Everywhere there were evidences of the grief in the community, and the earnest sympathy felt for the bereaved friends of the deceased."

The funeral services were conducted by Rev. C. A. Holmes, D.D., of Allegheny City, Rev. H; C. Beacom, both of the Methodist Episcopal Church; Rev. Dr. Brownson, of the First Presbyterian 'Church, Prof. Frazier, of the Second Presbyterian' Church, 'Rev. George P. Hays, D.D., president of Washington and Jefferson College, all of whom had been warm personal friends of the deceased. An affecting feature of the display was the attendance of all the school children with their teachers. Then there was a long line of carriages, wagons, and other vehicles, and a large company who walked to the cemetery.

Col. Hopkins was buried in the Washington Cemetery, in the county which had always been his home, which had always honored him, and to which he was so strongly attached.


Among the eminent names connected with Washington County no one is more respected than that of Hopkins. The family is descended from Maj. Thomas Hopkins, a soldier of the army of the Revolution, who after the close of the war came from Maryland and settled in Washington County. Distinguished among the members of that family stands James Herron Hopkins, the subject of this sketch, a gentleman who is as well and favorably known throughout the State and nation as he is in his native county.

¹ By Dr. Wood.

He was born on Nov. 3, 1831. His father was the late Col. William Hopkins, whose life and works are inseparably connected with the history of Washington County and the commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Immediately after graduating with honor at Washington College he went to Pittsburgh, where he read law with the late Hon. Wilson McCandless, a judge of the United States Court, and while yet in his minority he was admitted to the Allegheny County bar in 1852. From that time Mr. Hopkins has made his home in Pittsburgh. His success as a lawyer was immediate, and continued uninterrupted for twenty years, when failing health compelled him to relinquish it for a more healthful pursuit.

Mr. Hopkins was married at Frederick City, Md., on Oct. 19, 1871, to Miss A. Margaret Schissler, a lady whose beauty, refinement, and hospitality eminently fits her to bless and adorn the elegant home at " Willowby." The union has been blessed with three bright and lovely children.

The Democratic party, of which Mr. Hopkins is an earnest member, has for many years been in a hopeless minority in Allegheny County. Notwithstanding this discouraging circumstance he has steadfastly and actively maintained his connection with its fortunes, and has led more forlorn hopes than any other Democrat in the State. This latter fact might seem to imply that he has been an office-seeker, but such implication wrongs him and the party that has often against his will placed him at the front as the most popular standard-bearer. When a candidate he has always run ahead of his party vote. In 1864 he ran for Congress against Gen. Moorhead, and again in 1870 against Gen. Negley. In 1872 he was the Democratic candidate for Congress from the State at large. In 1874 he once more ran for Congress against his old opponent, Gen. Negley, whom he defeated by two thousand three hundred and fourteen votes. He was a candidate for Governor in the Democratic convention of 1882, but was defeated after a close contest by six votes by Mr. Pattison, of Philadelphia.

Mr. Hopkins is one of the most prominent Masons in America, and has filled its highest offices. He was elected Grand Master of Knights Templar at New Orleans in 1874. Since quitting the practice of the law he has been engaged in the banking business; is president of the Penn Bank of Pittsburgh, also of the Real Estate Savings-Bank. He is also president of the Union Insurance Company, and of a life insurance company. Mr. Hopkins is an enterprising and useful citizen, always taking a deep interest in public improvements and industrial enterprises. He is vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce, and prominent in its councils.

Mr. Hopkins is tall and slight in figure, but has a compact build, which gives one the impression of agility with endurance. He possesses a pleasant face, a most affable manner, and precisely that suavity of address which provokes confidence and cordiality. Such men


shine most where they are most trusted and loved, and that place is the office, the social circle, the fireside of home. Those who best know Mr. Hopkins are often puzzled to know why he, so quiet and unassuming, should forego the endearments of comfort and independence for the turmoil and drudgery of a 'public career. But Peter the Hermit led the first deadly crusade, Cromwell bivouacked with swearing troopers, the gentle Washington waded through blood to freedom, and Hopkins has stood in the eminently dirty breach of politics !

It is worthy of mention that none of the dirt ever fastened to his garments.

During his arduous services as a lawyer he managed to find time for travel during brief holidays and for the cultivation of literature. His communications to newspapers and magazines are marked with vigor and scholarship. His letter descriptive of his journey among the Rocky Mountains and his travels abroad are among the best ever written on those themes.

But it is as a politician, a politician in its worthiest sense, that Mr. Hopkins is best known, and wherein his sterling qualities most shine. The writer is guarded against exposing the subject of this sketch to invidious comparison or jealous distinction, but candor guides the pen to write that while a few politicians are shining examples of candor, patriotism, and integrity, Mr. Hopkins stands abreast with the foremost of them all. His career has demonstrated what, in the light of modern political methods, sounds like a paradox,—that a man may be loyal to party without dishonor, that he may dispute with an opponent without sacrificing the amenities of life, and that he can discharge the trust of office without venality. The standard of his character has ever and still stands so high that no one has ever assailed it, and even in heated political controversies his opponents have ever complimented him on his spotless life.

Mr. Hopkins, while not possessing that dash and magnetism essential to the great leader, possesses qualities, as candor, earnestness, discretion, and a single-hearted desire to see his country and countrymen prosperous,—qualities far safer than the dazzling dash of reckless and ambitious demagogues. James H. Hopkins belongs, to the class of men whom Thomas Jefferson would have trusted with place and power.

As a public speaker Mr. Hopkins is earnest, graceful, and eloquent, being one of the most popular of platform orators.

Although not a resident of Washington County, Mr. Hopkins owns considerable property there, and takes great interest in all that concerns the prosperity of his native county.


Joseph Henderson was born in Accomack County, Va., Sept. 28, 1797, and died in Washington, Pa., Sept. 19, 1872. He was the last of ten children of Samuel Henderson, of Scotch-Irish lineage, who was born Jan. 8, 1743, and landed at New Castle, Del., Sept. 17, 1764. While Joseph Henderson was a child his father died, leaving a widowed mother and ten children. Having acquired a fair education, together with a good moral and religious training at the hands of pious parents, he was stirred with the honorable ambition to carve his own fortune in the world. Accordingly, in the absence of other opportunities, he set out in the autumn of 1815 for Philadelphia, with the purpose of going to sea as a sailor. There, however, he met with a gentleman from his own State and county, through whom he unexpectedly formed the acquaintance of a relative in Steubenville, Ohio, who persuaded him to change his plans and accompany him to his home, with the expectation of safer and surer employment. His limited supply- of money barely sufficed to carry him to Steubenville, but on his arrival there he engaged himself for the winter in the well-known woolen-factory of the Messrs. Latimer. Accompanying one of the proprietors the following June, 1816, upon a visit to Joseph Wherry, Esq., near Washington, Pa., he was introduced by that gentleman to Alexander Murdoch, Esq. (the father of Hon. Alexander Murdoch, of Washington), who was then prothonotary and clerk of the courts of Washington County. From him he obtained employment as a clerk in his office. He continued in the office in the employ of Mr. Murdoch's successor, Mr. William Sample, and Dec. 30, 1823, was himself appointed clerk of the courts. He was reappointed Dec. 21, 1826, and held the office until succeeded by Col. James Ruple in 1828. He also held the office of postmaster in Washington, Pa., under the administra-


tion of John Quincy Adams. In 1829 he was elected sheriff of Washington County, and held that office until 1832. He was subsequently elected a member of the House of Representatives at Harrisburg. He was once the candidate of the Whig party for canal commissioner, but, like his colleagues on the ticket, was defeated. Under the administration of Governor Ritner he served as deputy secretary of the land-office, and for a short time as adjutant-general.

During ills residence at the State capital, ending in 1839, he studied law with George W. Harris, Esq., and was admitted to the bar. Returning to Washington, he opened an office and successfully pursued his profession the remainder of his life. He appeared but seldom as an advocate, but in general office business and in the Orphans' Court he had a large practice. He made a profession of religion by uniting with the Presbyterian Church of Washington in 1828, and from 1847 to the time of his death was a ruling elder in the same church, now the First Presbyterian, under the pastoral care of Rev. Dr. Brownson. His Christian life was marked with great consistency as well as fidelity to all his obligations. The decided honesty and constancy of his former life was thus brought under the, operation of religious principle. He was trusted and loved as a friend, and was honored with the warm fellowship of his brethren and fellow-officers in the church. No one of all who knew him doubted either his integrity in business or the sincerity of his professions as a Christian. His unspotted truthfulness and integrity, his social affection, his kindly and cordial intercourse with all classes in society, his benevolence, charitableness, and hospitality, his patient industry, his unswerving morality, his strict practice and advocacy of temperance, and above all his consistent piety, all combine to furnish an example which it is safe to follow. April 18, 1820, he married Rachel, daughter of John McCammant, with whom, though blessed with no children, he lived a happy and peaceful life. Mrs. Henderson still survives, occupying the old homestead.


Maj. Samuel McFarland was born in Washington County, on Ten-Mile Creek, in 1795. His father was William McFarland, who was the first coroner of Washington County, and from 1788 an associate justice of her courts. His grandfather was Col. Daniel McFarland, a Revolutionary soldier. After leaving Washington College, in which institution he had completed his literary studies, he entered the office of Thomas McFarland McKennan, Esq., under whose direction he studied law until December, 1827, when he was admitted to the bar. Probably the most important case in which Maj. McFarland was counsel, during the few years which he devoted to his profession, was that of a colored man (a slave) by the name of Christian Sharp (commonly called " Kit"), who was tried, convicted, and executed for the murder of his master, Robert Carlisle, of Woodford, Ky. He had associated with him for the defense in this case William Baird and John Kennedy, Esqrs. In 1829 he was appointed treasurer of Washington County, and fulfilled the duties of that office until 1832. After retiring from office he purchased the farm now owned by Mr. Harry Shills, near the town of Washington, and the remainder of his active business life he devoted mainly to sheep-raising and wool-buying. He was married May 9, 1849, to Mary, youngest daughter of Hamilton and Mary (Miller) Huston, of Washington County. He died Feb. 17, 1868, leaving no children. He was for many years a member, one of the chief supporters, of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Washington, Pa., and after the breaking up of that organization he united with the United Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member until his death. Maj. McFarland was prominent for many years as one of the leading temperance and anti-slavery men of Washington County. He was a strong-willed, outspoken, straightforward, aggressive man,—impolitic, it may be, as some have averred that his espousal of a cause injured it,—but, however much his methods may have been questioned, none ever doubted his sincerity of purpose. He possessed great vigor of constitution, energy of character, and marked success in business. He was a large-hearted, generous man, and liberally aided all causes which he regarded as worthy of assistance. To all agencies having for their object the improvement of the colored race he was especially munificent. He is named by those who knew him as one of Washington County's first and most fearless foes of human slavery in the days when that institution was popular, and when it was abolished he gave freely of his means for the education and encouragement of the disenthralled race. During the war of the Rebellion he was thought too old to go into the field; one of the most ardent of patriots, giving all of his moral influence and much of his time and money to the furtherance of the cause of the Union.


THIS picturesque and thriving town, second in point of numbers, yet the most important manufacturing centre in the county of Washington, is situated on the left bank of the Monongahela River, at the mouth of the small stream known as Pigeon Creek, thirty-one miles by railway above the city of Pittsburgh.

It contains about one thousand taxable inhabitants, two newspaper offices, two banking-houses, various important manufacturing interests, eight church edifices, a new and elegant public school building, numerous handsome residences, streets illuminated with gas, and its citizens are afforded ample means of communication with Brownsville, Pittsburgh, and other points throughout the valley both by river and railway. However, as matters pertaining to the present will be treated at considerable length in succeeding pages, we will now turn back to a time of more than one hundred years ago, and delve and probe, so to speak, concerning its early history.

Since the first settlement of this portion of the Monongahela Valley by the English-speaking whites the name of Parkison has ever been prominent, for, by reason of a member of a family of this name having been the first permanent resident here, the founder of the town and of other business interests, the term has become inseparably connected with the history of this vicinity, whether known as "Parkison Ferry," " Williamsport," or Monongahela City. It is of Joseph Parkison, then, the founder of this town, that we would first speak; but here, as elsewhere, difficulties are met with at the outset, for though the pioneers of this region lived at a time when much history was being made, when events of sufficient importance to startle the civilized world were of daily occurrence, and when, while witnessing the birth of a great nation, a grapple to the death with the treacherous savages of the Northwest was to be expected at any moment, they left but few written records behind them, and those, in the many changes brought about during the lapse of years, disappeared long ago. True, representatives of pioneer families and ambiguous traditions remain, yet to arrive at the least degree of accuracy the searcher for historical facts must rely chiefly upon such' meager fragments as can be gathered from county and State archives and incomplete files of early newspapers.

It appears that immediately after the treaty of Nov. 5, 1768, when the Indian title to lands comprising the southwestern counties of Pennsylvania was extinguished, the proprietaries or heirs of William Penn began the sale of tracts located in the new purchase to individuals at the rate of £5 for one hundred acres; and among those who then or very soon thereafter obtained patents for lands in this vicinity, situated on either side of the Monongahela, were Abraham Decker, Tobias Decker, John Decker, Adam Wickerham, Paul Froman,¹ Jacob Froman, and probably James and Jacobus Devore. The warrant though which covered the original plot of Williamsport was issued Aug. 26, 1769, and the land was surveyed for Abraham Decker October 26th of the same year. This tract, mentioned in the surveyor's field-notes as "Southwork" .or "Southwork," and in the proprietary records as Patent No. 3783, contained seventy acres, described as "adjoining the Monongahela River, and Jacob Froman down the river, and Tobias Decker on the north." The description further said, "A stream enters the river on the upper side of the tract, which is shaped like a keystone, with the top butting on the river."

During the year 1770, however, Joseph Parkison came from some point east of the Allegheny range, and settled on the tract before mentioned as "Southwark," and ultimately laid claim to it and other lands adjoining to the amount of over three hundred acres. It has been stated that the Parkisons came from Bedford County, but Bedford County did not then exist. This region formed part of Cumberland County until March 9, 1771, of Bedford from the latter date until the formation of Westmoreland, Feb. 26. 1778, and of the latter county from the date last mentioned until the erection of Washington County, March 28, 1781

¹ on the 30th day of June, 1772, Paul Froman, of Bedford County (this region was then included in Bedford), in consideration of the sum of one hundred pounds, current money of Pennsylvania, sold to Adam Wicker-ham "one tract of land, situate on the northeast side of the Monongahela. River, joining the land of John Decker on one side, and Tobias Decker on the other side, being the land in possession of I, Paul Froman, living on,"

The same was acknowledged before Dorsey Pentecost at the court held for Yohogania County, Va., Aug. 24, 1778.

Another tract patented to Paul Froman, May 24, 1785, was by him sold to Adam Wickerham, March 13, 1792. Upon this tract Wickerham laid out the town of "George Town," adjoining Williamsport, as early as 1807. Concerning Paul Froman we will say, further, that as early as 1776 he owned a grist-mill, which was situated on Mingo Creek.

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and from the fact that the Parkisons seem to have espoused the cause of Virginia as against Pennsylvania in the claim for territory situated hereabouts, it is probable that they came here from Virginia or Maryland.¹

Of the Parkisons there were five brothers, viz.: Joseph, Benjamin, Thomas,² James,³ and William ; but of them Joseph alone was prominently connected with the early history of the town proper. It should be understood, too, that the Benjamin Parkison here mentioned and the Benjamin Parkison who at an early day was so extensively engaged in business at Mingo were not one and the same. The latter was a nephew of Benjamin, Sr.,4 and a son of either James or William. At the first session of Lord Dunmore's court, held at Fort Dunmore in February, 1775, authority was granted James Devore to keep a ferry " from his house on the Monongahela River to the mouth of Pigeon Creek." It also appears that at about that time Nicholas Depue owned lands and lived at the mouth of the same creek.

In 1780 a Virginia' certificate was granted Joseph Parkison, and thus, according to the claims of Vir-

¹ Since the foregoing was written we have learned from the venerable Capt. Ira R. Butler (who obtained his information from Joseph Parkison himself) that the Parkisons before removing to this county had been members of the Conococheague settlement. As our readers will learn by scanning maps and historical works, the "Conococheague settlement" was a very early one, and the English, Scotch, and German emigrants who first located there supposed that their settlement lay wholly within the domains of Lord Baltimore. However, by a subsequent arrangement between the proprietors of the two provinces (an arrangement though not at all satisfactory to a majority of those who were thus transferred from the rule of Lord Baltimore's officers to those of the Penn?), the present line between the States of Pennsylvania and Maryland was finally established considerably to the southward of the line called for in Lord Baltimore's grant, and thus the original Conococheague settlement is embraced by what is now known as Washington County, Md., formed from Frederick in 1776, and Franklin County, Pa., formed from Cumberland in 1784.

The Parkisons were of English or Scotch descent. Joseph Parkison's wife was a true representative of the stock known as the "the Pennsylvania Dutch," and her reputation as a most excellent landlady was widely extended.

² Thomas Parkison settled in what is now known as Dunbar township, Fayette County, where he erected a grist-mill. In 1801 but one other individual in that township was assessed for more property. A year or two later he removed to Somerset township, in this (Washington) county, where he built a mill known afterwards as the McFarland Mill. He finally removed to Brooke County, Va., in 1807, and died there the same year.

³ James Parkison, by virtue of a warrant dated Jan. 22, 1797, became the owner of a tract of four hundred and one acres, known as "Parkison's Green," situated on the waters of Pigeon Creek and Dry Run. Subsequently this tract was purchased of James Parkison by Joseph Parkison, and by him transferred to Benjamin Parkison, Sept. 27, 1791. The latter also purchased of the Commonwealth a tract of one hundred and eighty acres, known, as Mount Pleasant, on Pigeon Creek. The warrant was issued May 2, 1792, and the laud was surveyed Sept. 24, 1797. It adjoined the Monongahela River and lands owned by Adam Wickerham and Andrew McFarland.

4 Benjamin Parkison, Sr., the brother of Joseph, settled and lived for many years in Nottingham township, on the premises since owned by David Hootman. He was one of the first justices of the peace of Washington County (having been commissioned in 1781), and during the Whiskey Insurrection of 1791-94 was an active and prominent leader of the insurrectionists. Subsequently he was pardoned by Gen. Washington.

ginia, he became vested with the ownership of a tract entitled " Wood Park,"5 which included Southwark, the words used by the Virginia commissioners being as follows :

"We, the commissioners for adjusting the claims to unpatented land in the counties of Monongahela, Yohogania, and Ohio, do hereby certif. that Joseph Parkison, assignee of Brady & Brooks, is entitled to three hundred and eighteen acres of land in the county of Yohogania. situated on the Monongahela River, to include his settlement made in the yea 1770.

"Given under our hands at Coxe's Fort, this 11th day of February, 1780 and in the fourth year of the Commonwealth.





On the 1st day of January, 1781, viewers were appointed by the Court of Quarter Sessions of Washington County to lay out a road " from Bassett Town [now Washington] to the mouth of Pigeon Creek," This immediate locality, therefore, seems to have been known as "the mouth of Pigeon Creek" and " Devore's Ferry" until 1782, when, by an act approved April 13th of that year, the landing of the ferry of Parkison and Devore—meaning Joseph Parkison and Jacobus Devore—was established, " 30 perches below the mouth of Pigeon Creek."

After the close of the Revolutionary war, notwithstanding the anomalous condition of affairs existing in a region where (until August, 1780) the jurisdiction of two different States, under dissimilar laws, enforced by diverse sets of magistrates, had been exercised over the same people, the beautiful and fertile Monongahela valley invited settlements, and the neighborhood of which " Parkison's Ferry" was the central point increased in numbers quite rapidly. But, after the passing of so many years, and in consequence of the lack of authentic data, it is now impossible to ascertain the names of but very few of these early residents. Among them, however, was James Rodgers and family. With his wife and seven children—three sons and four daughters—Mr. Rodgers emigrated from the north of Ireland and settled at Parkison's Ferry during the year 1786. Another daughter, who was married in Ireland to a gentleman named Hamilton, came to this country at a subsequent time.

The old people lived but a short time after their settlement here. They were of the " first Irish stock," were freeholders in the old country, and the change from the comforts and the enjoyments of their former lives to the privations of the wilderness was more than they could bear, and they died within a short time of each other. The daughters it appears brought some of their former ways of living with them. They are said to have been very beautiful and fond of dress, and wore their hair crimped and powdered, and long plumes in their hats, which must have been some-

5 The boundaries of" Wood Park," briefly described, were the Monongahela River, Pigeon Creek, and a straight line, which, commencing near the foot of Third Street, ran parallel with that street and beyond until the waters of Pigeon Creek were reached at "a sugar-tree."


thing unusual among the settlers, for the Rev. Mr. McMillan, pastor of the old Pigeon Creek Church, where they attended, once reproved them for their striking appearance, saying they "took the attention of the congregation from him." One of them, Olivia Rodgers, was married to Benjamin Parkison ¹ in 1796, and their descendants are well known. William, a son resulting from this marriage, married Matilda Rodgers, a daughter of Hon. James Rodgers, of Ohio, thus a second time uniting the Parkison and Rodgers families.

The sons of the James Rodgers who emigrated from Ireland were Moses, Andrew, and Ebenezer. Moses married a Miss Turner, and lived for some years near Mingo Creek, where he owned or operated a gristmill.² He became the father of fourteen children, and long before Horace Greeley but re-echoed the sentiment, concluded that it were better to "go West" and grow up with the country. Many of his descendants may now be found at or near Madison, Indiana. Andrew married a Miss Duncan. A son of theirs, James Rodgers, removed to Ohio and engaged in the iron business. He built the first iron furnace in that State, was twice elected to Congress, and was president of the Iron Bank of Ironton at the time of his death. He was one of the founders of Ironton, and left a large estate. Ebenezer, the third son of James Rodgers, Sr., never married.

Besides the Parkison and Rodgers families there were living at the ferry or in its immediate vicinity in 1790 the Dickeys, Deckers, Fromans, Devores, Daniel Depue, a justice of the peace, Joseph Depue, Nicholas Depue, Samuel Cole (a son-in-law of Daniel Depue), who lived on the premises now owned by Joseph Warne, Adam Wickerham, Daniel McComas, Andrew McFarland,³ Hugh McGuire, and doubtless a considerable number of others. This was a point where many in their journeyings to the westward crossed the rivers. A post-office had been established. Samuel Black4 was the trader. Joseph Parkison was the ferry-master and innkeeper; Adam Wickerham also kept an inn, and it is very probable that the hamlet could at that time boast of a blacksmith, shoemaker, etc., as well.

¹ The Benjamin Parkison who owned the mills at the mouth of Mingo Creek.

² Probably the old Froman mill before mentioned.

³ In early years Andrew McFarland held the office of justice of the peace of Westmoreland County by virtue of a commission received from John Penn, and because of the exercise of his authority as a justice he was arrested by the Virginia authorities April 9, 1774, and carried as a prisoner to Staunton, Va. However, he was soon after released and allowed to return home.

4 Samel Black was the principal Indian trader in this region, and by the purchase of furs from the Indians and the sale of them to the French at New Orleans—thus managing to have his boats freighted both in going down the rivers and returning—he amassed a considerable fortune. His trading-post was situated at the "ford," or a point about thirty rods above the present grist-mill, which has since been washed away by the river.

Joseph Parkison also kept a small stock of goods, which he sold to the early travelers, pioneers, and Indians.

The fact that Joseph Parkison attempted to found a town on his lands as early as 1792 is ascertained from the following advertisement, found in the Pittsburgh Gazelle of October in that year, viz.:

"The Subscriber has laid out a part of his farm on the Monongahela River in the County of Washington, State of Pennsylvania, at the mouth of Pigeon Creek, opposite Devore's ferry into Lots for a Town, the sale of which will begin on the premises, on the 15th day of November next. It is needless to say much of a place of such public notoriety, yet it may not be amiss to mention that its situation is equal, if not superior, to any in the county, being on the main road leading from the town of Washington &c to Philadelphia, arid a place at present of the most public resort and advantageously situated for trade down the river; in the adjacent settlements are several merchant mills on good streams of water; the neighborhood well settled with opulent farmers, and contiguous to several Meeting Houses, and the spot itself healthy and pleasant. A small ground rent will be reserved, but will be made amends for by the cheapness of the purchase. Other particulars will be made known on the day of sale.


"WASHINGTON COUNTY, Oct. 20, 1792.

The result of this advertised sale of lots is not known, but it is evident that no great success attended the attempt made at that time to create a town at Parkison's Ferry, though the place was one of some local importance, as claimed in the proprietor's. advertisement.

During the Whiskey Insurrection of 1791-94, Parkison's Ferry became celebrated as one of the chief points of rendezvous of the Whiskey Boys. Here, on the 14th day of August, 1794, a mass-meetings 5 of the insurrectionists was held, at which the four western counties of Pennsylvania were represented by two hundred delegates, also others from Bedford and Ohio Counties. Col. Edward Cook, founder of Cookstown (now Fayette City), served as chairman of this meeting, and Albert Gallatin, afterwards Secretary of the Treasury under Jefferson, officiated as secretary.

In 1796 it was decided by those having the matter under advisements 6 (regarding the difficulties caused by the issuance of Pennsylvania patents and Virginia certificates for the same tracts of land), that Joseph Parkison was the rightful owner of the tract heretofore mentioned as "Southwark," and his title to the same was declared valid. Thereupon Patent No. 3783, issued Aug. 26, 1769, and surveyed for Abraham Decker Oct. 26, 1769, was returned to Mr. Parkison May 11, 1796. He soon after laid out the town of Williamsport 7 at Parkison's Ferry, and caused the following to be published in the Washington Telegraphe :

5 This meeting was held on the hill in rear of the present Episcopal Church, and for many years thereafter the locality was known as " Council Hill."

