on Miller's Run, in this township, where he lived and died. His sons George and Samuel now own the farm. James Reed, the fourth son, married Jane A. Allison, of Chambersburg, and located in Washington borough. He was a jeweler and watchmaker, and lived there many years, and finally removed to Pittsburgh and carried on the business there till his death in 1879. His sons James and George are living in Pittsburgh, and in the same business. Joseph, the youngest son of David Reed, married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Alexander, of Miller's Run. They settled on the homestead, but Mrs. Reed died only about six months afterward. Mr. Reed married as a second wife Anna, the daughter of the Rev. David McClean, by whom he had four children,—Margaret, a daughter, became the wife of Robert Henderson (a grandson of the Rev. Matthew Henderson), and settled in Chartiers township; Mary, another daughter, married John Nesbitt, and also settled in Chartiers ; David settled at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, as a physician, and died in 1878. The youngest son is residing on the homestead and has charge of the farm. Joseph Reed, after the death of his second wife, married Martha Henderson, who is still living. Mr. Reed is now in his eighty-seventh year, and has retired from the active duties of life. His memory of the many incidents related by his father concerning the Washington lands is still fresh, and many of the stories related of that affair are said by him to be without foundation.

Thomas Bracken came to this territory about 1778, and took up a tract of land, for which he received a Virginia certificate in 1780. It was not surveyed until April 15, 1788, and was then named "The Three Shares," containing three hundred and forty acres, and was at that time adjoining lands of Samuel Parks and Robert Ralston. The patent for the tract was not obtained till March 30, 1802. On the 25th of November, 1783, he sold to William Hutton, who then lived on the place, one hundred acres adjoining Samuel Parks. Hutton sold the tract August 17th the next year to James Gaston, and' he to William Cook. A deed was not given for the land till May 5, 1808. Thomas Bracken died between 1802 and 1806, leaving children,—Thomas, Henry, John, Reed, Sally, Agnes (the wife of Rev. John Matthews), Hannah (Mrs. Joseph 'Thompson), Jane (Mrs. Richard Miller), and Mary Bracken. On the 25th of April, 1806, Reed and Sally Bracken sold to William Craighead one hundred and eighty acres of the estate, and on the 4th of October, 1816, the heirs sold to Henry Bracken one hundred and thirty-four acres, and to Richard Miller (husband of Jane Bracken) one hundred and thirty-four acres. Thomas became a Presbyterian minister, sold his land to Benjamin and Moses Coe, Erasmus Allison, and Thomas Kerr, and removed to Mercer County. John lived on the home place, and died there. Henry finally removed to the South, where he followed the profession of a teacher. Reed was educated at Canonsburg, and entered the ministry of the Presbyterian Church. Part of the property went from the Brackens to John Murray, and from him to James Craighead, and passed to Wesley Greer, by whom it was sold to the Pennsylvania Reform School, which now occupies the property.

Joseph Brown took out a warrant for a tract of land March 1, 1785, and warrant for another tract April 15, 1786. The first was surveyed as "Bon Ton," containing two hundred and two acres, adjoining land of Sarah Wait, Joseph Brown, and John Daniel, or Donnell. This tract was patented Nov. 24,1791, after it came into possession of William Kerr, who bought it Sept. 11, 1789. The second tract was surveyed as " Bellgrade," and contained three hundred and sixty-seven acres ; this tract was adjoining lands of John Daniel, or Donnell, Matthew Ritchie, and David Reed, and was on the banks of Miller's Run. This also was sold to William Kerr at the same time as the other, and patented Nov. 25, 1791. He sold two hundred acres to William Cook, who lived there many years, and left three daughters and two sons, who are all dead except Mrs. Thomas McConnell. The farm is now owned by James White, of North Strabane 'township, and is occupied by his son Samuel. William also sold to James Jewell, his son-in-law, nearly the whole of the remainder, who lived there many years, and went to Ohio, where the family of Mrs. Jewell then resided. Mr. Jewell sold the property to different parties. Joseph Burnside purchased forty acres, where his son George now lives. About 1845, Nathan Tannehill purchased one hundred and thirty acres, where his son James now resides. Joseph Lindsey purchased a portion of the farm before the sale to Jewell, now owned by James Moore. Thomas Weaver bought of James Jewell eighty-six acres in 1848.

John Donnell came from Winchester, Va., in the year 1776, and settled in the territory that afterwards became a part of Cecil township. He located a tract of land under Virginia certificate. This certificate recites that "John Daniel is entitled to 400 acres of land in the county of Yohogania, situate on the waters of Shirtee, to include his settlement made in the year 1776, also a right in pre-emption to two hundred acres adjoining thereto." Another tract also was granted him on a Virginia certificate April 20, 1780. The first tract was surveyed to him Aug. 3, 1785, and was named " The Forrest," containing four hundred and eighteen acres, adjoining land of Thomas Bracken, Henry Donald, Matthew Ritchie, and the widow Moore. The other tract was surveyed to Presley Neville and Matthew Ritchie on the 26th of January, 1788, and named " Hope," and contained four hundred and eight acres. John Donnell was the son of Henry Donnell, who also came from Winchester, Va., and settled near John Canon. He came into possession of a portion of this land, and on the 19th of May, 1790, sold to his son John seventy-one acres of