6 The "Board of Property."

7 The town derived its name from William Parkison, son of Joseph Parkison, the proprietor. We will also add, in this connection, that although the name of Williamsport was retained until April 1, 1837, when it was changed to Monongahela City, its post-office name, until the date mentioned, was " Parkison's Ferry." Williamsport, the county-seat of Lycoming County, was during all those years an important town, and to have two post-offices of the same name in the same State at the same time was not practicable.


"New Town

Called Williamsport

Is laid out by the subscriber, on the barks of the Monongahela River, below the mouth of Pigeon Creek, in Washington County, well known by the name of Parkison's Ferry. The situation is pleasant and agreeable, being in the heart of one of the richest settlements west of the Allegheny Mountains, with the advantage of several grist- and saw-mills within one and two miles of the spot, and places of Public Worship very convenient, with plenty of Timber, and Mines of stone coal in abundance.

" It is situated on the Main Road leading from Philadelphia to Washington, West Liberty, Wheeling, and Charles Town on the Ohio River. It is twenty miles from the town of Washington, about fifteen miles from the town of Greensburgh (the county Town of Westmoreland County), and about fifteen miles from Redstone Old Fort. The lots will be sold at Public Vendue, on the premises, on Friday, the 26th day of August, next; one-half of the purchase-money of each Lot to be paid at the time of the sale, and the other half at the time of executing the deed, which will be in a short time after the sale, as the Proprietor has an indisputable title for the premises. A plan of the town may be seen with the Proprietor, and further particulars made known by application to him.

"July 25, 1796.


This announcement was followed by the following paper, which explains itself:


" Whereas the Subscriber has layed out lotts fur a Town on his Plantation near the mouth of Pigeon Creek on the 26th of August Instant, Notice is hereby given to all those who incline to become purchaser or purchasers of said lott or lotts of this Special Condition, that every of said purchaser or purchasers of said lott or lotts are to be prevented from erecting or causing to be erected any Craft, Boat or Canoe for the Conveying of Passengers across the Monongahela River, but the same be and is hereby reserved to the Subscriber or his heirs, assigns, so fare as the claim of the subscriber extends. The blest bidder fur each lott or lotts to be the buyer; any person or persons purchasing any lott or lotto are to pay one-third of the purchase money by the 3d day of September next, one-third part by the 26th of November next, and the remaining third part to be paid on or before the 26th of February next, when the purchasers will receive a sufficient title for each lott or lotts, Subject to the payment of one dollar per annum on each lott, to be payable the 1st of October each year, first year due October, 1797. Any person or persons inclining to have their deeds or deed before the above described time, may, on payment of the purchase money, immediately receive them. Notes and security will be required for the first payment, and failed of making the second payment the that will .be forfeited to the Proprietor; and on failure of the third payment the first and second to be forfeited, and the lotts to revert to the owner. Each lots is 60 feet in front, and 200 feet deep. The streets, 60 feet wide, and the alleys extending from the river to the bill, 15 feet wide, the cross alleys from 16 to 25 feet wide, according to the situation of the ground. Aug. 26, 1796.


"A lott of ground is reserved for a Market-house in the centre of the Town, and a lots for a Meeting-house and Choll-house.

" WASHINGTON COUNTY, ss. To whom it may concern ; these are to certify that the within Town is laid out and a considerable number of lotts sold, and some built upon.

"As witness my hand and Seal,. Jan. 11, 1797.


"Recorded in Recorder's Office, Jan. 12, 1797.

"SAM'L CLARKE:, Recorder."

The town ¹ of Williamsport as originally laid out

¹ Among the additions to the original plot have been the following, the dates indicating the time of survey :

James Mitchell, "East end of Williamsport," including twenty-two lots, December, 1812.

Joseph Parkison, one hundred and six lots, Feb. 3, 1815.

Although Adam Wickerham's plot, called "Georgetown," was laid out as early as 1807, it appears that he did not have it made a matter of record until some eight or ten years thereafter, nor do the records show just when that event transpired, i.e., the time of survey. However, re-

by Mr. Parkison contained one hundred and four lot and at the first sale of them, which took place o Friday, Aug. 26, 1796, twenty-four were sold at prices ranging from $239 down to $22, the aggregate proceeds

searches have shown us that on the 3d of April, 1807, in consideration of sixty dollars, Adam Wickerham sold to John Shouse "All that lot or parcel of land, with the appurtenances, lying and being in the town of George Town, adjoining the town of Williamsport, on the Monongahela

River, . . . being situated on Cole Hill Street, No. 15." This lot was fifty feet front, one hundred feet deep, and part of a tract granted to Paul Froman, May 24,1785, and conveyed by him to Adam Wickerham, March 13, 1792. The quit-rents upon this lot were one dollar yearly. On the 24th of February, 1810, Shouse purchased of Wickerham lot No. 13, also situated upon Coal Hill Street.

Henry Teeters purchased of Wickerham lot No. 48, on Water Street, March 26, 1808.

Samuel Hughes, of Washington, Pa., on the 24th of February, 1809 bought of Wickerham lot No. 1, twenty-four by two hundred feet, which adjoined lots owned by John Wright and Joseph Parkison.

On the 13th of October, 1810, Andrew Pierce bought of Wickerham lot No.140, on Ferry Street, which was sold by the heirs of Andrew Pierce to Elizabeth Pierce, May 6, 1811.

Thomas Gordon, on the 2d of July, 1813, purchased of Wickerham lot No. 143, which adjoined Margaret Patterson, and March 7, 1815, Wickerham sold to Matthew McClenahan lot No. 14, on Ferry and Race Streets. These are all the sales that were made a matter of record prim to the recording of plot in February, 1816.

On the 6th of February, 1814, Adam Wickerham certified that part o his property adjoining the town of Williamsport " has been surveyed am laid out into Town lotts, and has formerly went by the name of George Town, under which title all former deeds and conveyances have beer made, but as the Plot of said Town has never been recorded, and as the Plot of said town is in conjunction with the Town of Williamsport, it ii my will and request that you, the Register of said County, will recoil the Plot that is presented to you under the title of Williamsport, and the from this time forward all deeds, conveyances, &cc., shall be made under the title of Williamsport, formerly called George Town. We the holder of property in George Town, adjoining to Williamsport, do jointly ant severally agree and require Adam Wickerham, Proprietor of said Town to have it recorded Williamsport, as witness our hands this sixth day o February, 1814. William Fenton, John Cooper, George Schwartz, Patrick Burk Henry Smith, John R. Shugart, Joseph Butler, Mergers Patterson, Margaret Biles, Robert Dunlap, William P. Biles, D. Hickman, Abram Hickman, Jonathan Hickman, Samuel S. Cramer, John Shouse, Peter Shouse, Michael Miller, James Manown, Joseph Hamilton Thomas Gordon.


In February, 1816, Mr. Wickerham attached his signature to the following certificate, when the plot formerly called George Town seems have been regularly recorded :

" I, Adam Wickerham, do certify that this Plot is made agreeable t my directions and that I do acknowledge it as a part of Williamsport formerly called George Town. As witness my hand and seal this 23 day of February, 1816.


This plot contained one hundred and forty-nine lots. From the rive, back inland were Water Street, Mulberry Alley (now Union Street) Market Street (now Main), Spring Alley, and Coal Hill Street.

Joseph Parkison, one hundred and forty-one lots, March 3, 1825.

Andrew B. Chess (a son-in-law of Adam Wickerham), one hundred ant forty-nine lots, Aug. 15, 1832.

Sheshbazzar Bentley, lots bounded by Coal, Union, and Ferry Street and West Alley, Dec. 10,1834.

Morton Black, "Belle Wood," ninety-one lots on the west side of the Pittsburgh, Virginia and Charleston Railroad, and a tier of out-lot lying between the railroad and Monongahela River, containing from two to four acres each ; surveyed in August and September, 1873.

I. Shelby Crall, sixty-six lots, bounded by First Avenue, Pike an, Decker Streets, Nov. 17, 1873.

T. J. Allen, nine lots, bounded by the Monongahela River, Banns Street, Third and Fourth Streets, Oct. 15, 1879.

James H. Hopkins, plot known as " West Monongahela City," September, 1881.


being $1385. On the 24th of September, 1798, Andrew McFarland purchased of Joseph Parkison lot No. 41, west side of Washington Street. The former sold the same to George Trout Jan. 6, 1802. Hugh McGuire became the owner of lot No. 17 May 1, 1804, and March 1, 1805, Adam Hailman (an early postmaster) purchased of Trout the lot known in the original plot as No. 41. John Shouse, James Wilson, Henry Teeters, and Michael Miller also became owners of lots in the village at about the time last mentioned, the two latter purchasing from Adam Wickerham.

Prior to the beginning of the century, however, Maj. James Warne,¹ a native of Allegheny County, settled in Williamsport, and with William Parkison (son of Joseph) engaged in the sale of merchandise. Subsequently he married a daughter of Joseph Parkison, and after the war of 1812 became extensively engaged in the manufacture of glass, and boat-building. Meanwhile other enterprising tradesmen, mechanics, and professional men had located here, and that these early citizens of the town were the possessors of a large amount of push and ambition is indicated by the following article, which was published (in 1806) in the sixth edition of a book entitled " The Navigator :"


"Situated on the left bank of the river, just below Pigeon Creek, is a growing village, in Washington County, Pa., 20 miles east of Washington, and about 23 above Pittsburgh. The inhabitants have been petitioning the Legislature for the privilege of forming it into a new ²

¹ About the year 1800, Maj. Warne married Mary, a daughter of Joseph Parkison. To them were born ten children, and of those who reached years of maturity were Amuzet Ives, Margaret, Joseph P., James, Hiram, and Eliza Jane. The first named married Mary Jacobs in 1831, and died in 1879; Margaret became the wife of Samuel Devore, and now resides in West Virginia; Joseph P., born in the year 1810, married Eliza J. Irwin, and is now living in Monongahela City; James resides in Fallowfield township: Hiram, near Washington, Pa.; and Eliza J., who married John Watkins, is a present resident of Ray County, Mo.

Before the beginning of the war of 1812-15, James Warne, as captain, was in command of a body of militia known as the "Williamsport Rangers." On the breaking out of hostilities the "Rangers" volunteered for service, and under command of Capt. Warne marched forward to the Canadian frontier. At Meadville, while en route, Capt. Warne became major of the regiment to which his company was attached, and was ever after known as Maj. Warne.

Soon after the close of the war, he, in partnership with his brother-in-law, William Parkison, and the Butler brothers, built and operated an extensive window-glass manufactory. which was situated on the west side of Chess Street, on lots now owned by James Brown, J. P. Sheplar, and Elijah Harrison. These works were among the first of the kind erected west of the Alleghenies, and certainly the first in the town of Williamsport. The enterprise did not prove to be a successful one, however, and transferring his interests to other parties, Maj. Warne engaged in boat-building, etc. He died at the age of seventy-six years. Benjamin Parkison, Samuel Black, William Ihmsen, Alexander Williams, and others at various times controlled the glass-works here mentioned. Subsequently William Ihmsen established a vial-factory on the island.

² The question referred to, whether a new county should be formed from parts of Allegheny, Fayette, Washington, and Westmoreland, with Williamsport as its county-seat, first took shape during the year 1799. Thus, on the 14th day of September of that year, a considerable number of people, representing the counties mentioned, assembled at Williamsport, with the view of taking the necessary steps towards the formation of a new county. Thereupon, after Joseph Beckett, Esq., had been

county, by taking off a part of Washington, Westmoreland, Fayette, and Allegheny Counties, all of which corner near that place. It is said that 4000 dollars have been already subscribed to meet part of the expenses of county buildings," etc.

On the evening of Oct. 7, 180g, the Butler family,³ of whom Capt. Ira R. Butler, born Nov. 15. 1792,

chosen chairman, and John Hoge secretary, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

"1. That it is the opinion of this meeting that a new county ought to be established by the following lines, viz.: Beginning on the Monongahela River, at the mouth of Peters Creek ; thence up the said creek to that branch thereof which runs from the Rev. David Phillips' farm; thence by a direct line to include the place on which George Myers, Sr., now lives: thence to Bentley's upper mill on Pigeon Creek; thence to the Monongahela River opposite to the mouth of Little Redstone Creek ; thence by a direct line to the mouth of Washington's Run, on the Youghiogheny River; thence down the same to F. Moses' place; and thence by a direct line to the place of beginning.

"2. That in the opinion of this meeting the seat of justice for the new county should be established at Parkison's Ferry, on the Monongahela River.

"3. That John Hoge, Major Devore, and Captain Royal' be appointed a committee to draft a petition to the next Legislature praying for the establishment of a new county."

This measure was defeated through the efforts of those opposed to it The same question was successively renewed in 1820, 1822, 1835, 1837, and in 1838, when it was proposed to make. the new county twenty miles square, but all endeavors have thus far proved futile.

³ Noble Butler, a Quaker; a native of Bristol, England, came to America as one of Penn's colonists in the year 1716, and settled in Uwchland, Chester Co., Pa., where he purchased one thousand acres of land. He was the father of twelve children, of whom Benjamin (the father of Ira R.) was the youngest. Benjamin married in Chester County, and in due course of time he too became the father of twelve children, of whom nine—viz., Jonathan, Abner, Noble, Eunice, Isaac, Benjamin, Joel, Joseph, and Ira—had in 1805 arrived at years of discretion. The family was well to do. Eunice had become the wife of David Woodward, and the sons, except the youngest, were mechanics, thus Jonathan was wagon- and plow-maker, Abner was a cabinet-maker, while Noble, Isaac Benjamin, Joel, and Joseph were carpenters.

It was determined, however, that a removal to the western country should be made, and Jonathan, after traveling over various portions of Ohio, had selected and purchased lands situated about ten miles above the mouth of the Big Miami. Early in the autumn of 1805, therefore, Benjamin Butler, accompanied by his wife and the nine children before mentioned, one son-in-law (David Woodward), one daughter-in-law (Abner's wife), and three grandchildren (Abner's), started forth on the journey, a small wagon-train, consisting of two six-horse teams and Conestoga wagons, a two-horse carriage and two led horses, carrying the baggage, household furniture, etc., the females and younger members of the party.

After encountering the various vicissitudes usually met with in traveling in those days, the party arrived at Parkison's Ferry on the evening of Oct. 7, 1805. The following morning the father, as was his usual custom, arose at an early hour, to see that everything was in readiness for another day's journey. He had aroused other members of the family, and while conversing with some of them was suddenly stricken with apoplexy, and expired the same evening, aged sixty-two years. His dying intestate made it necessary for the members of his family to remain here some time. So an unoccupied house (Samuel Black's old red trading-post) was rented and occupied. Yet not many days had elapsed ere all those comprising this family were ill from the effects of malaria, exposure, etc., incident to their journey.

The nearest regular physicians were at Greensburg or Brownsville. A kind of quack practitioner, however (Michael Miller), resided back in the country at no great distance away, and as drowning men clutch at straws he was called. He came. The Butler family, every one of them, looked sallow and pale enough. This wise man soon learned that they came from a section but twenty-five miles distant from Philadelphia. He had heard, also, that some eight or ten years previously the yellow fever had raged in that city. Thereupon "Dr." Miller announced to the afflicted members of the family that they were suffering with the yellow fever. Going out into the streets of the hamlet, he also, in the most profound manner, told the frightened denizens that Yellow


was the youngest, and is now the only survivor, crossed the river at Parkison's Ferry (on their way westward to the mouth of the Big Miami), and received entertainment at the inn of George Trout. Sickness among all the members of this family, however, and the death of the father and two sons, caused the survivors to remain here during the following winter.

Jack was in their midst. A panic ensued. Mr. Black was denounced for having allowed the Butler family to occupy his building, and was soon waited upon by a self-appointed deputation, who informed him that the Butlers must remove therefrom at once, etc. Mr. Black requested that his premises be vacated.

At this juncture Nathan Chalfant, a boat-builder, came forward and offered the Butlers the shelter of a dwelling owned by him (which now forms part of Alexander Wilson’s ancient warehouse), where Mr. Chalfant vowed they should remain unmolested. To this building, then, the family moved and passed the winter. It was a very sad one to them though, fur two more of their number died, viz., Noble and Isaac. Meanwhile Dr. Merchant, of Greensburg, had been summoned to attend the family, and it was only when he announced that they were merely suffering from an aggravated form of malarial or intermittent fever, brought on by exposure, water, etc., to which they were unaccustomed, and had most bitterly denounced "Dr." Miller (who meantime had enjoyed a lucrative business by preparing and selling an antidote for the yellow fever, composed, as Dr. Merchant demonstrated, of brick dust and some other ingredients equally efficacious), that the fear of the villagers was allayed.

In the spring of 1806 Jonathan and Benjamin Butler engaged in the 'mercantile business. Subsequently Jonathan followed farming, owning three hundred acres where the Black Diamond Coal-Works are situated, but finally removed to Indiana, where some members of his family have become prominent. Benjamin removed to Pittsburgh about 1822, but was soon after killed by the overturning of a stage near Washington; Pa. Joel Butler was also engaged for a while in merchandising with his brother Benjamin. The former died at the residence of Ira Butler in .1845. Joseph Butler was a member of Capt. Warne's company during the war of 1812-14. He continued as a resident of Williamsport until his death. So also did Abner Butler, the cabinet-maker. Their mother died here at the age of eighty two years, and their sister, Mrs. Woodward, attained the age of ninety-four years.

Capt. Ira R. Butler, the only survivor of the family of sixteen persons which left the limits of Chester County and journeyed to the left bank of the Monongahela nearly seventy-seven years ago, still resides on his farm, which being distant about five miles from Monongahela City, overlooks a beautiful scope of country and the town which was the scene of his early labors. For two years after his arrival at Williamsport, Mr. Butler availed himself of such educational advantages as the place afforded. He then learned the saddlery business, and continued at it until the spring of 1814, when in consequence of lung troubles his physician advised him to seek some other occupation at once. The position of a supercargo of a vessel of cartel plying the waters of the great lakes while engaged in exchange of prisoners of war, etc., was then offered him and accepted. He at once recovered his health, and continued on the lakes some two or three years.

Returning to Williamsport he became an employe of the veteran boat-builder, Robert Beebe, whose boat-yard occupied the site of Yohe, Corrin & Co.'s planing-mill, etc. Mr. Butler was a close observer, however, his later experience was of considerable benefit too, and he soon became proficient in the business of boat-building, and a partner of Mr. Beebe. No large steamboats though were built at this yard. The first large boat, the "Hercules," was built by this firm (Capt. Peter Shouse being a member) on the site of the present grist-mill. Afterwards several quite large boats were built by the same firm in the hollow or old bed of the creek, some thirty rods above the grist-mill. Messrs. Beebe and Butler also built boats at Elizabeth, and later, towards the year 1840, returned to Williamsport and built several boats for William Ihmsen in the hollow before mentioned.

Capt. Butler was married to Miss Mary Boyd, of Chester Co., Pa., June 14,1822, and of ten children born to him, five daughters and three sons survive. Maj. Howe, killed in action near Appomattox, Va., April 8, 1865, was a son-in-law. Capt. Butler gave up boat-building in 1840, and removed to hie present residence in 1841.

With the coming of the spring season of 1806 further journeying toward the mouth of the Big Miami was indefinitely postponed. The Butlers settled down at Williamsport, and have since been identified with its history. (See note.)

According to the recollections of Capt. Butler, there were then not more than fifteen dwellings in the town, and the residents and business men were about as follows: Joseph Parkison, innkeeper and ferry-master; Warne (James) Sr Parkison (William), merchants; William Irwin,¹ merchant; Peter Boss, merchant; Adam and Simon Hailman, the former being postmaster; George Trout, innkeeper; Nathan Chalfant, boat-builder; Joseph McClure, cabinet-maker; John Smith, cabinet-maker; McFerren, a tailor; Abner Beadle, blacksmith; Samuel Black, merchant; Adam Wickerham ; Andrew B. Chess was his son-in-law, and the wife of United States Senator Miller, of California, is a granddaughter; and there was, besides, a vacant house owned by Robert Williams.

Of course the population was considerably augmented by the settlement of the Butler family, and its business interests, too, for in the spring of 1806 Jonathan and Benjamin Butler became merchants, while the other brothers began work at their individual trades, Of other early settlers, Dr. Joseph Rose,² a practicing physician, and Frederick Layman, a German tailor, came during the year 1807. Æneas Graham, a tailor, settled about 1809, and Charles Bollman, merchant, in 1810.

As indicating further the energy and force possessed by the few inhabitants then gathered at Williamsport, we give place to the following copy of a " notice" :

" WILLIAMSPORT, May 22,1810.

"Notice is given for those gentlemen interested in promoting the business of the community to attend at the house-of John Berrie, Innkeeper, in the Town of Williamsport, June 23d, at 1 o'clock, to consult and adopt a plan for the purpose of building a Steam Mill in the Town of Williamsport by an association or company."

It has been stated that in 1810 the town contained " about five hundred inhabitants." This statement seems hardly probable though, when we consider that its limits were comparatively insignificant, that it contained no manufactures of any moment, no steamboats were yet plying upon the river, and that thirty years later, during the days of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," ³ when two glass manufactures as well as a considerable number of minor industries were in active operation, and when the " Moxahala". and other steamers were making daily trips between Pittsburgh and Monongahela City, the town contained but seven hundred and fifty-two inhabitants.

¹ Irwin had formerly been a clerk for Samuel Black.

² Dr. Rose, although not a graduate of any medical school, was quite successful as a practitioner of medicine, and the first physician to locate here. He married a Miss Nicholson. Subsequently he removed to Perryopolis.

³ During the exciting days of 1840 the Whig "log cabin" stood on the corner now occupied by the bank building of the Messrs. Alexander & Co.


Among those, however, who were owners of lots and residents at that time, or in years very soon thereafter, and have not already been mentioned, were Thomas Officer, a merchant, George White (who succeeded Adam Hailman as postmaster on the death of the latter in 1813), John Berrie, innkeeper ; John Hazelbaker, teacher; Joshua Pennel, teacher; William Prime, boat-builder; Dr. Samuel M. King, Dr. Jeremiah Brooks, and Dr. James Pollock, all of whom were prominent and widely-known physicians; James Mitchell, proprietor of the " East End of Williamsport;" James Gordon, Esq.,¹ an early merchant; William Hunter, John Eckles, Robert McGrew, James McGrew, James Freeman, William Chalfant, Johnson Chalfant, Jesse Robb, John Watkins, Washington Palmer, William Crookham, William P. Biles, Henry Pinkney, John Bridge, Francis Scott, Samuel Barnett, Alexander Jones, William Dalrymple, James Dougherty, Andrew Nicholson, Crawford Daily, Israel Pancoast, William Wallace, Samuel Speaker, William Doyle, John Lefler, James P. Stewart, merchant; Capt. John Shouse, Peter Shouse,² and Robert Beebe, boat-builders, and William Ihmsen, glass-manufacturer, who probably did more to make business prosperous in the town than any other in his day.

¹ At the age of eighty-five years, Hon. James Gordon died at the residence of his son In Cookstown, Pa., March 6, 1866. He became a resident of Williamsport (now Monongahela City) in June, 1810. Soon after he established the first Sunday-school ever organized in the place, under a great deal of opposition from people who said "the children should have at least one day in the week to themselves." For more than forty years he was an efficient and acceptable ruling elder in the church. During a long life of usefulness in the church and State he maintained a character as a man and Christian singularly blameless and elevated, wielding an influence for good in every sphere in which he moved.

With credit to himself and great acceptance to his constituency he filled various public offices. Appointed a justice of the peace by Governor Snyder, he served in that capacity for thirty-five years. Governor Stunk appointed him associate judge for Washington County, which position he occupied for five years, and with so much satisfaction that the members of the Washington County bar presented him with an elegant cane at the expiration of hie term. He was a member of the electoral college which placed Andrew Jackson in the Presidential chair for the first time. Governor Porter appointed him appraiser of damages on the public works, and he also filled the office of county register by appointment from the same source. He was a county commissioner as early as 1813, and some years afterwards was elected county auditor. As a member of the board of revenue commissioners he represented his district at Harrisburg in 1857.

From 1826 to 1863 he was a trustee of Jefferson College. In February, 1810, he was married in Washington, Pa., by Rev. Dr. Brown to Miss Mary Ann, daughter of Sheriff Officer, by whom he bad nine children. Under his father-in-law he served as deputy sheriff, and during the time conveyed to the penitentiary at Philadelphia thirty-three convicts, going over the mountains on horseback with his prisoners, escorted by a mounted guard.

His son, Rev. Thomas P. Gordon, was a Presbyterian minister.. He also had two eons-in-law who were Presbyterian ministers, viz., Rev. James Sloan (father of Dr. James G. Sloan, of Monongahela City) and Rev. W. P. Harshe. Another son, Dr. James Gordon, is a resident of Fayette City (formerly Cookstown), Pa.

² Peter Shouse and Robert Beebe were married to sisters by the name of Vandever. Shouse built one of the first steamboats that plied on the waters of the Monongahela. Subsequently he founded the town of Shousetown, on the Ohio River.

During the years which immediately succeeded the close of the war of the Revolution, American commerce on the high seas had continually been crippled by the studied acts of those in command of British war-vessels. Our merchant ships were boarded in mid-ocean, native American seamen were .Forcibly taken therefrom and compelled to do menial service under the detested flag of Britain, while at the principal foreign seaports American naval officers were the frequent recipients of British insult. An intense feeling of indignation had been aroused throughout the republic, and it only needed the perpetration of the outrage of July 18, 1807, when a British man-of-war fired into the United States frigate" Chesapeake" to make the American yeomanry assemble at every village and cross-roads, to organize as soldiers, and clamor for war against the tyrants of the ocean.