land adjoining that of John. Henry Donnell had three sons,—John, Joshua, and Charles. The last two came into possession of land adjoining their brothers. The land owned by Joshua is now owned by Andrew H. Giffin. The land owned by Charles is now in possession of the heirs of John Curry. Joshua and Charles, after a few years, sold their farm and went West. John Donald married Rebecca Evans, of Ten-Mile, in Amwell township. They settled on the land he took up, and had seven daughters and one son. The daughters married and settled in Mercer County, Pa. He married as a second wife Janet Lyle, of Peters Creek, in Peters township, by whom he had four daughters and three sons. The only one living of these children is Charles, a son, who lives on the old homestead. Henry, another of the sons, married Anna, the daughter of David Hay, of Char-tiers township. They settled on the homestead also, where he died Nov. 9, 1881, in his eightieth year, leaving a widow and three children, of whom John H. Donnell and a sister live at the homestead. Mrs. Henry Donnell also lives there still, having resided there over fifty years. Of the eight hundred acres purchased by John Donnell, the present owners are .Andrew H. Giffin, W. W. Gladden, John Conner, David Beaboat, John M. Smith, and John H. Donnell.

James Bunyan was from New York City, and had formerly been a sea captain. In 1795 John Morgan, a son of Col. George Morgan, married his only daughter Margaret, and as the Morgans removed to Morganza Mr. Bunyan was induced to come also to this section. He purchased two hundred acres of land belonging to Samuel Long and James Philips in the township of Cecil, on Chartiers Creek, opposite Morganza. John Morgan settled here; their son, Thomas Gibbs Morgan, became a leading lawyer in the State of Louisiana, and judge of the courts of that State. Another son, James, is now living in Pittsburgh. A colored man, Elias Prall, who came out with the family as a slave, is now living at Canonsburg at the age of eighty-five years.

Matthew Ritchie patented several tracts of land in this township. A part of one that was patented March 17, 1788, was sold to John Harper, who, on the 4th of April, 1814, sold to Hance McClelland two hundred and fifty-nine acres. Three years later he died and left it to his sons, John and Ebenezer. The latter sold his portion, one hundred and thirteen acres, Aug. 31, 1838, to Alexander McCloy, and purchased a portion of the Morganza tract.

There were many families of the name of Fife, who settled early in what is now Allegheny County. John Fife came to this township, and on the 22d of February, 1799, purchased four hundred acres of land of Patrick Jordan, adjoining land of Reuben Waits. He had seven sons, William, Andrew, Robert, John, James, Thomas, and Nathaniel. The latter went West. William, Robert, Thomas, and James, all settled on the homestead. William and Thomas are still living there; the others: are dead.

William Craighead, son of George Craighead of North Strabane township, came to in 1806, and on the 25th of April in that year purchased one hundred and eighty acres of Reed and Sally Bracken, heirs of Thomas Bracken, a part of the tract called ." The Three Shares." His son George settled in Peters township. James and John, also sons, live on a farm adjoining Canonsburg. The homestead of William is now owned by William R. Craighead,' son of George and grandson of William. 

Robert Miller was a resident of the territory before it became Washington County. He took up under the offer of Virginia to settlers several tracts of land for which he received a Virginia certificate in 1780. One was surveyed Jan. 3, 1787, under the name of " The Cell," and contained three hundred and eighty-nine acres. It was at that time adjoining lands of Matthew Ritchie, William Hays, George Frazer, Robert Miller, Matthew Johnson. A warrant was granted to him by the Board of Property dated March 25, 1795, and returned April 1st, the same year. On the 27th of October, 1793, he, sold ninety acres of this tract to Joseph McCombs. Another tract containing three hundred and eighty acres, called " The Valley," was surveyed Jan. 3, 1786. This tract was adjoining Joseph Brown, John May, and Matthew Ritchie. Patent for it was obtained in May, 1798. One hundred and one acres of it was sold May 16, 1794, to Nathaniel Caughey, and two hundred and one acres, April .13, 1795, to William Kerr. On the 28th of April, 1795, Robert Miller authorized Craig Ritchie to make a deed for John Hays and Nicholas Smith of a tract of land containing four hundred acres, adjoining land of William Kerr, John McCombs, Matthew Johnson, William Hays, and others, "in such sort that Joseph Hays is to have one hundred and one acres whereon he now lives, and Nicholas Smith the remainder where said Miller lived." Prior to the execution of the deed Miller moved to Kentucky. Joseph McCombs purchased ninety acres of land Oct. 27, 1793, of Robert Miller, and lived there till his death. He had seven or eight daughters who became widely scattered by their settlement in life. Joseph Thompson, a native of Ireland, emigrated to the eastern part of Pennsylvania, where he lived several years, and in 1802 came to this township and settled northeast of Canonsburg, where he had purchased forty acres of land. He had three children,—Joseph, William, and Elizabeth. Joseph married Hannah, daughter of Thomas Bracken, and settled on Pigeon Creek. William settled on the home farm, and lived there till his death. His son Joseph settled in Canonsburg over fifty years ago, and is still a resident. Elizabeth became the wife of a Mr. McMillan, and settled on Pigeon Creek near the Newkirks.