The citizens of the ambitious little town of Williamsport, on the Monongahela, were not a whit behind others in the American Union at this juncture, and as a result of the martial spirit prevailing Capt. James Warne's company of infantry, known as the " Williamsport Rangers," and Capt. John Shouse's troop of horse were speedily organized, and as well equipped as it was then possible to do. This speck of war passed away, however, or rather the dogs of war were held In abeyance for a few years, but the companies commanded by Capts. Warne and Shouse maintained their organizations until called upon to perform actual service in the field. Meanwhile they held regular meetings for muster and drill, had their days of festivity and social enjoyment, and invariably celebrated the national holiday in July of each year. Hence in an early Washington County newspaper we find the following :

"Parkison's Ferry, July 4, 1811. The Williamsport Rangers, commanded by Capt. James Warne, assembled at 10 o'clock A.M. After performing various military tactics they were dismissed until 3 o'clock P.M., when all met at the house of Mr. Joseph Parkison and partook of an elegant dinner. Gen. John Hamilton and Joseph Becket star Esq., occupied seats at the bead of the table, and thirteen toasts were given."

The attitude assumed by Great Britain at last became unbearable, and on the 18th day of June, 1812, war was declared by the United States against the former power. Hostile movements began, and in the latter part of the summer Capt. Shouse's troop of horse joined a Washington County expeditionary force, and proceeded as far as New Lisbon, Ohio, where, being satisfied that no advantage could be gained by going farther, this command returned home as elsewhere narrated. In the mean time the " Williamsport Rangers" had held themselves in readiness to march at an hour's notice.

In August, 1812, the citizens of the northeastern part of Washington County held a mass-meeting at Ginger Hill, for the purpose of obtaining a sufficient number of volunteers to fill the quota called for by the general government, who had determined to place a larger body of six-months volunteers on the Cana-


dian frontier. Capt. Warne's company of Rangers was present at this meeting, and when the call for volunteers was made more than enough of its members stepped to the front to fill the quota required. Preparations were at once made for the march towards Buffalo, N. Y. At Meadville, Pa., troops from Bedford County joined the column, and in the consolidation which resulted Capt. James Warne became major of the battalion. Lieut. William Hunter was promoted to captain of the Rangers, and all subordinate officers in the company were promoted one grade higher.

In due course of time these troops reached " headquarters." which was on the right bank of the Niagara River, opposite Fort Erie. Through the inefficiency of the general officers in immediate command, however, the campaign on the frontier was an utter failure, and the " Rangers," with other troops there assembled, passed the greater portion of their time in the field in dismal, unhealthful encampments. On two or three occasions they took their seats in the boats, expecting to be landed on the Canadian shore, and from thence led to an assault of the enemy's position; but the orders to advance were as often countermanded, when partly executed, and no portion of the command crossed the river. It has been related that but one member of Capt. Hunter's company objected to crossing the river. He was a Teuton by birth, and in words far exceeding in style and volubility Emmett's "Fritz," vigorously denounced the contemplated invasion, saying that when he enlisted he was told that he. would not be called upon to leave the limits of the United States. It is very probable though that if the " Rangers" had crossed the river the Dutchman would have been a Ranger too, and that his range would not have extended to any great distance from his file-leader.

The First Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, to which Capt. Hunter's company was attached, remained on the Northern frontier until the beginning of the winter of 1812-13, when, no preparations having been made for winter-quarters, and being but poorly supplied with camp and garrison equipage, supplies, etc., its members were allowed to return to their homes, which were reached in January, 1813. Further mention and a roll of this company will be found in that part of the general history of the county referring to the war of 1812-15.

Capt. Hunter's company arrived home weary and worn, several of them sick, and, as it seems, all had gained an experience sufficient to dampen their military ardor forever, for the Rangers were never seen on parade afterwards. " Independence Day" and the ear-splitting music of Biles' fife and Pinkney's drum even were not enough to arouse them. Their successors, however, were the " Williamsport Blues," Capt. James Pollock, a company which. was formed soon after the close of the war.

Returning to take a more immediate view of matters in Williamsport, we find that in December, 1812 James Mitchell, Esq., laid out the addition known a the "East End of Williamsport," and that soon after the following-named persons became purchasers of lots in that addition : John Dobbs, lst No. 1 ; Peter Koel, No. 2 ; B. McMasters, No. 3 ; R. Berger, No. 4____ Weaver, No. 5 ; B. Van Horn, No. 6 ; E. Jacobs No. 7 ; E. Graham, No. 8; J. Dickey,¹ Nos. 9 and 10, William Bushfield, No. 11; T. Jacobs, No. 14'; B Nealey, No. 15 ; P. Cramer, No. 16 ; E. Webb, No 17 ; — Tanner, No. 21 ; and David Mitzler, lot No 22.

In 1812 Adam Hailman, postmaster, gave notice through the medium of the press that Williamsport in the list of post-office towns, " is Parkison's Ferry.' Hailman died February 24th of that year, and was: succeeded by George White, father of Hon. J. W. F White,, of Allegheny County. On the 29th of December, 1813, Adam Wickerham sold to James Manown, of Elizabeth township, Allegheny County lots 148 and 149 in " Georgetown," being part of a tract of one hundred and forty-nine acres patented to Paul Froman, May 24, 1785, and transferred by Paul Froman to Adam Wickerham, March 13, 1792.

On the 17th day January, 1814, the Monongahela and Williamsport Manufacturing Company was chartered. It seems that the " manufacturing company was to be a banking institution as well, having capital stock of one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, divided into shares of fifty dollars each. It: charter was to continue until April 1, 1834. Samuel Black was named as the president of the company and James Gordon, Esq., Joseph Rose, M.D., James: McGrew, James P. Stewart, James Mitchell, Esq. William Irwin, Esq., Joseph Caldwell, David Hamilton, Manassa Reeves, John Finley, and James Warm directors. On the 8th of April, 1814, the mercantile firm of Gordon & Officer—i.e., James Gordon and Thomas Officer—was dissolved, and Mr. Gordon continued the business.

The initiative steps towards building the first bum of worship in the village were taken the same year Thus on the 7th day of July, 1814, Joseph Parkison in consideration of the sum of forty-five dollars, transferred to James Gordon, James Hair, James Mitchell William Irwin, David Hamilton, Robert McFarlane John Anderson, Samuel Black, and John Cooper "trustees for building a Presbyterian meeting-house in Williamsport," lot No. 72, containing twelve thou sand square feet. On the same day, to the same trus tees, in consideration of the payment of fifty dollars Adam Wickerham transferred a tract containing six: thousand six hundred square feet for the purpose o building a Presbyterian meeting-house thereon.

In 1818 a substantial bridge was erected over Pigeon Creek, " near Williamsport," and in December, 1819, Hiram Lodge, No. 170, F. and A. M., was

¹ A Mrs. Dickey was a sister of Joseph Parkison


instituted. This was the third Masonic lodge organized in the county, and the first in Williamsport. In 1820, James Logan, James P. Stewart, George Miles, and Charles Bollman were the prominent merchants of the town, while Joseph Parkison, John Anderson, Chambers, and Joseph Caldwell were the innkeepers.

During the years from 1815 to 1820 various manufacturing enterprises had been projected, completed, and placed in active operation. Thus an extensive glass-manufactory, in which Maj. James Warne, William Parkison, Benjamin and Joel Butler were interested as owners, had been erected at a cost of twenty-seven thousand dollars. None of the proprietors though were practical glass manufacturers, and to them the venture proved a disastrous one. Boat-building, too, had become an important industry, and the workmen in the boat-yards of Messrs. Beebe, Shouse, Butler, and others were all actively engaged.

On the 7th of May, 1821, The Phoenix was issued by B. Brown. This was followed, June 17, 1822, by a prospectus of a weekly newspaper entitled The Journal of the Interior, to be published every Tuesday by Brown & Scott, at two dollars per annum. We are not informed whether this paper was ever actually published or not.

On the 25th of June, 1828, John Bausman's newspaper, the Pennsylvanian, was issued. In 1830 the town contained 593 inhabitants.

In 1832 (June 5th), Andrew B. Chess, Samuel Black, and William Mills (for James Mills) released " the president and managers of the ' Williamsport Bridge Company' (whenever the same shall have legal existence under the law creating said company) from all claims for damages for and on account of any land or soil occupied by and in the erection of said bridge, or for any landing or ferry right which we may, and do now, possess, provided said bridge shall be erected on our or either of our premises." On the 25th of June, same year, James Manown relinquished certain privileges to the above-named company, "provided the site for the bridge shall be fixed above Asher Van Kirk's white house on the Island near the mouth of Pigeon Creek." He also agreed to relinquish the privilege of continuing the ferry, except in case the bridge be destroyed.

With a population of perhaps six hundred inhabitants, the town of Williamsport was, by an act of the General Assembly, incorporated as a borough April 8, 1833. The records, however, covering the first nineteen years of the town's corporate existence have either been maliciously destroyed or most carelessly lost,¹ and it is now impossible to tell who were the officers elected during those years, or what were their proceedings. One year later, or April 28, 1834, Joseph Parkison, the founder of the town, died at the age of nearly ninety-five years.

At an election held at the house of Joseph Hamil-

¹ See report of committee, September, 1852.

- 37 -

ton,² June 22, 1836, James Manown, John Storer, Robert F. Biddle, Asher Van Kirk, William Johnson, John McFarlane, and William Mills were chosen managers of the Williamsport Bridge Company. At the same time Samuel Devore was elected treasurer, and Robert F. Biddle secretary. Public notice was also given to bridge-builders that sealed proposals for erecting a bridge over the Monongahela River at Williamsport would be received until July 18, 1836, The bridge was completed in 1838.

On the 1st day of April, 1837, the name of Monongahela City was adopted, and the terms "town of Williamsport" and " Parkison's Ferry post-office" became things of the past. In 1840, according to the United States census,³ Monongahela City contained seven hundred and fifty-two inhabitants. In February of the following year a large majority of them assembled on the banks of the river to welcome the hero of Tippecanoe, Gen. William Henry Harrison, who in journeying towards Washington, D. C., to be inaugurated as the ninth President of the United States, passed up the Monongahela on the steamer "Loyal Hanna." Prominent Monongahelians on board the " Moxahala," Capt. James Parkison commander, had met the general at a point still farther down the river and escorted him to the wharf.

Although the town was incorporated as a borough in 1833 (when until September, 1834,4 it comprised portions of Fallowfield and Nottingham townships), it seems that it did not have or maintain an existence separate from the townships for some eight or nine years thereafter. Thus in February, 1841, numerous citizens of Carroll township sent in a petition to the Court of Quarter Sessions, asking that a division of the borough of Monongahela City and the township of Carroll be made. The viewers appointed by the court February 22d of that year submitted a report on the 16th of June following, which was set aside Aug. 20, 1841. At the November term following a second petition from the inhabitants of Carroll town-ship was presented, asking "to be struck off from Monongahela City." The court appointed another board of commissioners to investigate the matter Jan. 26, 1842, and February 28th following these commissioners reported " that the separation prayed for ought to be granted." This report was approved February 28th, and confirmed May 26, 1842. To the date last mentioned, therefore, all assessment returns, etc., of town and township had been made as though there were but one corporate body.

The present grist-mill was built about 1844, and in 1848 (July 7th), Solomon Alter, Esq., issued the first number of the Monongahela Valley Republican.

² Hamilton then owned and kept the inn now known as the City Hotel.

³ Subsequent census reports have shown that the town contained 977 inhabitants in 1850; 999 in 1860; 1078 in 1870; and 2904 In 1880.

4 Carroll township was formed from Fallowfield and Nottingham townships Sept. 30, 1834.


Until the spring of 1852 the corporate affairs of the borough seem to have been conducted in a loose kind of way, and records were kept or not kept, just as the clerks chose. On the 20th day of May, 1852, however, in accordance with the petitions of divers inhabitants, the Washington County Court of Quarter Sessions ordered that the provisions of the former charters (i.e., those of April 8, 1833, and April 8, 1837) be annulled, " so far as they are in conflict with the provisions of an act of the Assembly approved April 3, 1851." This order of court was obeyed, and the following borough officers were elected : Henry Wilson, burgess ; John S. Markell, John Storer, Joseph Kiddoo, Alexander Wilson, William J. Alexander, and R. M. Clark, councilmen ; Abram Fulton, clerk; Joseph Alexander, treasurer; and Benjamin Foster, street commissioner and wharf-master. At a meeting of this board of councilmen, held Aug. 12, 1852, it was resolved that the corporate officers of the borough "shall hold their regular meetings at the house of Abram Fulton, on the first Monday of each month at early candle-lighting." On the 9th of September, 1852, R. M. Clark and John Storer were appointed a committee " to hunt up old borough records and ordinances." The burgess was also empowered and instructed to give notice that he would at once receive proposals for the building of a market-house, lock-up, and town hall. On the 27th of September following the committee appointed to search for records, etc., reported " that they have not been able to find any of the missing records."

The borough officers elected since 1852, and other matters relating to the corporate history of the town, are alluded to as follows :

1853.¹—John Gilfillan, burgess; Alexander Wilson, William J. Alexander, John S. Markell, Joseph Kiddoo, John Storer, and R. M. Clark, councilmen; David Ramaley, clerk; Joseph Alexander, treasurer; and B. Foster, wharf-master.

1854.²—Moses Scott, burgess ; James P. Moore, Shesh Bentley, Jr., Robert Walker, Zechariah Carmack, Robert Phillips, and Richard Stock-dale, councilmen; William J. Alexander, treasurer; T. R. Hazzard, clerk; H. D. Cooper, assessor ; James Kerr, street commissioner; and Benjamin Foster, wharf-master.

¹ On the 18th of May, 1853, the board of councilmen resolved to subscribe to the stock of the Hempfield Railroad Company "any sum not exceeding fifty thousand dollars, provided the said railroad be located through the borough." The right of way through Union Street was also granted this company.

The woolen- and saw-mills of Robert Walker were destroyed by fire on the night of June 29, 1853, and on the 18th of July following the burgess was instructed to offer a reward of two hundred dollars for the .arrest and conviction of the incendiary or incendiaries who set fire to those mills. At the same meeting it was resolved "to collect all the portions of the old fire-engine, and make inquiry in reference to the cost of repairs, etc," Subsequently the burgess reported that he had "gathered the pieces of the engine together, and after examination found it impossible to repair it so as to make it serviceable." He also reported that Messrs. Downer & Hart proposed to take the old engine and construct a new one for three hundred and fifty dollars, equal to a first-class engine, without, however, any extra finish."

² The total receipts from all sources in 1854 were eight hundred and ninety-eight dollars and twenty-six cents. Ths outstanding accounts then due the borough aggregated nine hundred and thirty-eight dollars and seven cents, while the expenditures amounted to six hundred and five dollars and thirty-six cents. On the 24th of April, 1854, the en-

1855.—Alexander Scott, burgess; John Storer, Isaac Yohe, Jr., John F. Norfolk, William Coulter, Richard Stockdale, and William J. Alexander, councilmen; John Powers, clerk; and William J. Alexander, treasurer.

1856.—H. D. Cooper, burgess; Andrew J. Stewart, Samuel B. Bentley, Abraham Carmack, J. W. Smith,' and B. F. Bentley, councilmen;

Shesh Bentley, Jr., clerk ; William.    Alexander, treasurer; Isaac

Yohe, wharf-master; and Abraham Teeters, Jr., street commissioner.

1857.³—William Brown, burgess; John F. Norfolk, Joseph Tuman, James P. Sheplar, 0. C. House, and Abraham Carmack, councilmen ;4 T. R. Hazzard, clerk; William J. Alexander, treasurer; Pastel Teeters, wharf-master ; and James Kerr, street commissioner.

1858.—James P. Sheplar, burgess ; James P. Stewart, John Storer, James Dickey, Samuel M King, and Charles E. Beach, councilmen; Dr. J. S. Van Voorhis,5 clerk; William J. Alexander, treasurer; A. Teeters, Jr., street commissioner; and R. D. Teeters, wharf-master.

1869.—Shesh Bentley, Jr., burgess; Joseph Kiddoo, R. F. Cooper, Joseph Wilson, R. D. Teeters, and John F. Norfolk, councilmen; W. H. Smith, clerk ; R. D. Teeters, wharf master; H. D. Cooper, street commissioner; and William J. Alexander, treasurer.

1860.—T. R. Hazzard, burgess; Joseph Alexander, James Dickey, R. F. Cooper, George A. Keller, and R. M. Gee, councilmen; Chill W. Hazzard, clerk ; Col. R. D. Teeters, wharf-master; Wm. J. Alexander, treasurer.

1861. 6—E. W. Tower, burgess; R. M. Gee, James Dickey, S. P. Keller, L. A. Valentine, and S. C. Wilson, councilmen ; John Young, clerk; R. D. Teeters, wharf-master; A. W. Scott, street commissioner; and Moses Scott, treasurer.

gine-house was declared a nuisance, and ordered to be removed, and it was removed soon after by James Kerr. The street commissioner was instructed to sell the materials of the old market Oct. 15, 1854.

At a town-meeting held in the borough Dec. 31, 1854, the corporate authorities were authorized to subscribe for stock of the Pittsburgh and Connellsville Railroad to. the amount of twenty-five thousand dollars, "on condition that the road be located through the borough."

³ By a decree of the Washington County Court of Quarter Sessions at February term, 1858, the election for borough officers in the spring of 1857 was declared void on account of the illegality of the board which held the election. Thereupon the functions of the council then in office, and of all the elected and appointed officers of the borough under the charter, ceased from the date of decree. The court further ordered that an election for borough officers be held on the second Tuesday of April, 1858, " between the hours of one and seven P.M."

4 This board of councilmen authorized the sale of the "old borough lot," and the purchase of a new one, upon upon which to build a market-house and " lock-up." The committee appointed to attend to the matter soon after purchased a lot of a Mr. Hickman, adjoining property owned by R. M. Clark and Moses Scott, on Main Street, for which the sum of four hundred and ninety dollars was paid. Subsequently, in March, 1859, this lot was sold to Dr. King for five hundred dollars.

5 J. W. Smith was appointed clerk in September, 1858, vice Van Voorhis, resigned.

6 In May, 1861, the borough authorities appropriated the sum of $100 for the support of the families of volunteer soldiers, and $25 for ammunition " to be used in home defense." But $10 though of the $100 mentioned was used for the purpose specified, when the vote appropriating the same was rescinded. However, during the month mentioned the sum of $49.19 was expended from the borough funds for the payment of bills incurred in furnishing the " Monongahela Artillery" with bed-ticks and cap-covers.

This company volunteered as soon as President Lincoln's proclamation calling for 75,000 men to serve for three months was received, and under the command of Capt. Robert F. Cooper proceeded to Pittsburgh, where it was mustered into the United States service for three months as Company G of the Twelfth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. A history of this organization, and a roll of Capt. Cooper's company, is given in the military chapters of the general history referring to the war of the Rebellion.

On the 17th day of July, 1861, the Council appropriated twenty-five dollars to assist in defraying the expenses of the "Tower Zonaves," then about to enter the United States service in Virginia, "on the condition that they march from this place forty strong." Soon after the " Zouaves" did proceed to Wheeling, Va., but not numbering "forty strong" the twenty-five dollars was withheld.

The " Zouaves." about thirty-five in number, were recruited by First


1862 —Sheer Bentley, Jr., burgess; R. M. Gee, S. Clark Wilson, William Coulter, B. F. Bentley, and James Dickey, councilmen; Benjamin Foster, street commissioner; T. R. Hazzard, clerk; R. D. Teeters, wharf-master; Moses Scott, treasurer.

1863.—B. F. Cooper, burgess; William Coulter, William H. King, Mark Borland, Michael Yohe, and George A. Keller, councilmen ; W. T. Campbell, clerk; Moses Scott, treasurer; R. D. Teeters, wharf-master; Alexander Scott, street commissioner.

1864.—Johnson Elrod, burgess; Mark Borland, George A. Keller, Jesse C. Taylor, L. R. Valentine, and Richard C. King, councilmen ;¹ W. T. Campbell, clerk; M. Borland, treasurer; C. E. Beach, wharf-master; W. T. Campbell, street commissioner.

1865.—T. R. Hazzard, burgess; James S. Alexander, M. Bowman, Michael Yohe, R. M. Gee, B. F. Bentley, councilmen ; J. S. Alexander, clerk; H. D. Cooper, street commissioner; William H. Smith, wharf-master; William J. Alexander, treasurer.

1866.—John Clemens, burgess; B. F. Bentley, G. G. Kern, Richard 0. King, and William Coulter, councilmen; J. S. Alexander, clerk; H . D. Cooper, street commissioner ; William S. Alexander, treasurer; and Johnson Elrod, wharf-master.

1867.—John Clemens, burgess; R. M. Gee and George A. Keller, councilmen; J. S. Alexander, clerk ; Johnson Elrod, wharf-master; William J. Alexander, treasurer; John Jenkins, street commissioner. The latter soon after resigned, when B. Foster was appointed to fill vacancy.

1868.—Joseph Taylor, burgess; O. C. House and John Patterson, councilmen; J. S. Alexander, clerk; William J. Alexander, treasurer; R. J. Williams, wharf-master; Abraham Teeters, street commissioner.

1869.²—John Holland, burgess; E. T. Cooper and H. H. Finley, councilmen; J. S. Alexander, clerk; H. D. Cooper, street commissioner; John Holland, wharf-master; and William J. Alexander, treasurer.

1870.³—John Holland, burgess; M. Bowman and H. C. Underwood, councilmen; George Barringer, street commissioner; J. B. Finley, clerk; William J. Alexander, treasurer; John Holland, wharf-master.

1871.4—T. R. Hazzard, burgess; Richard Stockdale and A. C. Sampson, councilmen; J. B. Finley, clerk; John Holland, wharf-master; A. . Sampsen, treasurer; J. R. Long, street commissioner.

Lieut. Alvin S. King (then known as Capt. King), of Monongahela City. After sojourning at Wheeling for a few days, they were ordered to report at Pittsburgh, Pa., where they were merged into Col. S. W. Black's Sixty-second Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, forming part of Company K of that regiment, and their original commander became first lieutenant of the consolidated company. He lost a foot at the battle of Gaines' Mill, Va., and in 1863 was elected county recorder. The men led into the field by him did valiant service; many of them were killed or desperately wounded, and but few returned to the place from whence they started.

The " Mellinger Guards" was another Monongahela City organization which took the field in 1861, and in September, 1862, Capt. William J. Alexander's company (G of the Eighteenth Regiment of Pennsylvania Militia) proceeded to the front; but as matters relating to the military history of the county are referred to at length in other pages of this work, no further allusions to the topic in question are necessary here.

¹ This board in February, 1865, authorize d the issue of borough bonds to the amount of about five thousand dollars, with which to pay bounties, and thus fill the borough's quota under a call for volunteers.

² In April, 1869, Councilman O. C. House was appointed a committee to ascertain "the probable cost of six lamp-posts for lighting the streets." He soon after reported that iron posts would cost fifteen dollars each, and recommended the use of wooden ones. On the 11th of June same year, Dr. E. T. Cooper and O. C. Mem were empowered to procure street lamps and have them placed on Washington and Main Streets, and Andrew Nell was appointed lamp-lighter, etc. Oil was used in the street lamps until the completion of the gas-works in 1873, since which time gas has been burned.


³ On the 8th day of November,1870 (through its president, B. F. Jones), the "Pittsburgh, Virginia and Charleston Railway Company" was granted the right of way through the borough. Work was commenced on this road in December, 1870, but the first locomotive did not enter the borough limits until Sept. 29, 1873. On the 3d of October following trains began running regularly between Monongahela City and Pittsburgh.

4 Lewis Bollman was elected councilman in July, 1871, vice Underwood, resigned.           .

1872.—John Holland, burgess; William H. King, assistant burgess; B. F. Bentley, William Hanna, James P. Sheplar, Richard Stockdale, Silas Haley, and E. Downer, councilmen ; Joseph Truman, street commissioner; J. B. Finley, clerk; A. C. Sampson,5 treasurer.

City Officers, etc.—By an act of the State Legislature, approved March 24, 1873, a city charter was granted the town of " Monongahela City ;" and in accordance with the provisions of said act an elections for municipal officers took place on the third Friday of April, 1873, which resulted as follows: For Mayor, John Holland. For Select Council, A. T. Gregg, Thomas Wilson, First Ward ; William Corrin, William P. Ketchum, Second Ward; P. A. Foster and M. Saunders, Third Ward. For Common Council, Isaac Hodge, William H. Barr, First Ward; W. J. Markwell, John Teeters, Second Ward; John A. Ford and William Coulter, Third Ward.

These officers entered upon the discharge of their duties May 5th following, and soon after elected additional officers as follows: Shanton, treasurer; T. H. Baird, clerk anti city solicitor; George Barringer, John Leyden, and Abram Teeters, street commissioners; John S. Wall, city engineer; and D. C. Shaw, wharf-master. Subsequent city officers—those elected by the people, as well as those elected by Councils—have been as follows:

1874.7—John Holland, mayor; Isaac Hodge, I. S. Crall, J. L. George, members of Select Council; John L. Gee, James Loutlit, First Ward; William J. Markell, John Teeters, Second Ward; William M. Devore, William Hanna, Third Ward, members of Common Council ; Thomas H. Baird, clerk and city solicitor; John Shanton, treasurer; R. M. Gee, street commissioner; John S. Wall, city engineer; John Holland, wharf-master; and H. H. Hall, J. C. Taylor, and James Moore, school directors.