Robert and Thomas Hill came from Adams County, 


Pa., before 1781, and settled in Cecil township. Robert purchased two hundred acres of land now owned by Arthur Hooper. He lived to be over ninety years of age, and left three sons and six daughters,—William, Amos, James, Ann, Sally, Betsey, Polly, Temperance, and Jane. William and Amos settled on the homestead. James went West. But two of the family ever married, — the oldest daughter and the youngest son. Thomas Hill purchased at sheriff's sale one hundred and fifty acres of what was known as the Rowley Patent. He married a daughter of William Hanna, who lived at that time in Allegheny County. In 1812 he built a log cabin on the site of the present residence of his 'son William. He died in 1824, and left two sons and four daughters. William was born in 1794, and now lives en the homestead. Thomas, the other son, was a carpenter and moved to Pittsburgh, where he still resides.

Neil McCloy was a native of Ireland, and a physician. He emigrated from Lancaster with two sons, of whom Alexander became a physician, and practiced in that county. He came to this county in 1835, purchased, October 19th of that year, eighty acres of John Bracken, part of the Robert Miller tract, which had been sold to Kerr, and in 1838 purchased one hundred and thirteen acres of land of Ebenezer McClelland, now owned by Nathaniel McKnight and John Hays. David D. McCloy was the only son of Alexander by a first wife. Other children, by a second wife, emigrated West, except Samuel, who settled .on the home farm, where he lived till well advanced in life, and sold the farm and moved to Canonsburg, where he died.

Alexander and Matthew McConnell, brothers, came from Cumberland, Maryland, and located in this township, and in 1785 patented a tract of land containing three hundred and twenty acres, now occupied by D. L. and J. P. McConnell, grandsons of Matthew. Alexander was a soldier in the Whiskey Insurrection. He bought part of a farm, on which his grandsons Alexander and D. T. McConnell now reside. Alexander, Sr., had three sons,—Alexander, David, and Matthew. Alexander bought part of the Morganza tract, and lived there till he died. The farm is now owned by John and Alexander McConnell, his sons. The former lives on the farm, the latter. at McConnell's mills in Chartiers township. David settled on the home farm in Cecil, and his sons now own the farm. Matthew also settled on a farm adjoining, and his sons reside there.

William Berry, a son of John Berry, who lived on the Washington lands in Mount Pleasant township, bought the mill property and a farm at and near what is now Venice, where he lived until 1834, when he moved to and lived one year on the Slater farm, and in 1836 went to North Strabane township and purchased a tract of land of Craig Ritchie, now owned in part by his son Matthew Berry.

William Acheson bought lands now owned by Joseph Cowden. He had three children, who all emigrated. He sold a part of the farm to one Stephenson, who sold to Cowden. A part was sold to Benjamin Fisher.

James and Hugh Sprowls were early residents in the township. The former was assessed on four hundred acres, and the latter on two hundred acres, in 1788. They lived on or near the county line.

Robert Wilson lived on a farm nearly opposite Morganza. Among his sons were Rev. Thomas Wilson and James and William Wilson.

Alexander May came from Lancaster, and purchased a tract of four hundred acres of land. He had five sons—Arthur, John, Alexander, Samuel, and David—and two daughters, Margaret and Mary. Arthur and Alexander were physicians, and practicel in Lancaster and Chester Counties, Pa. Arthur died in 1810. John married a Miss Ross, and settled in this township. Alexander, his son, married a daughter of John Berry, settled on the homestead, and died in Venice. His son, John B., lives in Canonsburg. John married the daughter of William Berry, Esq., and settled on land now owned by Mankadick and John Hays. Samuel was a teacher, and settled in Chanango, Pa., and died there. David settled on the homestead and died there, leaving two sons—Alexander and David—and a daughter, Jane. Alexander went to Virginia; David settled in Peters township; Jane became the wife of Lewis Grier, and settled, in Smith township. Margaret, the eldest child of Alexander May, Sr., became the wife of David Reed and settled in the township. Mary became the wife of Joseph Cowden, and settled in Cecil.

A. J. Hopper is a son of Samuel Hopper, who settled in Allegheny County in 1812. In 1847 he came into Cecil and purchased the property on which he now lives of the heirs of Joseph Hill, a son of Robert, who was a resident in the township from about 1791. In 1880 he purchased the McDowell Parks estate.

Samuel McPherson came from Lancaster Co., Pa., in 1849. He married Rebecca, the daughter of Andrew Giffin, of Cecil, and purchased of one Kennedy a part of the old Logan farm. He built the grist-mill and a distillery ; the latter was running for many years. He was for many years an elder in the United Presbyterian Church of Canonsburg. He died in 1877. His sons, J. H., W. B., and Robert S., are now living in the township.

William. Elliot came from Canton township to this section, and purchased a part of the tract of land taken up by Robert Ralston. On this farm he settled, and the farm was left to his son, J. S. Elliot, who was born on the place, and was at one time county commissioner. His son, J. S. Elliot, and his widow, now reside on the property.

Samuel Moorhead bought the farm on which his sons W. B. and J. Moorhead now reside. He married


Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh Sprawls, of Cecil township. He was at one time justice of the peace.

William Gladden came from the East, and purchased lands in Cecil township, now owned by his son Richard. He married Mary, the .daughter of Benjamin Kelso, of Allegheny County. She is still living on the homestead.

The family of Hickman were early settlers in Allegheny County when it was yet a part of Washington County, but it was not until 1832 that any of them came to this county. At that time Benjamin Hickman inherited a farm from his father which was in the limits of Cecil township, and on which his son John now resides. Moses Hickman, also a son of Benjamin, bought the old Logan farm in 1865, and still resides there.

James Little came from the north of Ireland, and took out a warrant in 1785 fora tract of land on a part of which his son Joseph and a grandson now reside. He had three sons and one daughter,—John, Nicholas, Joseph, and Isabella. John lived and died on the homestead. Nicholas was a bachelor. Isabella was unmarried. Joseph settled on the homestead, where he still lives. He is now seventy-five years of age, and can remember hearing his father relate that when he first came to the county they were in the habit of working on the farm in the daylight, and at night going to the block-house at McDonald's. James Little married a Miss Robb.

Joseph Cowden, a son of John Cowden, of Mount Pleasant, came to this township in 1848, and purchased the Oram farm, on which he now resides. He married Mary, the youngest daughter of Alexander May. Mrs. Ewing, of Allegheny County, who was killed by the Indians in one of their raids, was his grandmother.

Cornelius Borland came from Allegheny County in 1846, and bought the Rev. Dr. Riddle farm. His ancestors were early settlers in that section. He married Rebecca, daughter of Benjamin Kelso. His sons, M. H., A. C., and J.. K. Borland, now own the farm.

In 1781, when Washington County was laid out, John Armstrong lived on Miller's Run, where now the county line crosses the creek. He also had a mill in operation. Nothing has been learned of his history; the place, however, has been occupied as a mill-site through all these years. The present mill was built by Samuel Morgan, and was for several years owned by A. Greer. It is now owned by William Crane.

Justices of the Peace.—Following is a list of persons appointed and elected to the office of justice of the peace in Cecil township from its erection to the present time, viz.:

Matthew McConnell, July 15,1781.

John Reed, July 15, 1781.

John Cann, Oct. 6, 1784.

John Reed, Nov. 8, 1788.

Craig Ritchie, Nov. 14, 1784.

James McBurney, April 3, 1799.

Alexander Murdock, April 2, 1804.

George Morgan, Jr., Feb. 6, 1807.

Samuel Miller, Oct. 20, 1808.

George Anderson, April 1, 1809.

John Watson, April 14, 1809.

John White, March 21, 1810.

William Berry, Dec. 13, 1815.

James Moore, April 14, 1819.

John White, Jan 23, 1819.

William Colmery, Jan. 5, 1825.

Jeremiah Emery, Jan. 11, 1828.

John Morgan, Oct. 15, 1832.

David Hays, May 21, 1834.

James McClelland, March 15,1836.

Joseph Vanemen, April 19, 1838.

Samuel McPherson, April 14,1840.

John Moorhead, April 14, 1840.

Henry Donnell, April 15, 1845.

John Moorhead, April 15, 1845.

John McCord, April 9, 1850.

Samuel McPherson. April 9, 1850.

Henry Donnell, April 10, 1853.

Joseph Reed, April 10, 1855.

John A. McCord, April 10, 1860.

Henry Donnell, April 10, 1860.

John A. McCord, May 2, 1866.

James S. Elwell, April 17, 1866.

W. B. Moorhead, June 17, 1870.

James Espy, April 1, 1871.

W. B. Moorhead, Jan. 26, 1874.

James Espy, Jan. 31, 1874.

M. H. Borland, March 17, 1875.

A. J. Hopper, March 17, 1875.

M. H. Borland, March 30, 1880.

Arthur J. Hopper, March 30, 1880.

Venice.—The town of Venice was laid out by James McLaughlin in 1844, on land formerly owned by Ephraim Johnson and — Welch. It was bought by Samuel McLaughlin, who owned the mill property on Miller's Run at that place. A post-office and store were opened about 1848. The mill has been operated many years. At an early day it was owned by David Andrews, who sold to one Walker, and he to William Berry. It descended to. his son John, who sold to McLaughlin. It is now owned by J. Byerly.

Venice contains a store, post-office, school-house, two carriage-shops, two blacksmith-shops, and about ten dwellings. The people of this section worship at the Miller's Run Presbyterian Church and the United Presbyterian Church.

Fawcett Church (Methodist Episcopal).—The date of the organization of this church is not known, as no minutes were kept prior to 1842. The first record having reference to it is a survey of the lot on which the present church edifice is erected. The lot was donated by Andrew Fawcett, and was surveyed Aug. 12, 1812. A log meeting-house was afterwards built, and services were held occasionally when an itinerant preacher chanced to pass that way. The first mention of a board of trustees is in minutes kept by them from April 4, 1842, with regularity till 1850, when many years intervene before records were again kept. The old log church was used as a place of worship till 1833, when the present brick church was built. It has from the first been a station supplied by ministers from other charges. In 1877 the Rev. D. M. Hollister was appointed pastor of Canonsburg and Fawcett Churches. In 1878 the Rev. M. L. Weekly had the charge. After that time it was placed with Bridgeville in one change, and under the care of the Rev. R. C. Wolf. It is at present in the care of the Rev. George Hudson. It has now fifty members.