1875.—John Holland, mayor; Adam Augendobler, William Corrin, and Aaron Brawdy, members of Select Council; J. A. Bryan, I. W. Jones, R. H. Young, I. S. Keeney, B. F. Bentley, and J. L. George, members of Common Council; H. C. Underwood, clerk; Joseph. Truman, street commissioner; W. L. S. Wilson, wharf-master; Thomas H. Baird, city solicitor; John S. Wall,8 city engineer; and Charles A. Adams, treasurer.

1876.—John H. Davis, mayor; Charles A. Adams, treasurer; William M. Boggs and Thomas H. Baird, school directors; Isaac Hodge, John C. Davis, John Blythe, and John Bowman, members of Select Council; G. A. Gregg, R. M. Gee, J. W. Hank, John Clemens,9

5 William J. Alexander was elected treasurer June 3, 1872, to fill vacancy caused by the death of A. C. Sampson.

During the same session of the Council, Dr. J. H. Connelly, of Pittsburgh, being present, requested that an ordinance be passed allowing him the privilege of building gas- and coke-works in the borough. This right was granted him June 10, 1872, by the passage of an ordinance wherein certain grants, conditions, and restrictions concerning the manufacture of gas and coke in the "borough of Monongahela City, Pa.," were duly set forth.

6 The candidates for the mayoralty in April, 1873, received the number of votes here shown:


First Ward.

Second Ward

Third Ward.

John Holland




W. L. S. Wilson




7 On the 16th of March, 1874, the "Keystone Guards" requested the corporate authorities to furnish them with an armory. They were informed, however, that money with which to pay rent of armory, etc., should be obtained from the State military fund.

8 Mr. Wall resigned in July, 1875, when R. S. D. Hartrick was elected to fill the vacancy.

9 John Clemens died in the summer of 1876 ; Dr. W. H. King was then elected to fill the vacancy.


William J. Alexander, and James P. Simpler, members of Common Council; George A. Hoffmann, Jr., clerk; Dr. W. L. S. Wilson, wharf-master; Philander Carroll, street commissioner; and R. S. D. Hartrick, city engineer.

1877.—T. H. Williams, mayor; Messrs. Swickard, Loutlit, and Long, members of Select Council; Alexander, Atkins, Bentley, Holland, Nelson, and Sullivan, members of Common Council. (The recording clerk having failed to mention anywhere in his minutes the first name of members of Councils.) George A. Hoffman, clerk ; Joseph Truman, street commissioner; John J. Hazzard, treasurer; R. S. D. Hartrick, city engineer.

1878.¹—John Holland, mayor; William Dewalt, William H. Arisen, and John P. N. Coulter, First Ward; John M. Sutman, John O. Beaver, and William Atkins, Second Ward; P. A. Foster, William Coulter, and B. F. Bentley, Third Ward, members of Select and Common Councils, B. F. Bentley, president; W. L. S. Wilson, wharf-master, John M. Davis, clerk; and John C. Scott, treasurer.

1879.—John Holland, mayor; James H. Smith, treasurer; James Loutlit, John G. Beaver, and John Bowman, members of Select Council.; Joseph Louderback, J. H. Carmack,² William Atkins, John C. Davis, William J. Alexander, and Silas Haley, members of Common Council ; George A. Hoffmann, clerk; Dr. W. L. S. Wilson, wharf-master; John S. Wall, city engineer.

1880.—John M. Davis,³ mayor; George A. Hoffmann, Jr., clerk ; Dr. W. L. S. Wilson, wharf-master; James H. Smith, treasurer; and John S. Wall, city engineer. The clerk in his minutes again neglected to mention the names of the councilmen-elect, but we find that the members of the standing committees during the year were as follows: finance, Messrs. Alexander, Young, and Loutlit; streets, Messrs. Bentley, Sutman, and Warne; police, Messrs. Bowman, Loutlit, and Crall; ordinance, Messrs. Alexander, Gregg, and Keeney; printing, Messrs. Keeney, Loutlit, and Warne; claims, Messrs. Young, Bentley, and Gregg; president, John O. Beaver.

1881.4—John Holland, mayor; Vol. A. Farquhar, treasurer ; William J. Alexander, Robert R. Abrams. I. Shelby Crall, Eliphalet Downer, George A. Keller, Joshua Meredith, John Nelson, Richard Pratt, and R. H. Young, members of Councils; A. M. Walker,5 clerk; C. E. Radcliffe, street commissioner; Thomas H. Baird, solicitor; J. S. Wall, engineer; and W. L. S. Wilson, wharf-muster.

¹ During the month of May, 1878, some fire-buckets and ladders were purchased, and in August following a wagon on which to haul them. In August, 1879, Dr. Connelly appeared before the Councils in joint session, and explained the workings and merits of his fire-extinguisher. Thereupon a committee (composed of John G. Beaver, William J. Alexander, and James Loutlit) was appointed to examine in relation thereto and report at a subsequent meeting. On the lst day of December, 1879, this committee reported that they had visited West Newton, where one of Dr. Connolly's chemical fire-extinguishers was in use, and found that it gave excellent satisfaction, having been tested in two or three conflagrations. The committee was then continued, and instructed to inquire concerning "other kinds of fire protections."

On the 5th of January, 1880, this committee submitted another report, having visited various localities meanwhile, and recommended the purchase of one "Champion Fire-Extinguisher" with appliances, "being the same as used by the borough of West Newton and Latrobe, with the addition of hooks and ladders." Acting upon the recommendations of the committee, before mentioned, an ordinance authorizing the purchase of an extinguisher and apparatus necessary for its successful operation was adopted Feb. 2, 1880. This action on the part of the Councils, however, did not seem to meet with the concurrence of a majority of the people, and by an ordinance adopted March 1, 1880, that of February 2d was repealed. No fire apparatus has since been purchased, and the city of to-day boasts of neither fire company nor fire apparatus other than the primitive buckets, ladders, and wagon before alluded to, all in charge of the street commissioners, while its water supply is obtained from wells, cisterns, and the turbid Mohongahela, which flows in its front.

² A. T. Gregg was elected councilman in December, 1879, vice Carmack.

³ Mayor Davis resigned Oct. 4, 1880, when Ralston Williams was elected to fill vacancy.

4 In 1881, the Pittsburgh, Virginia and Charleston Railroad was completed to West Brownsville, and on the 15th day of May of that year trains began making regular trips between the point last named and Pittsburgh. We will also add in this connection that since the fall of 1873 Dr. W. L. S. Wilson has filled the position of station-agent at Monongahela City, being now the only original station-agent on the line.

5 Ralston Williams, Esq., was elected clsrk to fill vacancy May 2, 1881.

1882.6—Benjamin F. Bentley, mayor; Morton Black, treasurer; Capt. T. H. Williams and Dr. W. L. S. Wilson, school directors; T. J. Wedell, auditor; Thomas Gregg, John S. Marken, and George A. mann, members of Select Council; Henry McCain, Isaac Hodge, Shelby Crall, Jerry Amberson, Benj. C. Camp, and Samuel Robinson, members of Common Council'.

Other Borough and City Officers.—The following additional lists of officers have been obtained from th borough, city, and county records. Yet as concern borough and city officers all records are defective, an' it is an impossible matter at this time to prepare cow plete lists :


John Clemens, April 14, 1839.

Samuel Devore, April 14, 1839.

John Clemens. April 14, 1840.

Samuel Devore, April 14, 1840.

T. R. Hazzard, April 15, 1845.

John Clemens, April 15, 1845.

John Clemens, April 9, 1850.

James Gordon, April 9, 1850.

John Clsmens, April 10, 1855.

James McAllister, April 10, 1855.

Robert F. Cooper, April 10, 1860.

William H. Smith, Oct. 22, 1860.

Sheshbazzar Bentley, Jr., April 10, 1860.

John Clemens, Sept. 11, 1865.

Johnson Elrod, April 17, 1866.

John Holland, March 29, 1870.

T. R. Hazzard, Nov. 30, 1870.


A. T. Gregg, May 23, 1873.

John Holland, Jan. 28, 1874.

T. R. Hazzard, Jan. 28, 1874.

A. T. Gregg, Jan. 28, 1874.

W. M. Boggs, April 13,1875.

T. R. Hazzard, April 3, 1877.

Ralston Williams, April 3,1877.

Ralston Williams, Oct. 6,1877.

Moses Scott, March 27, 1879.

John Holland, March 30,1880.

Business and Professional Men of 1882. —The city of to-day contains considerably more than three thousand inhabitants, and among its prominent professional and business men we mention (though not with the intention of being invidious) the following: Messrs. Alexander & Co., bankers; Neel, Blythe & Co., proprietors of Valley Saw- and Planing-Mills; Maj. Chill W. Hazzard, editor and publisher of the Monongahela Valley Republican (daily and weekly) and postmaster; Yohe, Corrin & Co., proprietors of extensive saw- and planing-mills; Culbertson & Hart-rick, proprietors of the Union Paper-Mills; Morrison, Abrams & Co., founders, machinists, and engine-builders ; S. P. Keller & Co., dry-goods merchants; McGrew & Parkison, proprietors City Flouring-Mills; Michael Bowman, merchant tailor; John Bowman, merchant tailor and captain of company of State National Guards ; William McGregor, merchant tailor; H. Landefeld, merchant tailor; R. H. Young, dealer in dry-goods, etc. ; George A. Hoffman & Son, hardware merchants ; Vol. Farquhar, dealer in groceries and produce ; T. B. Wilgus, grocer, etc. ; J. F. Nicholson, jeweler, watchmaker, and dealer in organs, pianos, etc.; J. I. Strouse, jeweler; M. Borland & Sons, dealers in dry-goods, etc. ; S. C. Hill, dealer in boots and shoes; Silas Haley, merchant tailor; James B. Boyer, dry-goods merchant; R. C. Byers & Son, druggists; Lewis S. Dunn, druggist; D. H. Williams, grocer; Frank M. Myers, furniture dealer, etc.; William T. Markell, dealer in cigars and tobacco; Anton Bros., merchant tailors ; Samuel L. Kennedy, dealer

6 To. date, March. 10, 1882, the city has a balance in the treasury of $1262.68, and Its available assets amount to $2110.02.


in grain, agricultural implements, etc. ; R. M. Gee & Sons, proprietors steam marble-works ; George A. Keller, dealer in general merchandise ; W. A. Patterson, grocer; E. Downer, hardware merchant; T. J. Wallace, grocer; Wilber S. Sheplar, druggist; J. C. Scott & Co., druggists ; William H. Scott & Bro., editors and proprietors of the Valley Record ; O'Leary Bros. & Co., glass manufacturers; W. L. S. Wilson, express and railroad station agent; Cypher Bros., books, stationery, etc ; People's Bank (J. B. Finley, president; J. L. George, cashier) ; E. T. Graham, founder; J. E. Richards & Bro., wagon-makers ; Samuel T. Robinson, meat-market; James P. Sheplar, proprietor Sheplar. House ; Ralston Williams, alderman and general insurance agent; Theodore M. Byers, dealer in dry-goods and notions.

Of the merchants here mentioned, the house of S. P. Keller & Co. was established by S. P. Keller in 1860. His brother, E. W. Keller, entered the firm in 1871, since which the name of S. P. Keller & Co. has been used. E. W. Keller established a grocery-store in 1852. Dry-goods were added three years later, and in 1860 he dropped the sale of groceries entirely, continuing dealing in dry-goods, however, until combining with his brother in 1871 in the sale of dry-goods, carpets, oil-cloths, notions, trimmings, boots and shoes, and general merchandise.

Michael Bowman is the oldest merchant, in a business point of view, in the town. He is a native of Bavaria. He came to America in 1842 (when nineteen years of age), and first located in Pittsburgh. From the latter place he removed to Monongahela City in 1850.

William McGregor engaged in the sale of boots and shoes in 1873. His present business of merchant tailoring and the sale of ready-made clothing was established in 1875.

R. H. Young has been identified with the business interests of the town since 1857. His present dry-goods house was established April 1, 1881.

George A. Hoffman & Son take rank as the second oldest business firm in Monongahela City. Their hardware- and cutlery-store was established by the former in June, 1852.

T. B. Wilgus established his present large grocery business in March, 1880.

J. F. Nicholson has been engaged in the sale of pianos and organs since 1872. The jewelry business which is also carried on by him was established by his father, W. M. Nicholson, in 1874.

James B. Boyer succeeded the firm of Summerville & Yohe in April, 1879, the latter having established the business in April, 1876.

J. I. Strouse is a native of Germany, but came to America when but eighteen months old. His well-known jewelry-store was established in the spring of 1873.

The drug-store of R. Eugene Byers was established by R. C. Byers & Son in 1869. The grocery-store was added in March, 1872, and Sept. 1. 1881, the firm-name was changed to that first mentioned in this paragraph.

L. S. Dunn, druggist, established his present store July 1, 1879.

H. Landefeld, the genial merchant tailor near the post-office, established his business in Monongahela City August, 1878.

D. H. Williams' grocery-store was first controlled by himself in April, 1880.

Under the firm-name of Myers & McMahon, Frank M. Myers and Alexander McMahon established furniture salesrooms, etc., in 1880. In the fall of 1881 they divided the business. Mr. Myers attends to the undertaking, while Mr. McMahon deals in furniture exclusively. Mr. Myers' grandfather, Matthias Myers, was a native of Germany, and an early settler near Bentleysville.

W. T. Markell established his present business, i.e., dealer in cigars, tobacco, etc., in the spring of 1871. His father, W. J. Markell, engaged in the same business in 1856, and continued it for several years. He now controls a distillery on Pigeon Creek.

The firm of Anton Brothers, merchant tailors, was established in the fall of .1881. Prior to that time P. B. Anton had been a dealer in boots and shoes.

The grain and agricultural implement warerooms of S. L. Kennedy, on Main Street, were established in August, 1880.

George A. Keller, whose present grocery-store was started in March, 1881, has been an active business man of the town for a period of more than thirty-eight years. As early as 1852 he was in the grocery business with his brother, E. W. Keller, and has operated a foundry for the past nineteen years.

William A. Patterson's grocery-store, etc., was established by his father, Joseph Patterson, April 1, 1878. The former assumed control in December, 1880.

E. Downer established his business in 1862. He was a resident. of the town, however, during 1851.

T. J. Wallace engaged in the sale of groceries, etc., in 1878, and removed to his present place of business the following year.

W. S. Sheplar, druggist, began business in April, 1881. He is a son of James P. Sheplar, proprietor of the " Sheplar House."

The drug-store of J. C. Scott & Co. was established by J. C. Scott in 1869. The present firm-name was adopted in April, 1881.

Theodore M. Byers, dealer in dry-goods and notions, established his business April 1, 1880.

Physicians.-George A. Linn, George E. Lyth, Franklin P. Scott, James G. Sloan,¹ Charles B.

¹ Dr. James G. Sloan graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., in the summer of 1862. He then joined the 140th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers and served three years. After the close of the war he began the study of medicine, and graduated with honors from the University of Georgetown, D. C., in March, 1869. He practiced his profession at Fayette City, Pa., for four years, and has been established at his present place of residence, Monongahela City, for more than eight years.


Wood, R. S. H. Keys, M. P. Morrison, G. P. Mitchell, and H. J. Gamble.

Surgeon Dentists.—J. D. Hammond and W. H. King.

Attorneys. --The present attorneys-at-law are Thomas H. Baird, admitted to practice at February term, 1846, and George A. Hoffman, Jr., admitted in December, 1875. Of other attorneys who at various periods have lived in the town or its vicinity were Judge Thomas H. Baird,¹ admitted in March, 1808 ; T. R. Hazzard, November, 1840 ; Robert F. Cooper, May, 1842 ; O. B. McFadden, February, 1843 ; Solomon Alter, May, 1843; J. W. F. White, May, 1844; Ianthus Bentley, February, 1866; J. M. Milligan, February, 1866 ; and John M. Davis, January, 1877.

Hon. George V. Lawrence, of Monongahela City, although not a lawyer, has for many years been a law-maker and one of the most prominent men in Western Pennsylvania. He represented the people of Washington County in the State House of Representatives in 1844, 1847, 1859, and 1860; Washington County in the State Senate for a term commencing in October, 1848 ; Washington and Greene Counties for term commencing October, 1860 ; and in October, 1864, was elected to represent the counties of Washington, Greene, Beaver, and Lawrence in the national House of Representatives.

Alexander & Co., Bankers.—Although we have mentioned the fact that the Monongahela and Williamsport Manufacturing and Banking Company was chartered in January, 1814, it seems that this company was never organized, and that the people of the town could not boast of any banking facilities until the spring season of 1861, when the Messrs. Alexander & Co. (composed of Joseph Alexander² and his sons, William J. and James S.) established a banking-house in connection with their business as merchants.

In 1870 the present elegant bank building was erected at a cost, exclusive of the grounds, of $20,000. It is constructed of brick and stone, ornamented with

¹ Judge Baird was the father of the present Thos. H. Baird, Esq., and resided at the point now known as Baird's Station, on the Pittsburgh, Virginia and Charleston Railroad. He was a gentleman distinguished for his great legel ability, and Oct. 19, 1818, was elected president judge of the district conposed of Washington, Fayette, Greene, and. Somerset Counties.

² Joseph Alexander, was born at Rostraver, Westmoreland Co., Pa., in the year 1795. Acconpanied by his wife and three children, viz., William J., Bose Ann, and Eliza, he settled in Williamsport during the year 1828. He immediately engaged in business as a dealer in general merchandise, occupying a log structure on Main Street which stood opposite the McGregor building. Soon after, however, he removed across the street to a frame store-house which stood on the site of the present McGregor building, and which was occupied by himself and sons for many years thereafter. His children born after his settlement in Williamsport were James S., Emeline, Amanda, and Theresa His wife died in 1856, and full of years he departed from this stage of action in the year 1870. He was an honorable and successful merchant, a devoted husband and father, a public-spirited Christian gentleman, a stanch Whig and Republican (though it was his pride to boast that he ones cast his vote for "Old Hickory"), and was universally esteemed by all who had the pleasure of knowing him.

Mansard slate-roof, towers, and cresting, and its vaults, fire- and burglar-proof, are, among the very best. Though the senior members of the house died in 1870, the business is still continued under the title of Alexander & Co., and most probably will be for many years to come, for its members, by their gentlemanly manners, obliging dispositions, and sterling, well-tried integrity, have secured the confidence and respect of all who meet them in a business way and the everyday walks of life. A capital of $100,000 is usually employed.

People's Bank —This thriving institution was established under the title of the "People's Savings-Bank," Sept. 1, 1870, by a stock company, which began businesss with a paid-up capital of $100,000. The first officers were A. C. Sampson, president; J. B. Finley,³ cashier; A. C. Sampson, James Sampson, James K. Logan, W. M. Devore, and J. B. Finley, directors.

The first president, A. C. Sampson, died May 10, 1872, when James Sampson was elected to fill the vacancy. In January, 1880, a reorganization took place, when the present name, i.e., the People's Bank, was adopted, and the following officers elected : J. B. Finley, president; John L. George, cashier; George V. Lawrence, Robert Phillips, James B. Gibson, George A. Linn, and William P. Ketchum, directors. No changes have since occurred. The building owned and occupied by the bank is situated on the southwest corner of Main and Washington Streets.

Manufacturing. —The Valley Saw- and Planing-Mills, Messrs. Neel; Blythe & Co. proprietors, contractors and builders, is the pioneer establishment of its kind in this section of the country, and stands today where it has always stood, at the head, and in the front rank of all its competitors, both in extent of business done and the quality of work produced.

It appears that the first mill standing upon this site was built in the year 1850, by William and Joseph. Brown, father and son respectively. It was a two-story structure, fifty-five by seventy feet, and was fitted for planing and the manufacture of sash, doors, shutters, mouldings, etc.

After one year Joseph sold out his interests to his father, and some three years later the latter sold to Messrs. Kiddoo & Pollock. Mr. Pollock continued but three or four years, when David Moore purchased his interests. The first building was burned in 1858, and the following year the partners, Joseph Kiddoo and David Moore, erected the second one, which was three stories in height, and its ground dimensions forty by eighty feet.

³ Mr. Finley is a representative of the well-known family of Finleys, of Finleyville, though born in the city of Philadelphia. He has been a resident of Monongahela City since 1861, and from that time until the founding of the People's Bank was in the employ of Messrs. Alexander & Co. He was a member of Capt. William J. Alexander's company of State militia, and with that command proceeded to the front in Maryland, immediately after the battle of Antietam.


The firm of Kiddoo & Moore continued until 1867, when the latter sold out to Blythe (John) & Beach (Charles E.), and the former to James Neel and E. A. Foster, the new firm assuming the title of Foster, Blythe & Co. On the 13th-of July, 1875, during. the conflagration which destroyed the saw- and planing-mill of Culbertson & Hartrick, the building erected in 1859 and occupied by Foster, Blythe & Co. was also burned. The work of reconstruction began at once, and ninety days later, on Oct. 13, 1875, the present building was completed. It is two stories in height, and sixty-five by one hundred and five feet, not including the engine-house.

On the 13th of April, 1876, Mr. Beach's interests were purchased by Mr. Neel, and the firm-name was changed to that of Foster, Blythe & Neel. This firm was continued until Jan. 17, 1880, when Mr. Foster sold out to Messrs. Neel and Blythe, other members were admitted, and the present firm of Neel, Blythe & Co. established, the individual members of the firm being James Neel, John Blythe, James Blythe, John W. Teeters, J. P. Taylor, and Philip Zenn.

The building occupied is a strong and substantial one, and well adapted for the business of sawing lumber and the production of flooring, siding, weatherboarding, sash, blinds, doors, lath, railing, wood-turning, scroll-work, etc.. The machinery is of the very best in use, and it would be a difficult matter, indeed, to find anywhere a more perfectly arranged and better conducted establishment.

From sixty to seventy-five men are steadily employed. Besides the elegant new school building in Monongahela City, this firm have during the past two years erected a large number of buildings at Brad-dock's, McConnellville, Belle Vernon, and other places. They purchased during the year 1881 300,000 cubic feet of logs and 2,300,000 feet of sawed lumber, ,and will handle during the year 1882 at least 4,000,000 feet of lumber. They have also an extensive boat-and barge-yard connected with their works.

The Union Paper-Mills, of Monongahela City, Messrs. Culbertson & Hartrick proprietors, were established in 1850 by Dr. Samuel D. Culbertson, of Chambersburg, Pa., being the first manufactory of its kind in which air alone was depended upon for drying erected west of the Allegheny Mountains. In 1862 steam was adopted for drying purposes, and on the 4th day of March, 1864, the buildings were destroyed by fire. However, Mr. Albert Culbertson, son of Dr. Culbertson, immediately began the work of rebuilding, and in March, 1865, the works were

again put in motion with an increased capacity.

In 1876 the present proprietors, Messrs. S. D. Culbertson ¹ and R. S. D. Hartrick, assumed control, and have since conducted the business under the firm-name of Culbertson & Hartrick.

¹Mr. S. D. Culbertson is a son of Alfred, and grandson of the original owner of the mill.

Originally, by dint of much hard labor and the most expert manipulations, but two and two and one-half tons of " straw-board" tould be produced in twenty-four hours. Now, however, the average daily product is seven tons. Fifty .men are here given employment. Straw-board, manufactured from wheat, rye, oat, and barley straw (obtained from the surrounding country), is the only article produced, and the cities of New York and Philadelphia are chiefly depended upon for marketing the same, yet considerable quantities of the products of this mill have been sent direct to England, Cuba, and San Francisco, Cal.

The Foundry and Machine-Shops of Messrs. Morrison, Abrams & Co. were established by J. W. Downer in 1872. After a brief period the firm-name was changed to that of Hindman, Downer & Lecky, which firm continued until 1877, when Mr. Downer having retired, the name of Hindman, Morrison & Co. was adopted. Another change took place soon after though, and under the name of Morrison & Co. the business was conducted by Messrs. W. H. Morrison and T. H. Pollock ² from 1877 until Jan. 1, 1881, when Capt. R. R. Abrams became a member of the firm, and the present title, i.e., Morrison, Abrams & Co., was assumed.

Many improvements have been made during the few years last passed, and the premises, situated midway between the railroad and river, are equipped with the most perfect machinery and tools, including a steam-engine of sixteen horse-power. Fifteen skilled workmen are constantly employed by the firm, and the manufactures consist chiefly of complete outfits for the mining of coal, such as coal tipples, bolts, pit-cars, pit-car wheels, castings, etc. They also make a specialty of "Morrison & Co.'s Reversible Engine," which, while running easily and noiselessly, is unequaled in beauty and finish. This engine was exhibited at the Exposition (1876), and has given entire satisfaction wherever introduced. The business of the firm of Morrison, Abrams & Co. is continually increasing, and quite recently they have performed much work for the Monongahela Navigation Company at locks Nos. 1 and 2.

The City Flouring-Mill of Monongahela City, Messrs. McGrew & Parkison³ present proprietors, was

² Mr. Pollock, who represented the "Co." in the firms entitled Hindman, Morrison & Co. and Morrison & Co., is also the "Co." in the present firm of Morrison, Abrams & Co. He is a gentleman of acknowledged ability as a designer and practical machinist, having learned his. trade at the Pittsburgh Locomotive-Works, and now acts as foreman and general manager of the works.