United Presbyterian Congregation of Venice. On the 4th day of September,. 1849 a petition from certain persons living in the neighborhood of Venice was presented to the Associate Presbytery of Chartiers, asking for the organization of a congregation in their vicinity. On the 25th day of the same month a similar petition from persons residing in the same neighborhood was received by the Associate Reformed


Presbytery of Monongahela. Each Presbytery granted the prayer of its petitioners. The Rev. Thomas Hanna, D.D., by authority of the Presbytery of Chartiers, organized the " Associate Congregation of Miller's Run" on the 24th day of September, 1849, at which time Alexander Reed, James McPeak, and Joseph Little were elected ruling elders.

The Rev. James Greer, D.D., having been appointed by the Presbytery of Monongahela, organized the " Associate Reformed Congregation of Venice," about the 1st of March, 1850. John Cockins, John Rowan, and Samuel McLaughlin were elected elders.

The first named of these congregations enjoyed, almost from the date of its organization, the joint pastoral services of Drs. Anderson and Beveridge, who were professors in the theological seminary, then located at Canonsburg. By the death of Dr. Anderson (which occurred the 8th day of May, 1855), And the removal of Dr. Beveridge with the seminary to Xenia, Ohio, the same year, the congregation was left, for the remainder of its separate history, without pastoral care.

The Rev. J. L. Fairley was the first and only pastor of the Associate Reformed Congregation of Venice. His pastorate began June 28, 1853, and ended Dec. 25, 1855. Thus these two congregations, which had struggled into existence together, which had erected houses of worship the same season on adjoining lots of ground, and which had obtained the pastoral services of good and faithful men, became " vacancies" the same year, and continued for about the same length of time dependent on their respective Presbyteries for supplies of preaching.

The union of the Associate and Associate Reformed Churches in the spring of 1858 prepared the way for a speedy consolidation of these hitherto rival organizations. They were formally united under the name and title of the United Presbyterian Congregation of . Venice on the 8th day of November, 1858. The session of the united congregation consisted of James McPeak, Joseph Little, John Cockins, Samuel Morehead, John R. White, and John P. McConnel. The present pastor was installed April 17, 1860.

The present elders are Joseph Little, John P. McConnell, John B. Kelso, Joseph Cowden, John P. Scott, Charles Wallace, David White, and John Mawkinney. James Patterson, Andrew Borland, and S. W. Scott constitute the present board of trustees. Superintendent of Sabbath-school, S. W. Scott; Secretary and Treasurer of Sunday-school, W. W. Kelso. The present membership of the congregation is 215.

Miller's Run Presbyterian Church.—At a celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of Rev. William Smith, D.D., held at the Miller's Run Presbyterian Church, May 14 and 15, 1873, Dr. Smith delivered an address, in which he gave a history of the congregation, from which the following account is mainly taken :

The Miller's Run congregation was organized about the year 1800. This is inferred from the fact that its name appears for the first time on the records of the Ohio Presbytery for that year. On the 26th of June in that year Rev. John Watson was ordained and installed pastor. He died Nov. 20, 1802, and was succeeded by Rev. James Dunlap, who preached as stated supply till the 22d of April, 1812, when he removed to the bounds of the Redstone Presbytery. Rev. Andrew Wylie was ordained and installed June 23, 1813, and remained pastor till May 28, 1817. He was succeeded by Rev. William McMillan, who labored as stated supply till April, 1823. (All the ministers named above were presidents of Jefferson College.)' At the April meeting of Presbytery in 1823, in accordance with a request of the people, Dr. Smith was appointed to supply the congregation without any limitation as to time, and on the first Sabbath of May in that year he commenced his labors as stated supply. He.was ordained, sine titulo, to the office of the ministry Dec. 31, 1824, but was never formally installed pastor of the congregation. The following are the names of the elders who officiated in the congregation when he commenced his ministerial labors in it : Alexander McElroy, William Simpson, John Aiken, John Lindsay, Andrew Vaneman, and James Jervis. The first meeting-house was built of logs, about the year 1790. It was very uncomfortable, and when the weather was favorable the congregation preferred to meet at the tent in the grove, a little below where the sexton's house now stands.

In 1823 the number of communicants was eighty-five. This increased to one hundred and thirty. Three hundred and fifty communicants were admitted on examination during the ministry of Dr. Smith. In the fifty years of his ministry seventeen young men in the congregation received a liberal education. Eleven became ministers of the gospel. When he commenced his labors in the congregation there was not a carriage, buggy, or vehicle of any kind to be seen on the ground belonging to the congregation. Those who had horses came to church on horseback; those who had none came on foot. It was not an unusual thing to see girls on their way to church carrying their shoes and stockings, which they put on when they came near the church. • When the religious services were ended they proceeded a short distance from the church, unshod themselves, and returned to their homes barefooted as they came. This was customary not only at Miller's Run Church, but all over the Western country.