³ Mr. A. R. Parkison is a great-grandson of one of five brothers, the original settlers of this immediate locality, and his family have for many years been identified with the milling business, more particularly at Mingo and Elkhorn. Thus we find that about the beginning of the present century Benjamin Parkison (grandfather of A. R.) threw a dam across the river at Mingo and erected two flouring-mills (one on either side), a fulling-mill, and a saw-mill. William, the father of A. R. Parkison, after inheriting the estate, built a paper-mill on the right bank of the river, and named that locality Elkhorn.

Mr. McGrew also is a representative of one of the first families to settle in Washington County.


erected about the year 1845, by Henry Shearer and John Sheplar. Afterwards the mill was controlled at various times by Beach & Co., George & Shaw, and John L. George until the year 1877, when the present firm, viz., James McGrew and A. R. Parkison, became its owners.

The building is a five-story wooden structure, forty-two by ninety feet, and has a capacity of eighty barrels of flour per day. The machinery used is of the best and latest improved kind, including a new purifier and middling stone and an engine of fifty horsepower. This firm, as well as all others doing business in Monongahela City, have excellent facilities for receiving and shipping goods either by wagon, river, or railroad. Mr. McGrew has had an experience in the business of twenty-two years; Mr. Parkison of four years. In conclusion, we will add that both are residents of the city, are energetic and enterprising men, and well worthy of their large and remunerative trade.

On the site where the first boats were built in Monongahela City now stands the planing-mills and lumber-yard of Yohe,¹ Corrin & Co., the individual members of the firm being Isaac Yohe, James L. Yohe, Lewis N. Yohe; and Edward Corrin. However, the business was established in November, 1880, under the firm-name of Yohe, Carson & Co. In June, 1881, Mr. Carson having retired, Mr. Corrin came in as a member of the firm: All are practical men of many years' experience and natives of the city.

They are largely engaged in contracting and building, and during the past year have erected many fine buildings at Greenfield, Webster, Tomer & McKinney's works, Hometead, Columbia, and in other localities. Their lumber-yard is two hundred feet square. The planing-mill is two stories in height, thirty-four by sixty-four feet, and is fitted up with the latest improved machinery. Power is derived from steam, 'and thirty-five men are employed.

The Monongahela Glass-Works, although situated just without the municipal limits, are among the most important of the many manufacturing interests found within the city or its immediate vicinity. Under the firm-name of Ihmsen, Fox & Co. (H. L. Ihmsen, Gregor Fox, John J. O'Leary, and James Beck, all of Pittsburgh, being the individual members), the work of construction was commenced in June, 1880, completed September 1st of the same year, and the first glass was cut September 13th following. On the 21st of February, 1881, by the retirement of Mr. Fox and the purchase of his interests by T. O'Leary, Jr., of Pittsburgh, the title assumed

¹ Isaac Yohe, the grandfather of the Yohe brothers (the members o this firm), came from Easton, Pa., and settled near Valley Inn, or on the farm now occupied by Marvin Sheplar, in Carroll township, about the year 1810, having been induced to remove westward in consequence of the flattering description of this county given by a brother who had visited Washington County during the Whiskey Rebellion. Michael son of Isaac, and father of Isaac, James, and Lewis before mentioned was one of the first to vote the Free-Soil or Abolition ticket in the county.

by the firm was that of O'Leary, Beck & Co. Mr. T. O'Leary, Jr., purchased the interests of Mr. Ihmsen in the fall of 1881, and Mr. Beck's in February, 1882, and thus the firm-name of the present is that of O'Leary Bros. & Co.

Sixty men and two boys are regularly employed, and the products of these works (window-glass exclusively) amount to nine hundred boxes per week. This firm also manufacture their own melting pots, an essential and most important feature in the fabrication of glass.

The Monongahela City Steam Granite- and Marble-Works were established by R. M. Gee in 1852. He conducted the business alone until the year 1865, when his sons, J. L.,² J. R., William M., and Charles W. Gee, having become partners, the firm-name was changed to that of R. M. Gee & Sons. In 1873, Mr. .T. H. Weygandt entered the firm, and the business has since been carried on under the title of R. M. Gee, Sons & Co.

This enterprising firm manufactured marble ana granite monuments and headstones, cemetery fences, etc., beautiful in design and most artistically finished. Motive power is derived from an engine of twenty-five horse-power, and from seven to fifteen skilled workmen are employed. They also own and operate a valuable sandstone quarry, situated about one mile from the town, where, during the summer season, about twenty-five men are employed. The stone here obtained is of most excellent quality, and in the construction of buildings, stoops, canal- and river-locks, etc., it meets every requirement. This firm stands ready to contract for and execute work in stone of whatever kind or nature, and doubtless all those in need of their skill and great experience will find, after trial, that their work has been performed with promptness and the greatest care.

The Monongahela City Steam Docks, owned by William H. Barr, were established by the Monongahela City Dock Company (composed of Joseph Taman, Shadrick Heyser, George Grove, Cyrus Linn, and others) in 1865. After several changes in proprietorship, Mr. Barr leased the property in 1871, and some two or three years later purchased the same. From sixteen to twenty men are here employed during the busy seasons. Barges, flats, and boats are built, and all kinds of river craft repaired.

In 1878 the steamer " Hunter No. 2" was placed upon the docks, her upper works detached from and raised above her hull, and while thus supported a new hull was built.

Graham's Foundry, situated in the upper part of the town near Pigeon Creek, was established by its present proprietor, E. T. Graham, in 1879. Stoves, farm-bells, and coal-mining cars are manufactured, besides which a large amount of jobbing and repairing is done. The works furnish employment to eight men.

² J. L. Gee died in 1877


Coal-Mining.—The mining of a superior quality of bituminous coal is and has been for many years an important feature as regards the business interests of the town. A six-foot vein underlies all the surface in the vicinity, and thus the people are afforded ample and cheap fuel, while hundreds of miners are furnished steady and remunerative employment.

The mines now operated within the city limits are those of the Harlem Coal Company and James Jones', the latter operating the mine opened by Hiram A. Warne, Robert Coulter, and Jonas Carothers in 1859. About four hundred men are employed by the operators here mentioned.

Gas Company:—The " Monongahela City Gas Company" was incorporated by an act of the State Legislature, approved Feb. 20, 1872, William Smith, Samuel Bridge, Jr., S. H. Goldthrop, B. W. Flack, R. C. Loomis, William Collingwood, J. B. Flack, M. Naylor, and J. H. Connelly being named in the act as commissioners to organize the company. The act further specified that the capital stock should consist of $20,000, "to be increased to any amount not exceeding $100,000 by a vote of the stockholders of said company," and that the stock be divided into shares of $50 each.

In accordance with the provisions of the before-mentioned act, and of a notice published in the Monongahela Republican of date June 27, 1872, M. Naylor and J. H. Connelly attended at the office of Thomas H. Baird, Esq., in Monongahela City, at 2 o'clock P.M., July 8, 1872, and then and there proceeded to open books and receive subscriptions to the capital stock of the company. Twenty per cent. of the capital stock having been subscribed Aug. 11, 1873, on the 22d day of September following a meeting was held to organize the company. W. L. S. Wilson acted as chairman, and D. C. Shaw acted as secretary of this meeting, and the officers then elected were William J. Alexander, president ; J. H. Connelly, vice-president; D. C. Shaw, treasurer and secretary ; J. B. Finley, John L. George, William M. Devore, M. Naylor, and, George V. Lawrence, directors. At the same meeting also the president and treasurer were made ex-officio members of the board. On the following day (Sept. 23, 1873) a contract was made with Messrs. Connelly, Naylor & Co., of Pittsburgh, for the construction of the works.

Under the superintendency of Mr. Fulmer the work of construction began at once, and during the holiday week of 1873 a supply. of gas was awaiting the use of consumers. Originally the works cost $32,000. At the beginning Connelly, Naylor & Co. took stock to the amount of $23,000, but goon -after completing the works they sold out their shares to Messrs. William J. Alexander, John L. George, George V. Lawrence, and J. B. Finley, and thus the stock is all held by residents of Monongahela City.

The present officers are William J. Alexander, president; J. B. Finley, secretary and treasurer, James Stockdale, George V. Lawrence, John L. George, B. F. Bentley, and J. B. Finley directors.

Company A, Tenth Regiment, N. G.—With the close of the late civil strife the American people generally deemed themselves as having had an ample sufficiency of the pomp and circumstance of real war, and for four or five years thereafter such a feeling prevailed everywhere. But the Americans are a military people naturally, and no sooner had a brief period of quietness been passed, and the silent mounds become green over the graves of our heroes who fell on Southern fields, than this latent military spirit again asserted itself. Independent military companies were organized here and there, and veterans of the war stepped forward as commanders and drill-masters. Therefore, when in July, 1869, the Hazzard Zouaves, an independent company under the command of Capt. J. De V. Hazzard, First Lieut. Christopher Galloway, and Second Lieut. William Oliver, was organized, it was but in consonance with a movement quite general throughout the victorious, prosperous North.

This company kept up its organization until August, 1872, when from it the Light Guards, or Company A, of the Tenth Regiment, National Guards of Pennsylvania, was organized, with Capt. J. De V. Hazzard,¹ First Lieut. John Bowman, and Second Lieut. George A. Gregg as its officers. In 1878, A. M. Walker became captain of the company, John Bowman remained its first lieutenant, and John J. Hazzard was commissioned second lieutenant. The next change occurred Sept. 6, 1880, when Samuel D. Culbertson was commissioned second lieutenant. On the 8th of August, 1881, the present officers, viz.: Capt. John Bowman,² First Lieut. Samuel D. Culbertson, and Second Lieut. William J. Scott, were commissioned.

Company A, like the entire force of the State National Guards, is uniformed and equipped in a first-class manner, and could take the field ready for campaign duty at an hour's notice. It is armed with Springfield breech-loaders, calibre 50. During the riotous days of July, 1877, it performed efficient service, under the command of Capt. Hazzard, at Pittsburgh, Pa. Afterwards Capt. Hazzard recruited a company, known as the volunteers of the Tenth Regiment, National Guards of Pennsylvania, from the various companies of the Tenth Regiment, and with it performed a three months' term of service at Scranton, Pa.

At Camp Vincent, in the autumn of 1881, Company A paraded with three commissioned officers and fifty-three enlisted men, and in drill, discipline, soldierly appearance, and rifle.-practice it stood far in advance of any other company in the regiment. In-

¹ Soon after Capt. Hazzard was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, but he declined the promotion, preferring to remain with the company which he had organized.

² At the time Capt. Bowman was promoted from first lieutenant to the command of the company he was the third in rank among the first lieutenants in the State.


deed it has been a " star" company since 1872, and there are but few companies in the Commonwealth which can show a better record.

The Press.—Williamsport's first newspaper, the Western Patriot, was established by B. Brown in 1815. The town was then enjoying its first boom, and its first church edifice, glass-factory, and other manufactories were in process of erection. The second newspaper was the Village Informant, which was published in 1818 by Joseph Clingan.

On the 7th of May, 1821, The Phoenix was first issued by B. Brown. This was followed June 17, 1822, by a prospectus of a weekly newspaper entitled The Journal of the Interior,¹ to be published every Tuesday by Brown & Scott, at two dollars per annum. The Pennsylvanian, the next journalistic venture, made its first appearance June 25, 1828, John Bausman being editor and proprietor.

Carroll township was erected in 1834, and in 1835 Dr. John W. Hammond² and John Bausman established the Carroll Gazette. William Davidson was the editor of this paper subsequently. The Monongahela Patriot, Alexander Davidson, editor, was started in 1840.

Neutral Ground was published by John McNeil in 1841, and the Advocate and Day-Spring was first issued by W. H. H. T. Barnes in 1845.

The Monongahela Valley Republican was established by Solomon Alter, Esq., in 1848, the first number being dated July 7th of that year. In 1851 it was sold to David Ramaley and P. H. Reinhardt, who managed it until 1855, when T. R. Hazzard and his eon, Chill W. Hazzard, became its owners. It has been owned and ably edited by Maj. Chill W. Hazzard since 1864.

In 1853 (February 22d) the American Republican and Spirit of Washington was issued by the " American Association." This newspaper was a medium-sized five-column folio, and Chris. Wilson, Lovell Sias, and A. V. Graham were its editors. It continued but about three months.

The Aurora, a small, yet lively three-column folio, was first issued May 1, 1857 ; Cyrus B. King was its editor, and Joseph H. Wilson publisher. After about three months, however, this aurora ceased to dawn upon the public.

During the latter part of 1860 The Valley Sentinel was established by Moses T. Scott & Co. Robert F. Cooper served as editor. The paper was a seven-column folio, and its publication was continued for about two years.

The Junior's Friend and Pennsylvania Reserve News Letter was edited and published by Maj. Chill W. Hazzard in 1876.

Early in 1875, John B. Scott began .the publication

¹ This proposed paper was never issued.

² Dr. J. W. Hammond was the fatker of Dr. W. A. Hammond (formerly surgeon-general of the United States army), now of New York City.

of a monthly sheet entitled The Advertiser. It was a small five-column folio, and being chiefly intended as an advertising medium, was distributed in town and at various points along the river gratuitously. Yet containing much interesting reading matter, a considerable number of subscribers received it through the mails by the payment of twenty-five cents per year.

The Valley Record, William M. Boggs editor, made its first appearance on the 4th day of March, 1876. It was established and controlled by a stock company, however, the "Record Printing Company," of which Charles A. Mams, Mark Borland, S. P. Keller & Co., R. C. Byers & Son, J. B. Finley, Rev. W. O. Campbell, B. W. Castner, Rev. T. N. Boyle, F. J. Gardner, James H. Moore, S. Hindman, J. E. Rial, S. Graham, and John B. Scott were members.

Originally it was a seven-column quarto. Nine months afterwards it was changed to an eight-column quarto, and on the 9th day of January, 1880, was reduced to its present size, i.e., a six-column quarto.

Mr. Boggs continued as editor of the Record for a period of about nine months, when John B. Scott, who to that time had performed the duties of foreman, was elected editor. On the 1st of April, 1880, the Scott brothers, viz., John B., William H., and E. F. Scott, purchased the paper, its material, etc., and continued together until Oct. 1, 1881, when John B. Scott removed to McKeesport, Pa., and began the publication of the McKeesport Record. Consequently, William H. and E. F.. Scott are the present publishers of The Valley Record, the first named being its editor. The Record is published weekly as an independent family newspaper, and has an extensive circulation.

The Daily Republican, Maj Chill W. Hazzard, editor and publisher, was started in the early part of 1881. It is sprightly and newsy, and supplies a want long felt by the townspeople. Its circulation is constantly increasing.

Williamsport Bridge Company.—This company was chartered by an act of the State Legislature, approved March 16, 1832. In 1836 nine hundred and fifty shares were subscribed for, at a par value of fifty dollars each Of these shares Joseph Ritner, Governor of the Commonwealth, in accordance with the provisions of the act of incorporation, subscribed for three hundred shares on behalf of the State. Nicholas Biddle, president of the Bank of the United States, subscribed for three hundred shares on behalf of that bank, and the remainder of the shares (three hundred and fifty in number) were taken by citizens interested and living in the vicinity.

The first officers were James Manown, president; Samuel Devore, treasurer ; Robert F. Biddle, secretary ; James Manown, John Storer, John McFarlane, William Mills, Asher Van Kirk, Robert F. Biddle, and John R. Shugart, managers. Proposals for constructing the bridge were opened in July, 1836, and the contracts were then awarded to Wil-


liam Pagan and Robert Alston for stone-work, and to Lothrop & Stockton for superstructure.

The bridge was completed in 1838, at a cost of about sixty thousand dollars; and that the contractors performed honest work is attested by the fact that, though it has been a prominent landmark and in constant use for nearly half a century, it is still in good condition. Its length is nine hundred and twenty-one feet.

On the 14th day of May, 1882, the present managers were elected, viz.: William Galbraith, president of the board; William J. Alexander, treasurer; Joseph A. Herron, secretary; J. B. Finley, James Stockdale, Frank Manown, John L. George, and Frank Williams.

Hiram Lodge, No. 170, F. and A. M., was instituted at Williamsport, Dec. 6, 1819, and continued in existence until the year 1827, when, in consequence of the feeling displayed against all Masonic associations, the work of this lodge was suspended indefinitely. The only Worshipful Master of Hiram Lodge was Dr. James Pollock.

Henry M. Phillips Lodge, No. 337, F. and A. M., was chartered March 5, 1860, John Withrow, S. B. Bentley, David Riddle, Shesh Bentley, and A. J. Buffington being named as charter members. The lodge was instituted May 15th following by James Lindsey, acting D. D. G. M., who was a member .of Waynesburg Lodge, No. 152. Those who served as the first officers were John Withrow, W. M. ; S. B. Bentley, S. W. ; David Riddle, J. W. ; And A. J. Buffington, Sec.

John Withrow served through the years 1860-61. Subsequently Past Masters have been W. L. S. Wilson, 1862-63 ; Shesh Bentley, 1864; Joel Grable, 1865; R. S. H. Keys, 1866 ; Edward Creighton, 1867; W. S. S. Wilson, 1868; John Holland, 186971; R. S. H. Keys, 1872; W. C. Craven, 1873; J. C. Taylor, 1874; Chill W. Hazzard, 1875 ; W. E. Penrod, 1876; John F. Cooper, 1877; L. F. Jones, 1878; F. P. Scott, 1879-80; C. V. Stockdale, 1881.

The officers for 1882 are Charles H. Hoffman, W. M.; Samuel D. Culbertson, S. W. ; John P. Borland, J. W. ; C. V. Stockdale, Sec. ; John Holland, Treas. ; G. A. Hoffman, S. D.; A. F. McAllister, 3. D. ; J. L. Yohe, Pur.; and L. McDonald, Tyler.

Since its organization two hundred and thirteen members have belonged to the lodge. The present number of members is one hundred.

Regular meetings are held in Masonic Hall (third floor of Hazzard's building) on the first Tuesday after each full moon, at seven o'clock P.M.

Nucleus Lodge; No. 377, I. O. O. F., was instituted at Monongahela City, Pa., Sept. 14, 1849, with Frank Nelson, James H. Chess, H. B. Strayer, J. B. Springer, and John Watkins as charter members. The first officers were Frank Nelson, N. G. ; James H. Chess, V. G. ; H. B. Strayer, Sec. ; J. B. Springer, Asst. See.; John Watkins, Treasurer. On the 16th of November following, H. D. Cooper, Josiah W. Carmack, H. Hombeck, James L. Irwin, Robert Coulter, John Gilfillan, and John Varner were initiated as members. To April, 1882, three hundred and seventy-two members have belonged to the organization, and those in good standing at the same date numbered ninety-seven.

Of those who have received the title of Past Grand are the following : Josiah W. Carmack, Frank Nelson, Robert Coulter, John Varner, Raphael Coulter, Charles E. Beach, Michael Bowman, A. T. Gregg, Munson Clark, Peter S. Griffin, Isaac Wall, Hughey McKinney, Shed. Heiser, Milo Gibson, Ralston Hamilton, R. M. Gee, S. H. Morrison, Thomas Wilson, J. C. Taylor, Robert McMasters, R. H. Young, M. Turnbolt, J. B. Williams, Isaac Lowman, I. Hodge, G. M. Groves, T. R. Hazzard, William S. Mellinger, D. A. Lackey, George Callahan, William Wilson, A. D. O'Donavan, George Frantz; W. L. S. Wilson, Joseph Cotesworth, G. L. Bayha, J. S. Gee,

J. W. Downer, H. C. Underwood, James Craig, F. M. Myers, J. W. Hank, John H. Hill, John Holland, John Gilfillan, Mark Borland, Thomas Cotesworth, M. Sanders, John Patterson, Daniel Cooper, James T. Conlin, L. F. Jones, J. K. Long, Charles B. Wood, and J. F. Nicholson, several of those mentioned having served more than one term.

The present officers are J. B. McAllister, N. G. ; William Rohrer, V. G.; G. L. Bayha, Sec.; John Anders, Asst. Sec. ; A. D. O'Donovan, Treasurer: Regular meetings are held every Thursday evening.

On the corner of Main and Washington Streets the Odd-Fellows have a three-story brick structure, which was completed about the year 1870, at a cost of seventeen thousand dollars. It is under control of the Nucleus Association, whose present officers are Edward Corrin, president; John F. Nicholson, sec. ; J. B. Finlay, Chill W. Hazzard, and .Robert. Coulter, directors.

The Odd-Fellows' Mutual Co-operative Association was, an organization formed for the purpose of carrying on an extensive mercantile business. The first floor of the Odd-Fellows' building was occupied, and with a capital of from thirty to forty thousand dollars the business of the association was carried on from April 6, 1867, until about the year 1876, when its affairs were adjusted and the organization discontinued.

Parkison's Ferry Encampment, No.175, I.O.O.F., was instituted March 6, 1869. To date its Past Chief Patriarchs have been R. M. Gee, T. R. Hazzard, G. L. Bayha, A. D. O'Donavan, James Craig, J. W. Latta, John Patterson, John H. Hill, L. R. Campbell, C. M. Yohe, Robert Jobes, H. C. Underwood, J. T. Conlin, L. F. Jones, D. H. Clark, Edward Corrin, V. O..Farquhar, John W. Hank, and Levi Shreckengost.

Waverly Lodge, No. 57, A. O. U. W.. was organized at a meeting held in Odd-Fellows' Hall, Monongahela City, Pa., on the 18th day of August, 1873. This. meeting was organized by calling John Patter-


son to the chair, the appointment of Q. C. Farquhar as secretary, and after J. W. Latta had briefly but clearly stated the objects of the gathering, the following officers were chosen : J. W. Latta, Past Master Workman ; W. A. Nicholson, Master Workman ; H. C. Underwood, General Foreman ; S. P. Madeira, Overseer; C. M. Yohe, Guide ; M. R. Taggart, Recorder; J. P. Taylor, Financier; John Patterson, Receiver; J. T. Conlin, Outer Watch.

On the 29th of August following the lodge was opened for the first time by M. W. Sackett, P. G. M. W., acting as Master Workman ; Joseph Phillips, as General Foreman ; F. G. Reminan, as Overseer; Thomas Jones, as Past Master Workman ; James McCandless, as Guide ; and J. Cushman, as Watch. J. W. Latta, John Patterson, B. Marks, W. A. Nicholson, J. P. Taylor, L. R. Walters, H. C. Underwood, M. Alter, C. M. Yohe, J. T. Conlin, and S. P. Madeira, as charter members, were then initiated into the mysteries of the order, and subsequently the officers chosen at the previous meeting were duly installed by the Grand Lodge officers.

At an adjourned meeting held during the evening of Aug. 29, 1873, the following new members were initiated, viz.: George T. Scott, H. S. Guthrie, George Conn, Lewis McDonald, W. T. Cannon, L. C. Collins, T. H. Kernan, J. W. Hank, W. F. Underwood, and L. R. Campbell. September 5th, same year, the following, also mentioned as charter members, were initiated : John H. Hill, William Haggerty, Eugene Craven, and Francis A. Fell.

Subsequent Master Workmen of this lodge have been elected as here shown : Homer C. Underwood, December, 1873; C. M. Yohe, June, 1874; John W. Hank, December, 1874; John Patterson, June, 1875; J. W. Scott, December, 1875; William H. Arrison, June, ].876: William Mann, December, 1876; J. P. Taylor, June, 1877 ; L. R. Campbell, December, 1877 ; J. T. Conlin, June, 1878; Henry McCain, December, 1878; William Haggerty, June, 1879; William S. Downer, December, 1879 ; Lewis McDonald, June, 1880; Levi Shreckongast, December, 1880; and Samuel D. Culbertson, the present presiding officer, December, 1881. Other present officers who were elected in December, 1881, are James K. Brown, Overseer ; Ralston Williams, Recorder; John Patterson, Financier; Joseph A. Bryan, Receiver; Henry McCain, Guide; John W. Hank, J. W. ; William H. Arrison, Outside Watch ; James G. Sloan, M.D., Medical Examiner; and John W. Hank, Representative to the Grand Lodge.

Waverly Lodge now numbers forty members, and regular meetings are held on the second and fourth Fridays of each month in the Odd-Fellows' building, of Monongahela City.

Monongahela Council, No. 507, Royal Arcanum,. was instituted on the 4th of August, 1880, its charter members being as follows : Eliphalet Downer, William McGregor, John F. Nicholson, Noah Penrod, John W. Teeters, Curtis V. Stockdale, R. S. D. Hartrick, Allen R. Parkison, T. J. Weddell, Mark Borland, J. P. Taylor, R. Eugene Byers, Benjamin C. Camp, Chill W. Hazzard, Samuel D. Culbertson, William P. Ketchum, Lewis N. Yohe, Samuel P. Keller, Thomas H. Baird, James McCallister, James M. Wall, Thomas S. McCurdy, James G. Sloan, and John M. Sutman.

The officers first elected were Thomas H. Baird, Regent; Samuel P. Keller, Vice-Regent; James G. Sloan, Orator; Chill W. Hazzard, Past Regent; John F. Nicholson, Secretary ; Dr. James D. Sloan, Medical Examiner; Curtis V. Stockdale, Collector; J. P. Taylor, Treasurer; William P. Ketcham, Chaplain; Samuel D. Culbertson, Guide; James M. Wall, Warden ; Allen R. Parkison, Sentry ; and Mark Borland, Thomas McCurdy, and R. S. D. Hartrick, Trustees.

In 1881, Samuel P. Keller served as presiding officer. The present officers are Samuel D. Culbertson, Regent; R. S. D. Hartrick; Vice-Regent; T. J. Weddell, Orator ; S. P. Keller, Past Regent; John F. Nicholson, Secretary ; Curtis V. Stockdale, Collector; Thomas S. McCurdy, Treasurer; John D. Wilgus, Chaplain ; John W. Teeters, Guide ; William C. Robison, Warden; James Hamilton, Sentry; James G. Sloan, Medical Examiner; and Thomas S. McCurdy, R. S. D. Hartrick, and William McGregor, Trustees.