The ministry of the Rev. Dr. Smith was closed by his resignation after about a half-century of service. After his retirement the Rev. William Ewing, who has charge of the Canonsburg Academy, was appointed by the Presbytery as a supply, and is still in charge.

Schools.—But little is known of the early schools of the township, except that they were scattered, kept


irregularly, and by subscription. About 1804 and 1805, Joseph Reed remembers attending school on the farm now owned by Jane Oram. It was taught by Samuel May in a log cabin. He taught about one and a half years. The close proximity of the township to the Canonsburg Academy, and later Jefferson College, gaveto the rising generation a great advantage over more remote townships, but it was not until the passage of the school law in 1834 that any step was taken towards the establishment of general education, and then Cecil was backward in accepting the provisions of the law. In 1835 there were.251 persons living in the township liable to taxation for school purposes, and in that year the amount raised by taxation and collected was $206.12. In the two succeeding years (1836 and 1837) the township did not accept the requirements of the school law, and only the State tax of $69.07 was raised in 1836, and the State tax only in 1837. After that time the township fell into line with the others of the county. It was not, however, until 1838-39 that the people favored the erection of the township into school districts. At that time seven districts were laid out, and these remained practically unchanged until about 1878, when another district was erected. In 1863 there were 283 scholars enrolled, $1894.48 was raised for school purposes, and an expenditure of $2379.24. In 1873 there were 253 scholars; receipts for school purposes, $2259.46 ; expenditures, $2035.96. In 1880 there were 260 scholars ; receipts, $2939.79 ; expenditures, $2482.91.

Pennsylvania Reform School.—The Legislature of the State of -Pennsylvania, on the 22d of April, 1850, granted a charter for a "House of Refuge," to be located in Allegheny County, and under the control of twenty-six managers, a part of whom were appointed by the Governor, and part elected by the contributors to the institution. An organization was effected in 1851, and a contract was made in August, 1852, for a building, which was completed and formally opened on the 13th of December, 1854. The institution opened with five inmates (as appears from the first report of the superintendent). The numbers increased rapidly, and inmates were received from Allegheny and adjoining counties.

The managers appointed by the Governor in 1869 were John W. Irvine, IL P. Nevin, James P. Barr, R. S. Waring, A. F. Keating, of Allegheny County ; Thomas McKennan, of Washington County ; and Jacob Weyand, of Beaver County. The following from the report of the managers made in 1878 shows the progress of the school and the change to Mor-ganza, its present location:

"From 1854, the time of its first opening, until December, 1876, the school was conducted under the congregate system, and the inmates were,trained behind high walls and bolts and bars. With further light and a wider experience upon such matters, in 1872 the family plan was discussed, and a committee of the board was appointed to visit the 'congresses' held for the advancement of such objects. After due consideration it was resolved to adopt the ' family system,' and to remove the school to a location some distance from the, city. After a thorough examination of various sites, the Morganza' farm was purchased."

The amount of land purchased was five hundred and three acres, at a cost of $88,621.20. On the 1st of May, 1873, contract was made for laying stone for foundations of two main buildings and four family dwellings. In July the same year contracts for the buildings were given out, and on the 15th of July that year the corner-stone of the main building was laid by Governor John F. Hartranft, with imposing ceremonies. The estimates made for the different buildings were as follows: Main building, $80,000; girls' department, $40,000 ; boys' department, $25,000 ; church, $15,000 ; workshops and improvement of grounds, $40,000 ; total, $200,000. These buildings were not erected at once, and the church is not yet (1882) erected. The amount of money expended in 1873, according to the report of the managers (February, 1874), was $91,952.54. In May, 1874, another building was erected. The buildings were completed and ready for occupancy in the fall of 1876, and on the 12th of December of that year the inmates from the Allegheny premises were removed to Morganza.

In June, 1876, application was made in the Court of Common Pleas No. 1 of Allegheny County for an amendment of the charter. The amendment provided for putting the institution under control of the State, as under its provisions sixteen of the twenty-six managers are appointed by the Governor, subject to approval by the Senate, " instead of their being elected as heretofore by the contributors." In 1878 there were in the institution forty-five girls and two hundred and fifty-five boys, occupying the main and five family buildings. On the 3d of October, 1878, agreeable to an act passed by the Legislature, the managers transferred to the State all right, title, and interest in about fourteen acres of ground in the Ninth Ward, Allegheny, with buildings, engines, fixtures, etc., known as "the House of Refuge property, Wood's Run," for the sole use and benefit of the Western Penitentiary, excepting certain lots mentioned as sold.

An effort was made to transfer the control of the school entirely to the State. The Washington County commissioners, who had a voice in the control of the school, relinquished all claim to the management on the 31st of January, 1879, and on the 30th of April of that year a bill passed the Legislature authorizing and directing the managers to transfer entire control to the State, which was done. The first meeting of the board of managers (consisting of sixteen members) after the passage of this bill was held on the 5th of May, 1879. The officers were Thomas Wightman, president; John F. Dravo, vice-president; A. J. Keating, secretary ; and J. J. Gillespie, treasurer.