The council embraces a membership of forty-one, and regular meetings are held in the Odd-Fellows' Hall on the first and third Mondays of each month.

Grand Army of the Republic.—Under a charter granted by Gen. Louis Wagner, Department Commander, General Starkweather¹ Post, No. 60, G. A. R., was organized April 30, 1867, the charter members being Alvin S. King, G. V. L. Mellinger, S. C. Wiley, M. P. Morrison, Chill W. Hazzard, W. P. Patton, W. H. King, Joseph Taylor, W. S. Cooper, A. D. O'Donovan, J. De V. Hazzard, James A. White, and Elias Gillmore.

Col. Chill W. Hazzard served as the first Post Commander. His successors until 1876 were A. D. O'Donovan, George V. Miller, James W. Downer, A. M. Walker, and J. De V. Hazzard, when a reorganization took place under the new ritual. Subsequent Commanders have been M. R. Taggart, elected in 1876; L. F. Jones, in 1877; James G. Sloan, 1878; W. C. Craven and J. M. Wall, 1879; John M. Sutman, 1880; H. J. Gamble, 1881; and Chill W. Hazzard (the present incumbent), in 1882. Other officers at this time are William Oliver, Senior Vice-Commander; A. T. Gregg, Junior Vice-Commander; James G. Sloan, Surgeon; H. J. Gamble, Quarter-

master; Joseph Jennings, Chaplain; John M. Sta-


¹ Gen. John C. Starkweather, the distinguished soldier after whom this post was named, was well known to many members of the Army of the Cumberland as the colonel of the Sixteenth Wisconsin Infantry. For gallant and meritorious service he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, and subsequently commanded the Third Brigade, Third Division, Fourteenth Army Corps. He is now practicing law at Washington, D. C.


man, Officer of the Day; Adam Wickerham, Officer of the Guard; and H. P. Callow, Adjutant.

Post No. 60 has been noted as an energetic organization since its institution in the spring of 1867. It has suitably observed every Decoration Day. For charitable purposes it has paid out $1255.35. It has ornamented in a most appropriate manner a beautiful lot in the Monongahela Cemetery, where substantial headstones have been placed over the graves of all honorably discharged soldiers buried therein. These stones are of uniform size, and unique in design and finish, bearing corps badges, military history, etc. On this lot also is a battery of twelve-pounder rifled cannon, donated by Congress at the instance of Hon. W. S. Shallenberger, the present member of that body from this district.

This post has been active and instrumental also in organizing kindred associations, and at the muster in of posts at West Newton, Brownsville, McKeesport, Belle Vernon, Washington, Canonsburg, California, Elizabeth, and Boston its members rendered efficient service. Through its Soldiers' Orphans Committee it has secured the admission of about fifty orphans of soldiers to the Soldiers' Orphans' School at Uniontown. This has been one of the special works of the post.

It has carried upon its rolls the names of about three hundred members. Those now in good standing number. seventy-four. Among the distinguished gentlemen who have pronounced the annual memorial address before its members and their friends may be named Hon. A. G. Curtin, ex-Governor of Pennsylvania; Hon. Daniel Agnew, ex-Chief Justice of Pennsylvania; Rev. Dr. G. P. Hays, ex-President Washington and Jefferson College; Gen. James S. Negley, ex-member of Congress from the Allegheny District of Pennsylvania; Hon. J. W. F. White, judge of Court of Common Pleas, Allegheny County, Pa. ; Rev. George P. Beard, President Southwestern Normal College, State of Pennsylvania; and other gentlemen no less distinguished.

In the person of Col. Chill W. Hazzard the post has furnished a representative to the National Encampment for five successive years. Col. Hazzard also served as Commander of the Department of Pennsylvania during the year 1880. (From data furnished by a committee of the post, composed of Dr. James G. Sloan, John M. Sutman, and H. P. Callow.)

First Presbyterian Church.-The church of which this was regarded as the true lineal descendant was first known as the Horseshoe Bottom Presbyterian Church, and was established three and a half miles from Monongahela City, on the Ridge road leading to Brownsville, on a farm belonging to Simon Wilson. It was a log church, and part of the foundation is still (1882) visible. This church was built about 1785. The Rev. Samuel Ralston, D.D., received a call from this and Mingo Creek congregations in November, 1796, which he accepted. In 1807 the congregation removed to Monongahela City, or Williamsport, as it was then called. When this transfer was made there was but one elder, Mr. James Hair. In 1815 it was resolved to build a small brick building, thirty by thirty-five feet. In 1816 the first communion was held in the new church, at which forty-five members sat down at the Lord's Table. In In the same month the following elders were ordained: Messrs. James McGrew, Jesse Martin, and Robert McFarland. Mr. Hugh Wilson, elder from Carlisle, was also elected. The first Sabbath-school held in Williamsport was organized by Messrs. Jesse Martin and James Gordon, who reported July, 1823, a hundred scholars. Dr. Ralston continued preaching to this church until 1834, giving it one-third of his time, when, the people desiring more of his time, and the church of Mingo being unwilling to give it, he withdrew and gave all his time to Mingo, having preached at Williamsport and Horseshoe Bottom thirty-eight years. At a meeting'of the Presbytery of Ohio, held April 20, 1837, the name of this church was changed to that of the " First Presbyterian Church of Monongahela Dr. Ralston was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Nourse, a stated supply, who labored here for six months.

At a congregational meeting July 30, 1835, it was resolved that a new church building should be erected, The building cost about $2100. The dedication sermon was preached by Dr. Elliott, of the Western Theological Seminary. Rev. George D. Porter began preaching as stated supply Oct. 15, 1835, two-thirds of his time. Feb. 20, 1836, Mr. Aaron Kerr was installed, and Messrs, Isaac Van Voorhis and James Gordon were ordained elders. Mr. Porter ceased preaching here February, 1838. The Rev. Mr. Chambers succeeded him as stated supply, remaining about six months. Oct. 28, 1839, the Rev. John Kerr was invited to take the pastoral charge of the congregation two-thirds of his time. Mr. Kerr was ordained and installed pastor by the Presbytery of Ohio April 22, 1840, and remained until 1862. During his pastorate the church grew from a membership of ninety to two hundred and five, the years of greatest increase being in 1842. thirty-six ; in 1848, forty; in 1857, twenty-seven. In 1843, Mr. Henry Fulton was elected and installed elder. June 29, 1857, the following persons were installed elders : Messrs. Joseph Kiddoo, John Powers, and James Dickey. Mr. James Corry was ordained elder at the same time. April 7, 1862, a unanimous call was made out for Rev. S. G Dunlap. He was installed pastor Dec. 6, 1862, and remained until Sept. 29, 1866. Under his ministrations fifty-five were added on examination in 1863 and twenty-eight in 1864. Dec. 6, 1862, Mr. E. W. Tower was installed, and Messrs. John Wright, Francis J. Gardner, and David Moore were ordained elders. Dec. 30, 1866, the congregation voted a call to Rev. J. S. Stuchell, who was installed May 10, 1867, and continued pastor until April 1, 1870. Oct. 26, 1867, Messrs. W. C. Shaw, D. Yohe, and Samuel Hindman were ordained elders. Oct. 1. 1870, a call was made


out for the present (1882) pastor, Rev. William O. Campbell. He began his labors as stated supply Oct. 16, 1870, and was installed pastor Nov. 6, 1871. In the autumn of 1870 the congregation began to build the house in which they at present worship. It is a Gothic structure, and cost, when completed, $32,000. The following were the members of the building committee: Messrs. Aaron Brandy, H. H. Finley, T. R. Hazzard, Esq., John Patterson, James Stockdale, William J. Alexander, James H. Van Voorhis, and Francis I. Gardner. The lecture-room was occupied in 1872, and the church was dedicated on Sunday, June 8, 1873. The following persons constitute the board of elders and deacons at the present time : Elders, Messrs. William Caldwell, Samuel Hindman, W. H. Morrison, Joseph Patterson, John Patterson, John Power, Ralston Williams, Esq. ; deacons, Messrs. William J. Alexander, Michael Bowman, Ebenezer Caldwell, J. B. Finley, Allen Parkison, James Stockdale. This church has furnished twelve ministers of the gospel as follows: Samuel Hair, Gilbert M. Hair, William Hamilton, Thomas Gordon, Alonzo Linn, James P. Fulton, Robert Fulton, John McFarland, Harvey Kerr, Oliphant Todd, William Caldwell, and David H. Stewart.¹

Melonist Episcopal Church.—The memory of our most aged citizens carries us back through a period of seventy years, to the date 1812, at which time two brothers by the name of Riggs, local preachers in thethodist Episcopal Church, organized a class at the house of Samuel Baxter, who then owned the farm now the property of Ira R. Butler, Esq. This class was composed of the two Riggs', Samuel Baxter and wife and several of their children, John R. Shugart. and. his. wife.

In 1813 the first class was organized in what is now known as Monongahela City, John R. Shugart and Ilia wife, Letitia, becoming prominent members of it by transfer from that organized the year previous on the Baxter farm. This class first met at the house of Mrs. Vandever, on the corner of Race Street and Cherry Alley. Shortly after its organization Æneas Graham and wife became members, and he was appointed leader of the class. Under his faithful labors it grew so rapidly as soon to require larger accommodations, and a room was procured in the house of Robert Beebe, on the river-bank, which also became the place of public preaching. A change was again necessitated by the continued rapid growth of the class and congregation, and a log house located on Main Street, formerly used as a barracks for troops, was temporarily fitted up as a place of worship.

Removing from this the society next took possession of what was at that time known as " The Old Log School-House," on Spring Alley, which was used until it became unfit for occupancy. On the bill at the upper end of the town was an old Union

¹ By Rev. William O. Campbell.

Church, built at an early date by general subscription ; this was occupied at intervals, and preaching and class services were frequently held at private houses throughout the neighborhood.

In 1826, the congregation having grown numerically as also in financial ability, the first building for church purposes was purchased. This was located on the river-bank, and was originally, and up to the time of purchase, a private dwelling. The committee appointed to purchase this property was composed in part of William Jones, Æneas Graham, and Robert Bebee. It was a building of three stories, the first or lower one being brick, the second and third wood.

By removing the lower story and adding wings it was converted into a very comfortable and commodious house of worship of two stories. Here the first Methodist Sabbath-school was organized, with Thomas Collins, Esq., as the first superintendent, Abraham Hull succeeding him.

Up to the date 1833, Williamsport (now known as Monongahela City) was an appointment in the Beans-ville circuit, having preaching, as a rule, every two weeks. Such was the growth and ability of the society at this period that application was made to the Conference for removal from the circuit and the organization of a station. This request was granted, and Charles Cook appointed as the first stationed preacher. During the first year of his pastorate steps were taken looking to the sale of the church on the river-bank, and the erection of a still more suitable and commodious house of worship. Prompt action was taken and the sale of the old church property effected.

At the first Quarterly Conference in 1834 it was ' determined to build a house fifty by eighty feet on a lot donated by William Ihmsen, and located on the corner of Race and Chess Streets.

The contract for the building was awarded to Samuel Devore.

As members of the board of trustees at this date we find the names of Joseph Alexander, William Ihmsen, William Mills, John R. Shugart, and A. L. Williams.

This new enterprise was pushed rapidly forward, and in the month of May, 1835, the new house was dedicated, Charles Cook, the pastor, preaching the sermon.

This house is still standing,—a two-story brick building, solid, but plain and unpretentious. It cost about two thousand five hundred dollars. In it the society worshiped for the period of thirty-two years.

Early in the year-1864, under the pastorate of Ezra Hingely, the possibility and propriety of building a house of worship on a larger and grander scale first became a matter of inquiry. Before the close of the year the Quarterly Conference appointed a building cmmittee, and authorized it to proceed at once to the erection of a new house of worship. This committee, to which additions were made from time to


time, and which acted in conjunction with the board of trustees, was composed of the following persons : Rev. E. Hingely, 0. C. House, R. M. Clark, Daniel Pierce, Alexander Scott, E. L. King, R. Stockdale, Joseph Alexander, James Williams, John Blythe, Cyrus Underwood, Robert Coulter, J. F. Ferree, Isaac Jones, Col. Joseph Taylor, C. R. Stuckslager, and S. P. Keller.

It was proposed to erect a two-story brick house, at an estimated cost of thirty thousand dollars.

In 1867, under the pastorate of A. W. Butts, the building was inclosed, and on the 15th day of De-' cember the lecture-room was dedicated. The sermon of the occasion was preached by Rev. W. A. Davidson, D.D. Six years subsequent to this, March 2, 1873, the main audience-room was dedicated by Rev. S. H. Nesbit, D.D. Rev. S. M. Hickman was then pastor of the church. The building is well located on Main Street, is ninety feet long by fifty-one feet wide ; its spire from foundation to top, is one hundred and seventy-five feet. It has a seating capacity for eight hundred persons, and cost a trifle over forty-five thousand dollars. The present membership is five hundred and thirty. Of the Sunday-school J. P. Taylor is the present superintendent, with J. D. Hammond and R. H. Young, assistants. The number of scholars enrolled is three hundred and seventy.

The following persons constitute the board of trustees: S. P. Keller, R. Stockdale, Robert Van Voorhis, Joseph Warne, E. Downer, John Blythe, Eugene Byers, Mark Borland, J. D. Hammond.

From the date 1833, when the station was organized, the following is nearly, if not quite, a correct list of the pastors:¹ Revs. Charles Cook, Matthew Simpson, Christopher Hodgson, William Hunter, Alcinus Young, Nathaniel Callender, William Lemmon, Ebenezer Hays, E. P. Jacob, Z. H. Coston, Charles Thorn, Wesley Smith, Nathaniel Callender, Caleb Foster, George S. Holmes, Josiah Manse!, Peter F. Jones, A. G. Williams, S. F. Minor, L. R. Beacom, J. C. Brown, A. J. Enesley. 1864, Ezra Hingely; 1867, A. W. Butts; 1870, Hiram Miller; 1872, S. M. Hickman ; 1873, Edward Williams ; 1875, T. N. Boyle; 1876, William Lynch; 1876, R. L. Miller; 1878, J. S. Bracken ; 1881, I. A. Pearce.

First Baptist Church.² - various times prior to the formation of this church occasional sermons were preached in Monongahela City by Baptist ministers who happened to be passing through the town, and the Rev. Dr. Estep was a notable one among them.

Although quite a number of persons holding the Baptist faith resided in the place, it appears that no effort was made to occupy the field with regular Baptist preaching until the winter of 1860. At that time Rev. David Williams, assisted by pastors of neigh-

¹ From MS. prepared by Rev. I. A. Pearce, the present pastor.

² Facts and data furnished by the pastor, the Rev. E. C. Baird.

boring Baptist Churches, commenced a series of meetings, which resulted in the reception and baptism of eight persons on the 29th day' of January of the same year. It was then thought expedient to organize as a church for the purpose of sustaining regular preaching.

Accordingly on the 9th day of February, 1860, those recently baptized, together with others dismissed for the purpose from various Baptist organizations, fourteen in all, met in the public school building in Monongahela City and organized a regular Baptist Church, the names of the constituted members being Moses Scott and wife, Henry Popenger and wife, B. F. Bentley and wife, John King and wife, S. H. Carroll, Barbara Hendrickson, Milton King, Mary S. King, S. J. King, and Mrs. James Guthrie. They adopted the constitution, covenant, and articles of faith in common use among Baptists, and the name of the " First Monongahela City Regular Baptist Church." The officers first elected were John King and John Storer, deacons ; Moses Scott, John Storer, and B. F. Bentley, trustees; and Moses Scott, church clerk.

On the 24th of February following, a council composed of delegates from various Baptist Churches unanimously agreed to recognize this as a. regnlar Baptist Church, and during the evenings of the same day, in the Presbyterian house of worship, formal recognition services were held, Revs. Isaac Sawyer, J. K. Cramer, R. R. Sutton, and David Williams being present and participants. At this time the church was composed of twenty-five members. In June, 1860, it was admitted into the Pittsburgh Baptist Association.

Those who have served as pastors of this church since its organization have been David Williams, R. R. Sutton, O. P. Hargrave, A. Wilson, Lloyd Morgan, A. J. King, and the present incumbent, E. C. Baird.. Situated in the central part of the city, this organization owns a commodious house of worship, free from debt, and the church property is valued at eight thousand dollars.

The present membership of the church is two hundred and nine, and the present officers : Rev. E. C. Baird, pastor ; B. F. Bentley (present-mayor), Robert Hagerty, I. T. Conlin, Isaac Yohe, and Oscar Haywood, deacons ; and George Wilson, clerk.

Church of the Transfiguration (Roman Catholic).—As early as 1816 residents here of the Roman Catholic faith received the services of Rev. Fathers McGuire, O'Connor, and others. Under the ministrations of Rev. Dennis Kearney the present house of worship was commenced and completed in 1865, at a cost of about six thousand dollars.

Father Kearney was succeeded by Rev. John O. G. Scanlon, who was followed by Rev. William F. Hayes. The present pastor is Rev. Francis McCourt, of East Elizabeth, Pa., and the congregation comprises members of more than one hundred families.


More extended mention of this church will be found on page 425, in an article furnished by D. J. Malady, of Washington.

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church, of Monongahela City, was organized by Revs. John Morgan and Alfred Bryan, missionaries of that denomination, on the 31st day of January, 1833. A church edifice was erected the same year, it being completed and occupied Sept. 1, 1833. During the existence of this society the following-named ministers were ordained as pastors: Samuel M. Sparks, 1833; Alexander Robinson, 1834; Samuel M. Sparks, 1835; John Carey, 1836 ; Samuel E. Hudson, 1837 ; Mr. Dunlap, 1840 ; B. Miller, 1841; Mr. Brice, 1842. Meanwhile one hundred and four persons had joined the organization; but the holding of regular meetings having ceased about 1845, the members gradually drifted away and joined other denominations.

The Wesleyan Methodist Church.—The Wesleyan Methodist Church is another one of the defunct religious organizations of the town. During the best days of the society a small house of worship was erected, and for some few years regular meetings were held therein. But from various causes, i.e., removal of prominent members and lack of interest among those remaining, this organization has become a thing of the past. The church building stands in the First Ward, and is now occupied by a small Lutheran congregation.

First English Evangelical Lutheran Church.—This society was organized Feb. 7, 1869, at a meeting held in the old Methodist Episcopal house of worship (corner of Third and Chess Streets), by the following members : Lewis Staib, Jacob Leighler, Henry C. Birt, John Zeh, Adam Augendobler, Philip Grigg, George L. Bayha, Martha J. Staib, Elizabeth Leighler, Elizabeth Augendobler, Caroline Grigg, Mary Altman, and Catharine Altman. At the same meeting Lewis Staib, Jacob Leighler, and George L. Bayha were elected pro tern. trustees and executive committee.

Lewis Staib was elected elder, and Adam Augendobler deacon, Sept. 24, 1871. They at once assumed the duties of their respective offices, relieving the trustees and committee before mentioned. On the 12th of April, 1874, John Holland was elected deacon, and the 3d of May following secretary and treasurer. Alexander Scott was elected elder, and Moses Arthur deacon, Jan. 3, 1875, and on February 24th of that year John Holland was elected superintendent of the Sabbath-school.

Rev. Dr. L. Ryder served as pastor of this congregation until early in January, 1872, when he removed to Hollidaysburg (where he still remains), and was at once succeeded by Rev. H. H. Hall. The latter remained until the early part of the year 1876. During the past year Rev. Mr. Winton, of Allegheny City, has held services twice a month in the small building in the First Ward known as the Wesleyan Methodist Church. However, the old Methodist church edifice was occupied for several years.

From February, 1869, to April, 1876, seventy-six persons joined the organization. The present members number not much more than one-half that many.

St. Paul's Episcopal Chuich.—The parish of St. Paul's Episcopal Church of Monongahela City was organized by Rev. Bishop Alonzo Potter, Nov.. 18, 1863, when the following persons were elected vestrymen : William Manown, John S. Markell, R. T. Robinson, R. M. Gee, Francis Nelson, James P. Sheplar, and E. W. Chittenden.

The corner-stone of the present house of worship was laid in 1866. It is a Gothic stone building, fifty by ninety feet, with bell-towers surmounting, and cost fifteen thousand dollars. Rev. H. Mackay took charge as the first rector Dec. 4, 1863. He was succeeded in March, 1870, by Rev. J. B. Linskea. The Sabbath-school was organized in the spring of 1862 by Rev. Mr. Ten Broeck, who preached as a missionary one year before the church was established. The present rector, Rev. Norman, although having the records and other data necessary to prepare a satisfactory account of this organization, has declined to furnish any information, which accounts for the meagreness of this article.

African Methodist Episcopal Church.—This organization was formed (at the residence of Rachel Bowman) in 1834, by the Revs. Samuel Clingman and Thomas Lawrence; and among the original members were Elijah Bowman, John Bowman, Abraham Jones, Priscilla Jones, William Moore, Mary Moore, Elizabeth Catlin, Rachel Bowman, Rebecca Ross, Ruth Ann Bowman, and Elizabeth McDonald.

The congregation rented different houses to worship in until 1842, when it made arrangements to build a suitable structure. The basement was finished in 1849, and the building complete in 1858. It was of brick, size thirty-six by forty feet, and is now occupied as a dwelling by Charles Jones. The present house of worship, which was commenced in 1871, is still unfinished. It also is constructed of brick upon a beautiful site, and is forty five by seventy feet, ground dimensions.

Rev. Samuel Clingman became the first pastor in 1834, and he was succeeded by Thomas Lawrence in 1835. Among subsequent pastors we mention the following: Samuel Clingman, 1836; William Newman, 1838; Fayette Davis, 1840.; James Coleman, 1842; George Coleman, 1844; Augustus R. Greer, 1846 ; William Morgan, 1848 ; James Coleman, 1849; Nelson Carter, 1850; Levan Gross, 1853; John W. Jones, 1855 ; Shugart T. Jones, 1856 ; Levan Dross, 1858 ; Shugart T. Jones, 1860 ; Levan Gross, 1861; A. Harwell, 1863 ; Levan Gross, 1865 ; Charles Greene, .1866; Alfred Newman, 1867 ; Levan Gross, 1868; W. C. West, 1869 ; W. H. Thomas, 1870. Other pastors, of whom the dates of their coming have not been given; were Burton Lewis, W. M. Peters, Benjamin


Wheeler, W. H. Brown, A. L. Grant, W. A. J. Phillips, C. D. Lewis, Solomon Thompson, W. G. Ralph, and J. M. Morris. David Lewis, the present pastor, came in September, 1880.

The congregation numbers one hundred at this time, and the official board consists of J. W. Alexander and Jacob A. Simon, local preachers; W. H. Hilton, B. F. Crouch, Mark Hilton, Joseph A. Jones, Joseph H. Simons, and Jacob A. Simons, stewards; J. W. Alexander, B. F. Crouch, Joseph A. Jones, R. F. Oliver, William Catlin, Mark Hilton, and W. H. Hilton, leadets; W. H. Hilton, E. N. Thompson, Jacob A. Simons, E. Montgomery, Mark Hilton, B. F. Crouch, Joseph H. Simons, R. F. Oliver, and Joseph A. Jones, trustees.

Monongahela Cemetery. —The Monongahela Cemetery Association was established in 1863, and soon after its officers purchased thirty-two acres of ground in accordance with the purposes contemplated by their charter. The grounds are situated in the southeastern part of the corporate limits, on a height which overlooks the Monongahela River and its beautiful valley for many miles. Much taste and skill is displayed in the general plan, and under the care of Mr. Adam Augendobler, who has had immediate charge of the grounds for many years, this pretty little city of the dead attracts and is entitled to general admiration. From the opening to the present time (April, 1882) eleven hundred and twenty-five interments have been made within the inclosure. In this connection, however, it is proper to add that, while the grounds of the cemetery association are well kept, neat, and beautiful, the old burial-ground, in the midst of the town, is in a very bad condition. True, many bodies have been removed from it to the new cemetery, yet very many still remain beneath marble tablets that have been broken and trampled upon by horses, cattle, and swine, roaming at will in the neglected, unfenced plot.

Educational.—The following interesting historical address was delivered at the dedication of the new public school building at Monongahela City, July 1, 1881, by J. S. Van Voorhis, A.M. and M.D., of Belle Vernon, Pa. It covers a period of nearly one hundred years, and (with his permission) is inserted entire without further comment:

"The history of education in this vicinity, in common with other matters of local interest, is shrouded in uncertainty, only a few vague and general items being preserved. Looking upon our ancestors from a present stand-point, they appear to have lived merely for their day only, caring little for the wants and desires of the future. They were, content when satisfied that they and their offspring had whereof to eat, drink, and wherewithal to be clothed. In fact, their immediate necessities were so urgent as to call for the greater part of their time in efforts to secure for them what was termed in those days a

- 38 -

living.’ Faith in the precepts of the Bible in its truest version was innate to the first settlers of our valley, the strongest Puritanical ideas being the literature upon which they founded their hopes of the future, never doubting that time and labor would in the end verify the prophetic saying, `The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them, and the desert shall 'rejoice and blossom as the rose.'

" Until about the close of the last century, individual culture consisted chiefly in learning to farm in the most primitive manner, which included a very limited knowledge of the art of raising, grain and the manufacture of home-made clothing. The favored few who were privileged to literary attainment were in full proportion at reaching the point of reading, writing, and ciphering to the single rule of three. Houses erected especially for school purposes were unknown. If, perchance, some itinerant individual representing himself to be a schoolmaster should happen along, an improptu school-house was obtained in the shape of some log cabin vacated by the tenant as unfit to occupy.

"The predecessor of the Parkisons, whose name we have mislaid, on his arrival found the site on which this rapidly-growing city is located to be a dense forest of sugar- and walnut-trees, untouched by the hand of art or science. Contemporary with this settlement was the region around the old Horse-Shoe Bottom meeting-house filled with immigrants. Here the older Powers, Moodys, Colvins, McComas, Wither-ows, Rices, Fryes, and others founded their homes. This church, erected at the close of the Revolution, was the first in this region, and its organization gave at once new life and vigor to the settlers, and its force of character culminated in awaking a desire for more than a homespun education. The influence of that congregation rapidly grew into such magnitude as to make it a centre of a higher state of civilization. Its power attracted the immigrant on his way thither-ward in his search for a new home, which was found by many in the circle of country of which the church was the centre. So rapidly was this region taken up by new-corners that it for a time overshadowed the river settlements.

" From all information we can gather it is evident that the first school at which settlers of this city attended was located in an old log house that stood near where John Witherow's blacksmith-shop now stands, and is supposed to have been the original residence of the older McComas. To add more to this influence, on the 19th day of October, 1796, Mr. Samuel Ralston, a licentiate from the Presbytery of New Castle, was called to preach to this congregation. He was a foreigner by birth and education. He was a man not only filled with the Holy Ghost, but he was adorned with the highest literary attainments found in the Old World. In his every-day life he exemplified the value of education, and impressed on the minds of his people that it followed hand in hand


with religion. The good of his teachings soon cropped out in the establishment of other schools. During the winter seasons another school was opened in the vicinity of the present residence of Dutton Shannon, another at Parkison's Ferry, in an old log house of primitive style,—by this we mean of unhewn logs. It was a dwelling once, used as such, situate in a grove of sugar-trees on the lot on which stands the residence of Michael Yohe, near the old Presbyterian Church, not far from the lot on which this beautiful house has been erected. Shades of the departed ! thy spirits may yet linger around this sacred spot whilst we dedicate another temple to the god of science.

'Up to this time, and many years afterwards, there was no organized effort to establish a uniform system of -schools, the first attempt in that direction being the assessment and collection of a poor tax on the richer to pay the schooling of the poorer class of citizens. This new notion had many disadvantages and not any virtues. It fixed at once a discrimination in personal character which was then and is now distasteful to the full-blooded American.

"Schools were taught in several of the old-time houses besides the famous old log house already named. A Mrs. McKeever, an elderly lady, in 1819 had a school in an old house where the depot now stands. Among her scholars was Joseph Warne, well known.in this vicinity. Edward Tower, father of . G. H. and Theo. Tower, of Elizabeth, taught a school not long afterwards in the old red house that stood on the lot on which the People's Bank now stands.

"A Mr. Victor also taught in the same house. He also had Mr. Joseph Warne for a scholar. This teacher boarded with Mr. James Warne, who built and lived in the house so long occupied by the late Joseph Wilson, on Main Street. Orlando H. Gold taught about the year 1830 in the old red house on the river-bank, long known as the house in which the late Samuel Black kept his first store. The building has long since disappeared. Among his scholars were W. J. Alexander, the worthy president of the board of directors, Charles Beebe, Samuel C. King, Wash. Spence, Samuel Guthrie, Wm. Devore, Robert McGrew, Franklin Manown, and many other formerly well known boys.

"Mr.. Joseph Grieves, a man of delicate constitution, who lived near the toll-gate up the pike, also taught in the old red house on the river-bank, the above-mentioned boys constituting many of his scholars. For some reason, during the progress of his school, he packed up his paraphernalia, consisting of rod, ferule, and dinner-basket, and moved his quarters to the red house where the People's Bank now stands, he, in. common with his patrons, having a peculiar taste for a red house. In after-years no doubt many of them were gratified to see brick substituted, whether or account of the red color or not we can only have our opinion. In a recent interview with Moses Arthurs, now of this city, he informed us that he taught a school in 1831 in an old house which stood on the river-bank on the upper corner of the lot on which the old Huston mansion then stood, above the old wharf. Mr. B. F. Bentley was one of his scholars, if we are not mistaken.

" In the year 1834, Mr. E. A. Talbot opened a school in the old Methodist Church, a part of which can still be seen near the new wharf, and Miss Clarke, an aunt of S. C. and W. H. Wilson, taught a school during the same year'in the old house formerly known as the Dorcas Cooper house, opposite the present residence of Richard Stockdale, on Main Street. To this school of Miss Clarke, Mr. Underwood first sent his children after his arrival in the place. Under her teaching my old friend and schoolmate, `Uncle Abe,' learned his first lesson of wisdom, and perhaps to the early impressions of her rulings may be attributed the fact that to this day he has eschewed matrimony. Mr. Watson, well known among the boys as Blue Beard, also kept school in this house. It seemed in those days that no kind of a building except an old house could be used for a school-house. The idea of erecting a school-house was not even among the possibilities. Such, in a general way, was the condition of school matters in this vicinity prior to the adoption of the common-school system of 1834, and let it ever be to its credit' that the township embracing Williamsport was among the first to accept the provisions of the law. By the act of Assembly dated March 28, 1781, the county of Washington was divided into thirteen townships, one of which number was called Fallowfield, and included within its territory the district now known as Monongahela City. All schools to which we have alluded were within its limits until the formation of Carroll, Sept. 30, 1834. It will be noticed that Miss Clarke and Mr. Watson were the last to teach in the town whilst it was connected with old Fallowfield. Before' the school system was organized Carroll township was formed, and Williamsport was within its limits and under its jurisdiction for all purposes.

“ The first election in the new township was held at the house of Joseph Hamilton, who kept the hotel now known as the Miller House, on Main Street. At this election a board of school directors was elected for the first time, and on this board devolved the duty of organizing the township for school purposes. This was no easy task. We can recall but the names of David Williams, uncle of your honorable secretary, Isaac Van Voorhis, my venerated father, and George Morrison, now residing in Uniontown, as members of that board. The board for the time being divided the township into convenient sub-districts, as required by law, using for school-houses whatever old buildings could be obtained.

" An old house on the hillside, to the left of the road leading from Yerty's Run to Galbreath's, fur-


nished one, in which a one-armed man was teacher. He being barred out at one time, at the approach of the holidays, forced an entrance through the clapboard roof, and soon settled the boys with a severe drubbing, as it was called. He was a strict but successful teacher, introducing many new and practical ideas not dreamed of in old-time philosophy. This school was finally merged into the one in the stone house which Col. A. T. Gregg aided in building, and in which house he taught the first school, thus carrying into practice the homoeopathic dogma, ' Similia similibus curantur.' On the hill above the present residence of William Blythe may yet be seen traces of a log cabin which, condemned by common consent as unfit for any other use, was selected as a suitable school-house. It was a retired spot, not even a road, much less a house, within sight; no wonder the proprietor was constantly complaining of the depredations of such boys as McCarty Williams, Robert Phillips, James Stockdale, Robert Van Voorhis, and others, who, not alive to his finer feelings, displayed a good deal of faith in old-time Nihilism, having no disposition to ignore the doctrine, well cherished everywhere, that the boy had `no pent-up Utica to contract his power' to roam undisturbed, not being met in those days at every crossing by the huge sign of danger as now, bearing the inscription, ' Trespassers beware,' or if by chance some such bugbear passed before them, it was quickly demolished by the finger-stone.

"The only thing that forced the old-time boy to a hasty retreat was the bumble-bee and yellow-jacket. In this school, as already intimated, our friend Robert Mlles was a scholar, and methinks I can see him yet as he sat cross-legged on a split log bench, with slate and pencil, intent on working out a sum in. pounds, shillings, and pence, or proving to those around him, in his peculiar style, how he had solved the question, ' that if two and two make four, four and four would make eight.' In this waste cabin an Irishman named Lewis first taught; he was succeeded

 by Sampson and Paul. Lewis was Irish indeed, and his pupils were very much inclined to imitate his twang, calling have, have, by sounding the a long instead of a short.

"The town was divided into two sub-districts, one being a double district. The upper end, including Catsburg, attended school in a frame house which stood on the island, near where the foundry now stands, being owned at that time by the heirs of Elias Watkins. For one term at least this school was taught by the late Thomas Collins, Esq. The lower end of town occupied the old Methodist Church for a time as a school-house. E. A. Talbot seems to have been the first teacher in this house under the new. system. He was succeeded in 1835 by a Mr. Prescott. He was a relative of the celebrated historian, and was a man of more than ordinary literary attainments.

"After grave consideration the board of directors determined to erect in each district a brick or stone house. The houses built in town under this resolution were the three-roomed house, of which the late Alex. Scott was contractor, still standing on the old Presbyterian church lot, and the one on the island long since passed into the river. In the latter house we think Thomas Collins was the first teacher. These houses were occupied for the first time in the winter of 1836, having been built during the preceding summer. We feel almost certain that Nimrod Gregg, brother of Col. A. T. Gregg, taught one of the schools in the double house during this winter, and that a Mr. Dunn taught the other one. Mr. Dunn was a Yankee schoolmaster. He was fresh from Yankee land, and full of new ideas in the school business. He was soon impressed with the fact that he was in a strange land and surrounded by habits and customs requiring no little moral courage to break into, and as much physical nerve to introduce a new departure. He took in the situation readily. He came among them as Mr. not Master Dunn, and as such he would have them recognize him. He intended to teach, not keep school ; that he only bad one rule, and that was obedience to his will. His rule was founded, no doubt, on the moral lesson taught in the words of the poet :

"'I am monarch of all I surrey;

My right there is none to dispute;

I make the little ones to obey,

And manage the big once to boot.'

Which, being translated, means that tie would, use. the rod to the smaller and his boot to the larger scholars.

"Mr. Dunn's career as a teacher was a success. His scholastic attainment and gentlemanly deportment, together with natural kindness, won for him the esteem of all with whom he came in contact. He was the first to introduce prizes as rewards of. merit, and the first school prizes ever given were taken by three sisters of your worthy president.

"By the act of April, 1837, the town of Williamsport was incorporated into a borough under the name and style of Monongahela City, and thereafter the schools were placed under the control of a board of directors elected exclusively by the voters in the new borough. The late T. R. Hazzard succeeded Dunn as teacher, and carried out more fully new improvements in the art of teaching. He was a fine scholar, a kind friend, and a generous benefactor. To him more than any one individual is this community indebted for its well-known educational spirit. He taught the first classical academy in the town. Among his pupils were many who are now holding or have held important positions in church and state. Under his teachings a new spirit on the subject of education seemed to take hold of the people, giving rise to a desire for an advance in the cause, with the selection of teachers of a higher order of literary worth. Shortly after his


retirement from teaching in the old house the question of examining teachers as to their qualifications was raised, and to render the matter practical the late Dr. R. F. Biddle and William Davidson, editor of the Carroll Gazette, were appointed a board of examiners.

"Among the many other teachers in the old double house were Joseph S. Morrison, now a distinguished member of the Pittsburgh bar, and R. F. Cooper. Cooper had been among Hazzard's earliest pupils, at the age of sixteen having read at a public exhibition his masterly literary production entitled ' Mutability of all things.' To him and his teachings your speaker Owes his earliest thirst for literature. As a teacher, penman, writer, printer, editor, and soldier, he had few equals. His criticism at the early part of the late war on the tactics of the United States army, as printed in the Philadelphia North American, elicited commendation from the highest military authorities of the nation. On the graves of Hazzard and Cooper let us not forget to strew flowers and shed tears of regret over their early demise. Friends, teachers, though dead, thy virtues live.

‘The rapid growth of the borough soon necessitated the erection of a new school building. In the year 1852 the board of directors, consisting of our venerable friend, Cyrus Underwood, as president, and the late Alexander Wilson as secretary, with Joseph Alexander, H. H. Finley, Wilson Thompson, and Alexander Scott as members, resolved to build a new schoolhouse, which gave the town the brick house across the street from this house. The lot was purchased from Henry Fulton. The house cost seven thousand dollars. Johnson Baird and William Wilson did the stone and brickwork; William Coulter did the carpenter-work. It was opened for school in the fall of 1853: Andrew Brown, now of the ' Forks,' and T. R. Hazzard, just returned from West Newton, were the first teachers, the former having been the last to teach in the old building. Too much credit cannot be given President Underwood for his untiring industry and foresight in moulding public opinion and carrying the enterprise to a successful issue. He was born in Baltimore, Md., Aug. 28, 1807. he first settled in this place in 1834, where he has resided ever since, excepting three years he served as recorder of the county. He and H. H. Finley are the only surviving members of that board of directors.

" The union school was organized in the fall of 1854, with James H. Moore as principal and Miss Webster, Miss Beebe, and Miss Hodgson as assistants. Mr. Moore is deceased: His wife, formerly Miss Webster, is now principal of one of the public schools of Indianapolis. This union school, under the supervision of a principal was a new thing among the people, and for a time the plan had ninny prejudices to overcome, but ere the close .of the first term it was pronounced a success by the bitterest enemy. Owing to many diversified circumstances the principal and teachers were very often changed, a policy of questionable propriety. -Recently, however, the reverse obtains. We cannot recall the names of all who have in this building taught school. We record here that Professor Jennings was the last principal in that building, and that his reputation is such as to insure us in openly declaring that his career has been successful and that the very walls of the old building join in echoing his praise.

" By the provisions of the act incorporating the borough into a city, its boundaries were considerably enlarged, adding thereby much to the population, and increasing the number of scholars in the public schools. This fact had much to do in originating the necessity of this grand edifice now under process of dedication. This building needs no eulogy from me; it speaks for itself in tones that will reverberate through generations yet unborn. When this valley with its hundred villages smoking with the fires of industry shall quake with the thunderings of the iron horse as it drives with lightning speed its human freight from ocean to ocean, this house will be pointed to as the proudest monument to science between the rising and setting sun. Long after the drapery of the grave shall have enshrouded them, the names of Williams, Beaver, King, Hammond, Sheplar, Linn, Blythe, Teeters, Alexander, Coulter, Hartrick, and others connected therewith will have an abiding place in the future. The contractors, too, Neel, Blythe & Co., will not be forgotten when future generations shall make up their jewels of rejoicing.

"We cannot refrain from turning aside for a moment and pointing you to some interesting features in the life of our old friend and schoolmate. Coulter. More than half a century ago we together attended the old Colhoon school near the late residence of the late Abe Hall. He has been so long identified with this community in all its interests, and especially in that of its public schools, that his nature has had much to do in moulding the disposition and tastes of the people. He was born Nov.11, 1817, in Catsburg, in the old house still standing on the corner of the street leading to the cemetery. He came on the stage of life, it will thus be seen, about the time in the history of that village when Biddy Caldwell' held queenly sway. He first attended school in an old house long since passed into the river near the residence of the late Judge Hill. His next school was that of Miss Burke, who kept in an old house on the Bollman lot, near the residence of the late Noble Woodward. Among the scholars were his brothers Ralph and Joseph Woodward. He also attended John Dunning's school, kept in the red house already named, where the People's Bank stands.

" In 1827 he attended school in the old house in the rear of the grocery of D. H. Williams, where Gabriel Silverthorn lived long ago. Early as 1828 he attended the old Colhoon school. In 1830 he went to


school to a man named Hepburn, who, with his two daughters, taught a semi-graded school in the old Dorcas Cooped house. Mrs. Margaret Sloan was one of the scholars, and has very vivid recollections of the teachers. After the adoption of the common-school system he was a scholar at the Irish Lewis school on Marshall's Hill. The last school he ever attended was taught by Moses Arthur, on the Yough River, near Robbin's Mill. At the close of this school he considered himself a graduate in the `single rule of three,' and congratulated himself, no doubt, that after years of hard study in many schools of learning he had at length acquired sufficient proficiency in that rule as to qualify him for the carpenter trade. He began to learn his trade with a Mr. Kelly, but made poor progress, owing to the fact that Kelly did not have anything to do.

"This did not suit the young apprentice as well as it would boys nowadays, so he left Kelly and engaged with Amos Robbins to learn the millwright trade. It soon, however, struck William that curves, wheels, and spindles would not lead rapidly to wealth, so he suddenly, with rule and square, set out for himself on his first track, and how well he has pursued it ever since let the result of skill all over this neighborhood bear the testimony. He has been a school director in his native town back to the time to which memory runneth not to the contrary. He has seen the old building across the way come and answer its day. Although in appearance he looks hale and robust, a twinkle of the eye readily detects the fact that the weight of years is upon him. God bless you, William Coulter !

"Independent of the common-school system, the influence of the select and academical schools acted no-little part in creating that educational spirit which has given your city so wide-spread reputation for its literary caste. Over half a century ago, Dr. Ralston, at his residence near Ginger Hill, heard the late Samuel Hair, Aaron Williams, and Samuel Williams recite their first lessons in Greek and Latin. Then followed the academies of Hazzard and E. S. Blake, in the old church on the riverbank; of J. D. Mason, in the old church on the hill, and of J. P. Thompson, in the old carriage-factory, where your humble servant learned to decline Stella,' and conjugate the Greek verb. Tupto, Tupso, Tetupha, Etupon. Then followed the schools of McFarland and the Morrison brothers, and the select school of Mary J. Cooper, now Mrs. Biddle, whose presence greets us to-night. There, too, was Miss Celia Gillet, daughter of the late Rev. N. H. Gillet, of Rehoboth. She, with her father and mother, have passed to the better land, whilst Miss Lizzie Lockhart is here with us. Miss Haines, a lady from Canonsburg, taught a select school for a time in the old church on the river-bank.; so also did Rev. Samuel Hudson, now a distinguished minister in the Cumberland Church. Miss Haines had among her scholars Miss Eliza J. Warne, now the wife of John Watkins, of Missouri ; Miss Hindman and Miss Camp bell of Finleyville ; Miss Rebecca Van Voorhis, now of Spearville, Kan., and many others whose names we cannot recall.

" From these schools in this vicinity wee sent forth many who have taken an important part in the drama of life. J. W. F. White, once a pupil is now a judge in Pittsburgh. A. H. Kerr is an able minister in St. Peter's, Minn. ; John McFarland was a pioneer minister in Missouri, and died a few years ago near Greenfield, Dade Co. ; J. C. Cooper is a prominent physician of Philadelphia; W. F. Hamilton is one of the most talented ministers in the Synod of Wheeling; John H. Storer and James H. Manown have long been prominent physicians of West Virginia; A. J. Davis is a physician on the retired list in the East End ; Joseph S. and A. P. .Morrison are lawyers of high standing in Pittsburgh; James Fleming is a successful physician in Franklin, Ohio; George T. Miller is a wealthy coal dealer in this valley, near lock No. 2 (he is the father of Rev. Miller, of the Presbytery of Blairsville) ; Dr. W. H. King was one of the most distinguished surgeons and physicians in Western Pennsylvania (he died a few years since in the prime of manhood; his remains are sleeping calmly in the beautiful cemetery overlooking his native town) ; Francis Gardner remains in statu quo on the farm in the bend of the river below Elkhorn James Scott, one of Hazzard's early pupils, studied medicine With Dr. Biddle in the little old office that stood where Hoffman's store now is. He first practiced his profession in Greenfield, Pa., moved to Ohio, where, as physician and politician, he has always occupied a high position. For many years he was a leading member of the Ohio Legislature, was consul at Honolulu for a term, and is now again a member of the Legislature, where, as Nestor of that body, le is recognized as the leading spirit. He is a brother of the late Alexander Scott, of this city, Thomas Hodgson, grandson of the good old J. R. Shugart, .is a talented and Successful minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Cyrus B. King is a physician in Allegheny, and at this time one of the visiting surgeons of the West Penn Hospital. George P. Fulton at the age of seventeen devoted himself to teaching, and has pursued it ever since except whilst in the army during the late war. He has just been elected for the eleventh time principal of the. Hiland Public Schools; East End, in the city of Pittsburgh.. Thomas P. Gordon, son of the late Judge Gordon, was the first college graduate in the town, having graduated at Jefferson College in 1833. He was a minister, and died at his post of duty at Terre Haute, Ind. He was the only native of this city who ever received the honorary degree of D.D. He was a brother of Mrs. Sloan, who is a resident of this city. Thomas T. Williams was a school-boy at Blake & Hazzard's; is now a successful medical practitioner at White College, Greene Co., Pa., where for twenty-three years he has phy-


sicked Democrats and Republicans to their stomachs' . content. Dr. J. M. H. Gordon has long been a physician in Fayette County. Alonzo Linn, brother of Dr. Linn, a worthy member of your board, was one of Hazzard's scholars; he graduated at Jefferson College, studied divinity, was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Redstone, is now vice-president and Professor of Greek in Washington and Jefferson College, and is looked upon as one of the most learned Greek scholars in the nation. M. P. Morrison is your oldest resident physician, and if my eyesight does not deceive me, the frosty tinge noticeable on his head should remind him that it is not good for man to be alone. The mild and genial James P. Fulton is preaching to the pioneer sinners of Harper, Kan., after having served his Master in that capacity for over a quarter-century in the old Keystone State. Robert Officer is a successful business man in Baltimore, Md., and Uncle Abe Underwood is still a resident of your city, and looks but little older than he did when a student in the old carriage-factory forty-one years ago.

" There, too, is my old friend Frank Manown ; he has seen the old log school-house, the old red house, the old brick house, the new brick house over the street, and the present palace. He claims to be one of the oldest resident scholars. His early education consisted in plying the oar at the old ferry. In his early days he was much engaged in mercantile and other pursuits, but for a long season his occupation has been that of a farmer and attending to the wants of those around him,—kind and generous to a fault. He and C. C. Johnson, of Pittsburgh, are the only survivors of those who occupied what was known as the bachelors' pew in the old Presbyterian Church at the foot of the hill. At the close of his day's labor he still can be seen in his regular walk over the bridge to spend a few hours with his friends in the city.

"A peculiar fondness for education has ever characterized the citizens of this city, and their early literary spirit gave them an advanced hold on the dominant idea of the present day. Let us not, then, *mourn over the departure of ancient manners and customs, supplanted by the American idea. This is the motive-power of the present day. By it we have assumed a proud position as a nation among the constellation of states ; by it we have utilized the electric spark to annihilate time and space; by it the late Col. Scott pushed the iron horse, freighted with human thought, from the rising of the sun to the going down thereof in eighty hours ; by it the Western wilds and sandy deserts have been converted into fields of ever-blooming flowers ; by it we can signal the coming storm and tell what a day may bring forth; by it we have solved the problem of self-government, which defied the genius of sixty centuries; by it we are reminded that he only shall receive the blessing from the Lord and righteousness from the God of his salvation who bath clean hands and a pure heart, who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity nor sworn deceitfully.' "

The New School Building.—As indicated in the foregoing address, the present elegant and commodious public school building of Monongahela City was dedicated amid appropriate ceremonies, Rev. Dr. E. E. Higbee, State superintendent of public instruction, being present, July 1, 1881. Yet to arrive at a clear understanding of the matter in hand, i.e., the school building, to knout of its inception, its originators, promoters, and builders, we must turn back to a time prior to the date of its dedication by two years.

During the summer of 1879 it became evident to all residents of the town who were interested in educational matters that the building then in use was wholly unfitted and inadequate for the purposes required. To build an addition was proposed, but when it was ascertained that such an addition would cost about $4000, the matter relating to it was held in abeyance, and a temporary primary school with Miss Laura Smith as teacher was established "over the creek."

On the evening of the 4th day of March, 1880, however, a special meeting of the school board was held to take action regarding a proposed new school building. After a lengthy debate, which was participated in by all the members present, viz.: Messrs. Sheplar, King, Blythe, Teeters, Williams, and Wilson, it was unanimously resolved to erect a new building " sufficiently large to meet the present demand with an eye to the future, said building to be large enough to have a hall that will comfortably seat five hundred persons, with school-rooms on two floors." Thereupon a committee was appointed to examine grounds upon which to build, and on the 10th of March a committee consisting of Messrs. Williams, Blythe, and Sheplar was appointed " to visit buildings in other places for the purpose of noting all the modern improvements," etc.

On the 18th of March following, the committee appointed to examine properties upon which to build the new structure submitted an exhaustive report to the board of directors of the Monongahela City school district, in which, after relating the result of their examination of lands of James 0. Sheplar, Esq., of John Kennedy, Esq., and others, and after noticing propositions made by some of the citizens to erect the prospective building in the First Ward, and of others to build it in the Third Ward, they proceeded to say,—

"In conclusion, on a full review of all the surrounding circumstances, some of which are set forth above, your committee unanimously recommend to the board the selection of the property of John, Kennedy, Esq., with a small lot adjoining it on the east belonging to William and James Alexander, as the proper site for the erection of the additional building which the demands of the district have rendered necessary, and recommend the adoption of the following preamble and resolution :

" Whereas, It has for some time past been recognized by the present board, as well as by our predecessors of the last two or three years, that an urgent necessity exists for an increase in building accommodations


for the schools of the district, in order to secure the health of the pupils and the successful prosecution of their studies.

"And whereas, The property fronting one hundred and twenty-four feet on the north side of Chess Street, and running back ono hundred feet towards Main Street, between Fourth Street and an alley adjoining the Lutheran Church, belonging in separate portions to John Kennedy, Esq., the Messrs. Alexanders, and estate of George Wallace, affords the moat available and convenient site for such building ;

"Therefore resolved, That the president and secretary of this board are directed and instructed forthwith to institute the proceedings necessary under the act of Assembly to condemn the said property of Kennedy, Alexander, and Wallace for the use of the schools of this the Monongahela City school district, and fur this purpose are instructed and authorized to sign the petition for viewers as required by law, and to employ and retain legal counsel, and to take and pursue such other steps as may be necessary to secure the legal appropriation of said land for the purposes as aforesaid proposed."