The obtaining of a supply of pure water was for a cing time a source of considerable trouble and anxiety. The farm committee, in their report of 1878, said,—

"Your committee after a careful examination of all the facts in the case, came to the conclusion that the only feasible plan of securing a good and sufficient supply of water for the institution was to filter and pump from Chartiers Creek. Acting on this idea, they secured all the information on the subject of ftitering they could find access to, and adopted the plan now under contract. The contract was immediately 'advertised and let to the lowest bidders, Messrs. C. G. Dixon & Co., for the sum of $3700. Your committee also received proposals for a steom. pump, and adopted the Eclipse, manufactured by II. D. McKnight & Co., of Pittsburgh. For furnishing which, together with boilers and necessary pipe to connect pump with m yin water line, contract was given to Messrs. IL D. McKnight & Co. for the sum of $1875 for pump and boilers complete, and eighty-two cents per foot for furnishing and laying necessary pipe to make connection with main."

The superintendent, in his report for 1878, said,—

"The important improvement for securing a permanent supply of pure water is well under way also, and in the hands of the farm committee will doubtless be completed early in the coming month. It will include when finished a large basin heavily walled with stone, and filled to the depth of seven or eight feet with the most approved material for filtering purposes. It is built on the margin of Chartiers Creek, and supplied with valve inlets for the introduction of water as required. Much of the excavation necessary to secure a proper depth for this basin has teen through beds of solid rock, and several fine springs have been opened, which will help to make the supply inexhaustible.

"In connection with this a receiving well is being sunk, having a Capacity of fifteen hundred barrels, to be walled with brick, thoroughly grouted and cemented, and covered for protection from the weather with a substantial roof.

"A new Eclipse' pumping-engine, with a capacity of three hundred barrels per hour, together with double flue boilers, are ready for the foundations now in course of construction, which, with buildings for protection of same, now under contract, will complete all the necessary arrangements fur the purpose named.

"It may be well to state in this connection that, owing to important changes in the original plan of this improvement, made by your direction. the expense has been greater than at first estimated, even under the most economical management, and will therefore necessitate an application to our next Legislature fur additional appropriations to cover the deficit. There can be no reasonable doubt that with the present expenditures the institution will secure a full and lasting supply of spring and filtered water, except perhaps fur laundry purposes.

"Plans for an ice-house largo enough to store some three hundred tens have been submitted by the building committee. This will be placed near the creek and adjacent to the pumping-engine, in order to secure a steam connection for hoisting apparatus over an incline extending to the creek margin.

"Plans also for a new depot building have been furnished by the architect, and are now under• supervision by the building committee. This is expected to include, in addition to a public waiting-room fur passengers and a freight-room, sufficient accommodations for residence of the station-agent, dining-and lunch-rooms, and several lodging-rooms for the use of persons visiting the institution. It is expected also that the post-office will be removed to this building when completed. For the purpose named a structure will be required exceeding in cost the

appropriation already made from twelve to fifteen hundred dollars."

In his report for 1880 the superintendent mentioned the improvements made up to September 30th of that year, as follows :

"The greater portion of all labor has been done by inmates, the number of days of farm.labor aggregating three thousand one hundred and eighty-six, and on improvements to grounds of the institution, seven thousand two hundred and sixty-seven days: During the summer a limestone quarry has been opened on the farm, for the purpose of securing stone for roadways; a crusher for breaking stone lass been erected, and the roadways are being evenly covered with broken limestone; seine four thousand feet of French drains have been dug at either side of main roadway and the sides laid with brick water tables; about two thousand yards of concrete pavement has been laid at rear of mail. building, and the passage-way betwe.en the Main building and bakery graded, macadamized, and otherwise improved. The grounds about the main entrance have been graded and ornamented. Two addithand green-houses, eighty by twelve feet each, have been erected for propagating bedding-plants and growing early vegetables, most of the mate. rial for which had formerly been in use for hot-beds.

"Much difficulty has heretofore been experienced in securing a suflb cient quantity of ice from the small stream skirting the grounds of the institution, and during the present summer an ice-pond has been me-pared, covering some two acres of ground, from which we hope to secure an abundant supply of ice; and the sheet of water will be quite an ornamental feature in the beauty of our lawns. In addition to disinter performed by inmates on the farm and grounds, we have five boys employed in the shoe-shop, who have during the year made 657 pairs of shoes, repaired 1135 pairs of shoes, repaired 25 sets of harness. Seven boys in the tailor-shop made 960 pairs of pants, 138 coats, 92jackets,38 vests, 20 curtains, 64 bed-ticks, 34 sheets, 40 pillow-slips, 60 napkins,14 aprons, 70 towels, and repaired upwards of 402 pants and coats. Some twenty-five of the inmates are members of the brass band, which meets weekly kir instruction and drill, under the direction of Prof. Arbogast, and perform in a very creditable manner.

"During the month of Juno a contract was entered into fur the erection of workshops, thirty-six by seventy-two feet in dimensions and two stories high, with basement, and the building is now in process of cam. pletion, and will soon be ready for occupancy.