On motion, the foregoing report, including preamble and resolution, was adopted, the vote standing as follows: President Sheplar, nay; Messrs. King, Williams, Teeters, Blythe, and Wilson, aye. At the same time Thomas H. Baird, Esq., was retained as counsel for the, board. At a subsequent meeting held March 23,1880, Mr. Sheplar vacated his position as president of the board, and Mr. T. H. Williams was elected president pro tern. The president and secretary were then authorized to carry out the provisions of the resolution before quoted, to affix their names to the necessary papers, and to transmit the same to the Court of Quarter Sessions.

During the early part of April, 1880, Messrs. Drum & Steen, architects, of Pittsburgh, were employed to draft a preliminary plan of the proposed new building. Meantime Mr. T. H. Williams bad inspected school buildings in various towns of Pennsylvania and New York, and the Messrs. Alexander had donated to the school board the small tract of land mentioned as required for the new building. On the 26th of April following the committee on plans and estimates, viz., T. H. Williams, S. C. Wilson, and John Blythe, submitted to the board the preliminary plans prepared by Messrs. Drum & Steen. These plans were those of the Oil City school building reduced. They were pronounced satisfactory and thereupon were adopted. The same committee was continued, and authorized to procure from the architects named permanent plans and specifications, to the end that contracts for the work of construction might be given out.

At a meeting of the board held May 4, 1880, a petition, signed by some one hundred or more opponents of the new building, was presented, asking that bonds be not issued and to withhold building at present." This petition was tabled by the votes of Messrs. Wilson, Williams, King, and Teeters, and a building committee, composed of Messrs. T. H. Williams, S. C. Wilson, John Teeters, and John Blythe,¹ was appointed, of which Mr. Williams was the chairman. The permanent plans were received from the architects during the same month, and early in June it was determined to issue bonds ² to the amount of $17,300.

¹ Mr. Blythe resigned soon after, and Dr. King was appointed to fill the vacancy in the committee.

² On the 30th day of June, 1880, bonds to the amount of $17,300, run-

On the 7th of June, 1880, Mr. Sheplar resigned his position as president of the board of education, and Mr. Williams was at once elected to fill the vacancy. At the same meeting the bids sent in by various contractors were opened, and Messrs. Neel, Blythe & Co., of Monongahela City (being considered the lowest and best bidders), were awarded the contract of constructing the building entire for the sum of seventeen thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars. The work of construction began soon after, and under the watchful eye of Mr. Williams, chairman of the building committee,³ and the superintendency of the architects, the contractors, with their accustomed energy, hastened the structure towards completion. The keys were tendered to the president of the board on the 15th day of June, 1881, and on the 1st day of July. following, as we have already shown, the building was formally dedicated to the purposes for which it was constructed.

This splendid edifice covers a ground plan seventy feet ten 'inches by sixty-four feet. Brick is the chief material entering into its construction, and its cellar and three lofty stories are surmounted by an ornamented slate roof, crestings, and bell-tower. It contains ten well lighted, well ventilated rooms for recitation, varying in size from twenty-four feet by twenty-eight feet to twenty-four feet by thirty feet, and in the third or upper story a beautiful hall, which is used for school exhibitions, public entertainments, etc., thirty-five feet by seventy feet. The corridors are all spacious, the staircases wide and of easy gradients, and the desks, sittings, blackboards, etc., are of the latest and most approved types of school furniture. Steam is used for heating the building, gas for lighting, and substantial iron fire-escapes are attached to the outer walls. In a word, it is a model building throughout, one in which all true Monongahelians should take a just pride, and, as possessors, they should ever honor and respect its originators and building committee.

According to the report of Mr. T. H. Williams, chairman of the building committee, the total expenditures for grounds construction, furnishings, etc., were as follows :

Paid John Kennedy for 100 feet square of ground

Damage to tenants on same 

Wallace estates for one lot


280 00




Neel, Blythe & Co., of Monongahela City, for the entire completion of the building  

Kelly & Jones, of Pittsburgh, for steam-heating apparatus

Keystone School-Church Furniture Co., for the entire seating of the building

Mitchell, Vance & Co., New York, for chandeliers

Solomon Meredith, for one 75 bbl. cistern

Wm. Nelson & Sons, for stone buttresses

Drum & Steen, architects








75 00





ning sixteen years and bearing six per cent. interest, were sold to the banking-house of Alexander Jr Co. at a premiums of three per cent. Again, on the let day of April, 1881, $6000 in six per cent. bonds, running twenty years, were sold to the same firm at a premium of seven per Cent., making a total bonded indebtedness of $23,300.

³ After the induction into office of new members of the school board, June, 1880, tine building committee was composed of Messrs. Williams Linn, Wilson, and Beaver.



1860.—A. J. Buffington, principal; Misses Weller, Lockhart, Griffith, and Meloy, assistant teachers.

1861.- William G. Fee, principal ; Misses Mary Lindsay, Lockhart, Kato Clemens, Josie Griffith, and Foster, assistant teachers.

1862.- B. M. Kerr, principal ; Misses Mary Lindsay, Lockart,.Tosie Griffith, Emily Beebe, and Mrs. B. B. Kerr, assistant teachers.

1863.—Mr. Tombaugh, principal; Misses M. Lindsay, Emily Beebe, Kate Clemens, Bell Williams, and Sarah McCulmont, assistant teachers.

1864.—J. M. Milligan, principal; Misses S. McCalmont, Kate Clemens, Sarah Milligan, Lizzie Young, and Sarah Freeby, assistant teachers.

1865.—J. M. Milligan, principal; Misses Sarah Milligan, Sarah Freeby, Kato Clemens, and Bell Williams, assistant teachers.

1866.—J. M. Milligan, principal ; Misses Sarah Freely, O. L. Carroll, Kate Clemens, Rachel Norfolk, R. J. Moore, and Horner, assistant teachers.

1867.—J. M. Milligan, principal ; Misses Warrick, Carroll, Kate Clemens, Pauline Markell, Kato Collins, and Curry, assistant teachers.

1868.—R. N. Lights, principal; Misses Kate Clemens, Pauline Markell, Kate Collins, M. E. Davidson, Ann E. Scott, assistant teachers.

1869.—J. P. Taylor, principal ; Misses Fannie Hart, C. M. Wall, Pauline Markell, Kate Collins, Mary Coulter, and Natalie Scott, assistant teachers.

1870.—J. P. Taylor, principal; .Misses Fannie Hart, Kate Clemens, Pauline Markel, Kate Collins, Mary Coulter, and Nannie Scott, assistant teachers.

1871.—J. P. Taylor, principal; Missies Kate C. Collins, Kate Clemens, Pauline Marken, Nannie Scott, Mary Coulter, and Kate Mullen assistant teachers.

1872.—George F. Hemphill, principal ; assistant teachers the same as previous year.

1873.—George E. Hemphill, principal; Misses Sue O'Brien, Annie Martin, Pauline Marken, Nannie Scott, Mary Young, and Kate Mullen, assistants.

1874.—George E. Hemphill, principal; Misses Pauline Markell, Nannie Scott, McClure, Kate Mullen, Sadie Powers, and Emma Wilson, assistant teachers.

1875.—George E. Hemphill, principal; Misses Pauline Markell, Nannie Scott, Kate Mullen, Emma Wilson, Mattie A. Gunn, and Sadie Powers, assistant ;Teachers.

1876.—Joseph Jennings, principal ; Misses Lucy V. Dorsey, Mary E. Parry, Kate Mullen, Anna N. Ruple, Sadie Powers, Millie Bentley, and Millie Collins, assistant teachers.

1877.—Joseph Jennings, principal; Misses L. O. Hart, Anna M. Kate Williams, Kato Mullen, Sadie Powers, Millie Bentley, and Amy Ammons, assistant teachers.

1878.—Joseph Jennings, principal; Misses Millie Bentley, Lila Gregg, Sadie Powers, Amy Amnions, Kate Mallen, and Kate Williams, assistant teachers.

1879.—Joseph Jennings, principal; Misses Kate Williams, Kate Mullen, Sadie Powers, Kate Smith, Della Fell, Millie G. Bentley, and Graham, assistant teachers.

1880.²—Joseph Jennings, principal; Misses Kate Williams. Kate Mullen, Lillie Lemasters, Della Fell, Sallie Graham, and Millie G. Bentley, assistant teachers. At the same time Miss Laura Smith was employed-to teach the school "over the creek."

1881.—Joseph Jennings, principal; Misses Bell Herford, room No. 11 ; Jeanette L. Brownlee, No. 10; Clara C. Borger, No. 9; Lille Lemasters, No. 8; Della Fell, No. 7; N. J. Johnston, No. 6; Sallie Graham, No. 5; Laura M. Isler, No. 4; Millie G. Bentley, No. 3; Laura Smith, No. 2 ; and J. M. Williams, No. 1, assistant teachers.

¹ Until the completion of the present school building the colored school was a separate institution, and among its principal teachers darn the years here indicated were Benjamin F. Crouch, J. A. Bryan, end Miss Jennie Adams.

² The female teachers employed during the term beginning in September, 1880, were required to pledge themselves not to get married luring the term.



William J. Alexander, one of the founders and tow senior member of the blinking-house of Alexander & Co., Monongahela City, Pa., was born April 16, A.D. 1820, on a farm. in Rostraver township, Westmoreland Co., distant about six miles from the town above mentioned.

In the year 1828, when the subject of this sketch vas eight years of age, his father, Joseph Alexander, removed with his family from the farm in Westmoreland County to Williamsport, now Monongahela City, n Washington County, and entered into the mercantile business, afterwards living there until the time of his death, June 20, 1871, with the exception of two years between April 1, 1829, and April 1, 1831, during which interval he resided in Cookstown, now Fayette Day, Pa.

When a youth William J. Alexander obtained such in education as was furnished by the common subscription schools of that day. At an early age he vas engaged in business with his father, and had almost the exclusive management of the business after he was nineteen years of age.

In the spring of 1843 he became junior partner in he firm of J. Alexander & Son, which copartnership continued until 1850, when the present firm of Alexander & Co. was organized. Prior to the spring of 1864 the firm of Alexander & Jo. conducted the dry-goods business in connection with banking. Having disposed of their dry-goods' interests, the attention of the firm has been since de-Toted exclusively to the banking business.

In the year 1844, William J. Alexander was married Eliza Morrison, daughter of Mrs. Margaret Morrison (widow of John Morrison), who, at an advanced lge, is still living (1882) with her son, M. P. Morrison, M.D., in the old homestead in Monongahela City. From the period of his earliest manhood the subject of this brief sketch has been more or less identified with nearly every practical project suggested for advancing the material, educational, and moral interests of the community in which he has lived.

Throughout the great Rebellion he was prompt and earnest in the performance of all the duties which devolved upon him as a citizen, opposed to disunion and oval to the old flag. He was elected captain of Company G of the Eighteenth Regiment Pennsylvania Militia, an organization called out by Governor Curtin to meet an exigency of the war. He accepted the position tendered to him, and served with his company tad regiment on the borders of Pennsylvania and Maryland during the last days of the memorable campaign which closed by the repulse and defeat of he rebel forces under Lee at South Mountain and Antietam

At the present time Mr. Alexander is president of


the Select and Common Councils of Monongahela City, president of the school board, president of the Monongahela Gas Company, treasurer If the Williamsport Bridge Company, treasurer of Monongahela Cemetery, and for about forty years he has been continuously a member and officer in the Presbyterian Church of Monongahela City.

And it may be stated, in conclusion, that Mr. Alexander has been eminently successful as banker and merchant; avoiding questionable speculation and "splendid financiering," he has acquired wealth by careful observance of sound rules, and the employment of approved methods in the management and details of legitimate business.


Hon. George V. Lawrence, farmer and politician, was born in Washington Co., Pa., Nov. 13, 1818. His grandfather, John Lawrence, an Englishman by birth, emigrated to America at an early day, and settled near Hunterstown, Adams Co., Pa. There he married Sarah Moffitt, by whom he had ten children, —three sons and seven daughters. John died about the year 1786, and three years afterwards (in 1789) his widow Sarah moved with her family to Washington County, Pa., and settled upon a farm lying upon the head-waters of Pigeon Creek. The three sons of John and Sarah Moffitt Lawrence were John, Samuel, and Joseph, named in the order of their ages. John settled in Beaver, Beaver County, Pa., when a young man, and became a prominent and useful citizen. He was twice elected to the State Legislature from that county. He afterwards moved to Delaware County, Ohio, where he died. Samuel followed his brother to Beaver County, and settled upon a farm near the town of Beaver. He was for nine years prothonotary of that county, and was twice elected to the State Legislature, serving in that body with his younger brother Joseph, who was at the same time the member from Washington County. Samuel died about the year 1828. Joseph Lawrence was born in Adams County, Pa., and when three years of age was carried on horseback upon his mother's knee to Washington County, where he was reared and spent his life. He was eminently a self-made man, having never attended school but three months, it being necessary for him in early life to support himself, and to assist in supporting his mother and sisters, by manual labor. He was a good reader and thinker, a careful student of men and passing events, and eagerly seized upon every opportunity for improving 'himself. He became a member of a debating society, in which he was associated with Hons. Jonathan Knight, John Sloan, Drs. Joseph and Jonathan Lethennain, Rev. Abner Leonard, William Walsh, Esq., and others, and he always regarded the training of that organization of the greatest value to him. His first prominence was in connection with the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Church, of which he was a member. He was appointed by the session of that church to prosecute the Rev. Andrew Gwynn, the pastor. This he did before the Session, Presbytery, the Synod, and the General Assembly. He managed the case in a manner which won for him the admiration, and secured to him the friendship, of many of the clergy of that denomination. When a young man he was elected major, by which title he was long known, in the State militia, which position he held for a time. In 1818 he was elected to the State Legislature, and served continuously until 1826, being Speaker of the House during the sessions of 1820 and 1822. In 1826 he was elected to Congress, and was defeated for the same office in 1828. In 1834 he was elected to the State Legislature; re-elected in 1835, and in 1836 was elected State treasurer by the Legislature. In 1838 he was a candidate for Congress, and was defeated by seventeen votes by the Hon. Isaac Leet, whom he in turn defeated in 1840. He died of typhoid fever in Washington, D. C., April 17, 1842, and his remains were interred in the congressional burial-ground. He was a man of unusual public spirit, popular manners, happy temperament, real ability and worth, and a forcible and logical speaker. His good qualities were recognized by those who knew him, his opinions sought, and his judgment accepted to a remarkable extent.

He was twice married. His first wife, Rebecca Van Eman, died in 1824, leaving four children,—Joseph, who died in 1842 ; George V.; Sarah (Carthage, Mo.), the widow of Ard. Moore; and Samuel, who died young. His second wife was Maria Bucher, daughter of Judge Bucher, of Harrisburg. She died in 1861, leaving five children,—John J., now (and since 1873) living a retired life in Allegheny City, Pa. ; James K., educated at the military academy at Harrisburg, was appointed captain in the regular army, served during the war of the Rebellion under Gen: Sykes, was badly wounded at the battle of Fredericksburg, but recovered and served until the close of the war, was afterwards with his division in Texas, resigned, and now lives in Jefferson County, Pa. ; William C. A., educated at Washington College, read law with Hon. John Kunkle, was admitted to the Harrisburg bar, was elected to the State Legislature from Dauphin County in 1857, 1858, and 1859, was Speaker of the House during the two latter sessions, and died of consumption in 1861; Samuel, educated in Washington County and Harrisburg, was a successful civil engineer for many years, was elected to the State Legislature from the Warren district in 1861, and died at Warren in 1864; Susan, the wife of Myron Sanford, of Erie, where they reside.

Having obtained his education in the best schools the country afforded, with the addition of one year at Washington College, from which he retired on account of ill health, George V. Lawrence applied himself to farming, doing much of the labor there with his own hands, and directing the scientific cultivation


of the soil. He was elected to the Legislature in 1843; renominated in 1844, and defeated by twelve votes, the only defeat he has ever suffered. He was elected a second time to the State Legislature in 1847. In 1848 he was elected State senator, the district being Washington County, over Hon. William Montgomery. He regards that as the ablest Senate in which he has ever served. Hons. John H. Walker, William A. Crabb, Augustus Drum, George Darsie, H. A. Muhlenberg, and other noted men of the State were members. In 1858 he was again elected to the Legislature, and returned in 1859, when his brother, William C. A. Lawrence, was Speaker. In 1860 he was elected State senator from the district composed of the counties of Washington and Greene, overcoming one thousand Democratic majority, and was Speaker of the senate during the session of 1863. In 1864 he was elected to Congress from the Twenty-fourth Congressional District, composed of the counties of Greene, Washington, Beaver, and Lawrence, over Gen. Jesse Lazear, and re-elected in 1866, serving on important committees, and taking an active part in the deliberations and discussions, especially that relating to the tariff on wool. In October, 1872, he was elected as one of the delegates at large to the convention to amend the Constitution of the State, and was chairman of the committee on new counties and county-seats.

In 1874 he was elected to the State Senate from the Forty-sixth District, composed of the counties of Washington and Beaver, for the short term of one year. He was re-elected for the short term of two years from the same district in 1876, and in 1878 by the same district for the full term of four years. In 1882 his name was presented by Washington County as her choice for Congress in the Twenty-fourth District, composed of the counties of Washington, Beaver, and Lawrence. (At this writing, August, 1882, the district conference has not selected a candidate.) He was a Whig and then a Republican, has attended many State conventions, and was the chairman of two Republican conventions of the State of Pennsylvania.

He married, in 1839, Elizabeth Welsh, daughter of William Welsh, Esq., a prominent citizen of Washington County, Pa. She died in 1854, leaving two children, Mary V. and Joseph. .He married a second time, in 1857, Mary Reed, daughter of the Rev. John Reed, an eminent minister of the Presbyterian Church, by whom he had three children, two of whom—George R., a lawyer practicing at the Pittsburgh bar, and Carrie Belle—are living. That Mr. Lawrence comes of a thoroughly Presbyterian stock is evinced by the fact that there are connected with him by blood and marriage seventeen ministers and twenty-five or more elders of that denomination.


Died on Monday morning, Sept. 3, 1877, at his late residence in Monongahela City. He was ken ill while at church, Sabbath evening. He died of disease of the heart. The deceased was born on the 25th day of October, 1814, at Oxford, in Chenango County, N. Y. He immigrated from Jamestown, N. Y., to this city in the year 1836. After teaching a classical school for a time, he returned to Allegheny College, at Meadville, and completed his collegiate course. Among his classmates at college were ex-Governor F. H. Pierpont and ex-Governor Reuben E. Fenton. He studied law with Judge Marvin, and was admitted to the Washington County bar at November term, 1840. At the time of his death he was the oldest member of that bar, excepting Hon. A. W. Acheson. He was married by the Rev. Dr. Ralston to Miss Harriet Hamilton, daughter of the late Joseph Hamilton. His wife and four sons survive him, but little Willie and his daughters Nettie and Martha had gone before. He lived, with the exception of a few years, all the time in Monongahela City since his first arrival. He was the first academic teacher in this place, and to him his adopted city owes the largest measure of that educational spirit which is so characteristic of its citizens. He was especially versed in polite and classical literature, and as a teacher he had few superiors. To him are indebted for their taste for learning many who are now active and prominent participants in the great field of literature and science. He was a finished musical scholar, and was for many years a leading musician in the Presbyterian Church. He was principal of the Belle Vernon Academy. In speaking of this academy Dr. Van Voorhis, in his centennial address in 1876, said, "This academy was started in the spring of 1842. T. R. Hazzard, Esq., an experienced teacher, formerly of New York, was the principal. The institution closed in 1845. At this institution as students were Chief Justice G. W. McIlvain, of Ohio, Hon. D. M. Letherman, of Pennsylvania, Dr. J. H. Storer, of West Virginia, Dr. J. C. Cooper, of Philadelphia, and other distinguished personages. Hon. T. R. Hazzard still lives, and has long resided in Monongahela City, where as counselor and citizen he enjoys the confidence of his fellow-men." He was for many years editor and proprietor of he Republican, in which he always fearlessly defended the right. He was a chaste, intelligent, and forcible writer, expressing his ideas in short but well-finished sentences. The deceased was a great friend of literary institutions, and was always in the front when the good of literature was in question. He was devotedly wedded to his adopted city, ever ready to aid whatever might redound to its progress.

He was long a member of the Presbyterian Church, and cherished its precious doctrines as an epitome of 1 that holy Bible of which he was a devoted student. He always took an active part in the prayer-meetings


and Sabbath-school, of which he was many years superintendent. On the last Sabbath of his life be attended church in the morning, sat at the communion table at noon, attended his Bible class in the afternoon, went to church in the evening, was taken ill while there. When the morning came he was in heaven. The smile that graced his countenance at death tells the story "that he heard the music within," and as he passed from earth heard the voice of the Saviour saying, "Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you." He was buried on Wednesday in the beautiful cemetery overlooking his adopted city. The deceased was often called to stations of honor and trust by his fellow-citizens, who never regretted their choice, for when his work was done he surrendered those trusts, and received the plaudit, " Well done, thou good and faithful servant." Our friend has gone to the grave with true nobility stamped on his brow.

He was a member of the late Constitutional Convention, in the proceedings of which he took an active and prominent part. His speeches, delivered in his usual calm and dignified manner, grace many of the pages of its journal, and to his learning and sound judgment we are indebted for many of the valuable ideas incorporated in the new Constitution: His domestic virtues cannot be more beautifully portrayed than by quoting his own words, as uttered by him on the occasion of the death of his colleague, Col. Hopkins, a member of the same convention : " He was an .affectionate and true husband, a kind parent, a considerate neighbor, a faithful friend, a sound and wise counselor, and an exemplary Christian gentleman. He was charitable to the poor and foremost in all benevolent and Christian enterprises. By his death his immediate neighborhood will lose the inspiration of his public spirit, his interesting, highly respectable, and intellectual family his kind words of wisdom and advice and the rich gifts of his social nature." Socrates died like a hero, but friend Hazzard like a Christian. In the full consciousness of his condition, with his characteristic coolness, he declared, "This is the end," and passed away,

"Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch

About him and lies down to pleasant dreams."

At a meeting of the members of the Washington bar and the officers of the court, held Sept. 3, 1877, Thomas H. Baird, Boyd Crumrine, and Alexander Wilson, Esqs., were appointed a committee to prepare and present to the court at the October term a minute in relation to the death of Thomas R. Hazzard, Esq. The committee, after relating the facts above mentioned, thus continues,—

"In view of this brief outline of our late brother's life, as well as our intimate personal knowledge of him, it is fitting that we, his fellow-members of the bar and officers of the court, should place upon record an expression of the sincere and unfeigned sorrow with which we heard of his sudden death, and that we should also thus perpetuate our estimate of his personal character as a Christian gentleman ; that in all the period of nearly thirty years during which he was actually engaged in the business of this bar his intercourse with his professional brethren was marked by the most unvarying kindness and courtesy. Impulsively frank and openhearted in disposition, and gifted with an unfailing fund of ready wit and genial humor, he was one of the most agreeable of companions and most sincere friends. In the practice of law his aim was always to get at the substantial justice of a case and to search an honest result, and this rectitude of purpose was so generally known and appreciated that be was enabled to acquire and retain the confidence, respect, and esteem of his brethren.

"That our brother was a thorough good man, being not only consistent in his Christian profession and in the example of a godly life which he set for others, but also identifying himself with every religious, moral, and educational cause having for its object the welfare of the community in which he lived or that of humanity at large. That in all the relations of life, and in the discharge of the many and various duties, public and official, which were required of him, he was always kind, courteous, and obliging, thus securing a large number of earnest and devoted friends, who will long feel and sincerely mourn his loss, and who will heartily join in this tribute of respect which we now offer to his memory. That while we sympathize and condole with his bereaved wife and family in their affliction, we feel that we can minister no more assuring consolation than to remind them of the many evidences which our brother gave of his unwavering faith in his Saviour, and of the calm reliance which he exhibited upon a conscious death-bed on Him ' who bath done all things well.'"

Remarks were made by a number of members of the bar relative to the high ,character and spotless life of Mr. Hazzard. He was truthfully said to have been a good and conscientious lawyer, a man of fine social qualities, and a Christian.


James Sloan was born in Hopewell township, Washington County, Sept. 16, 1807, of James and Martha Sloan, who came from County Tyrone, Ireland, about 1804. He was reared in the church of Upper Buffalo, and in early life made a public confession of his faith in Christ. At fourteen years of age he entered a select school taught by Rev. Thomas Campbell, father of the distinguished Alexander Campbell, and there laid the groundwork of his classical education. From this time, with that strong will and determination which came to him as a natural inheritance, he supported himself by means of teaching in schools and academies during his vacations, defraying the expense of his collegiate and theological education. In this sense, like so many of our strong and useful men, James Sloan was a self-made man. After an interval of teaching he entered Washington College, then under the presidency of Dr. Andrew Wylie, but on the suspension of the college in 1828 he transferred his relation to Jefferson College, and was graduated in the class of 1830. On leaving college he taught fora time the Pleasant Hill Female Seminary, and then in the adjoining village of Middletown, and while thus engaged was married in 1831 to Sarah, daughter of William Lindsey, of the latter place. She departed this life after a happy union of three years, leaving a daughter, who still, survives. During the same period he placed himself under the theological instruction of his venerable pastor, John Anderson, D.D., and was the last of the candidates for the ministry trained tinder his care, baying been preceded