"At a meeting of the hoard held May 10, 1880, Col. G. A. Shallen-berger resigned hubs Position as superintendent. The resignation was accepted by the board, and Mr. J. A. Quay, the present incumbent, was unanimously chosen to fill the va:ancy. We desire here to.bear testimony to the untiring efforts of Col. Shallenberger for the interests of the school ; and as well to the like efforts on the part of Mr. Quay, who was somewhat suddenly called to so responsible a position, and to the aid and assistance afforded by Mr. C. H. Reid,his worthy assistant. Mrs. Van Meter, the matron of the female department, tendered her resignation, and Mrs. Beacom was chosen to succeed her. It has been cause for congratulation that we were able at once to fill these important offices with so efficient and reliable men and women. No doubt very much of our success is due to the energy and watchfulness of the other officers, who are perhaps the best fitted for their respective duties of any wo have ever had."

Following is a list of the present (1882) officers of the institution, viz.: Board of Managers—President, Thomas Wightman ; Vice-President, James P. Barr; Secretary, A. F. Keating ; Treasurer, J. J. Gillespie; James Allison, T. J. Bighorn, Josiah Cohen, C. Troutman, James McCullough, Thomas McKennan, John N. Neel, R. P. Nevin, R. S. Waring, Malcolm Hay, Joseph Woodwell, J. Weyand.

Resident officers : J. A. Quay, superintendent; T. B. Jackson, clerk ; Alexander McMorrow, steward; J. W. Alexander, M.D., physician ; Andrew Boland, chief engineer; J. P. Stewart, farmer; Mrs. E. H. Beacom, matron.



The Craigheads are descended from a Scotch missionary of that name who settled in Virginia in her colonial days. Tile first of whom the family in this section have any authentic record is George Craighead, who was a native of Virginia. He was a soldier in tile Revolutionary war, and was wounded at the battle of Brandywine. ,He married Anna Brat-


ton and came to Washington County about 1794, and settled in North Strabane -township. Their children were Thomas, Isabel, Hester, Elizabeth, Millie, Margaret, and William, in uncertain., order. The last named, William Craighead, followed his father's vocation, that of farming, in which he achieved marked success. He married Jane Boggs, and to them were born six children,—George, who married Elizabeth Neel, James, William, Nancy, Thomas, and John, of whom James and John are the only ones now living. James Craighead was born in North Strabane township, Washington Co., Pa., Feb. 10,1805. He learned the carpenter's trade but never followed it., except so far as it was needed in the en largement and improvement of his farm buildings. His life business has been farming. He has deserved to succeed, and has succeeded. Those who knew him best in his prime placed a high estimate upon his judgment and esteemed him for his uprightness. For many years he has been a member of the Presbyterian. Church. In 1870 he was elected by the Democratic party commissioner of Washington County. He gave to the duties of his office the care and fidelity which he was wont to give to his private business, and his constituents were satisfied. His principal possessions are his farms, stock, and the Chartiers Woolen-Factory, of which he became the owner about five years ago.


THE township of Chartiers was erected by acticn of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Washington County on the 23d of March, 1790, in accordance with a petition from the inhabitants residing within the limits. It was originally the southern part of Cecil township, and embraced its present territory, the southeast part of Mount Pleasant township, and the north part of Canton. Upon the erection of Canton, the next year, a portion was taken to form that township, and in 1808 the northwest part was taken off to become a part of Mount Pleasant, the western boundary line then passing through the town of Hickory. A slight change was made in October, 1831, giving a small portion of territory to Mount Pleasant, and in 1863 the boundary line between Chartiers and Canton was changed and adjusted as at present.

Following is a list of persons appointed and elected to the office of justice of the peace¹ in Chartiers township from its erection to the present time :

John Canon, Aug. 24, 1790.

John Canon, April 1, 1794.

John Wilkes Hilliard, Feb. 24,1798.

Andrew Monroe, April 6, 1798.

Andrew Swearingen, April 3, 1799.

William Hays, April 3, 1799.

William Clark, April 3, 1799.

John Hays, April 14, 1840.

William Fee, April 14, 1840.

William Fee, April 15, 1845.

John Hays, April 15, 1845.

Hugh Fergus, April 9, 1850.

John Hays, a, April 9, 1850.

John Henderson, April 10, 1855.


Hugh Fergus, April 10, 1855.

James McElroy, April 10, 1860.

John Hudgins, April 10, 1860


John W. Howell, May 12, 1862.

John Hodgins, May 5, 1866.

John W. Howell, April 19, 1867.

Jonathan Allison, April 13, 1870.

John C. McNary, April 12, 1872.

H. O. McKnight, Aug. 8, 1873.

John C. McNary, Jan. 17, 1874.

H. O. McKnight, Jan. 19, 1874.

John C. McNary, March 21, 1877.

Allison De France, March 25, 1878.

¹ Prior to the erection of Chartiers its territory was embraced in Cecil. From Its erection to 1803 Chartiers was a separate district, but in that year became a part of District No. 5 (with Cecil), and so remained till 1838, when it again became an independent district. The names of the justices of District No. 5 from 1803 to 1838 are given in Cecil township.

Early Settlers.—Col. James Allison in the fall of 1773 emigrated with his family from Cecil County, Md., to the " Forks of the Yough" (now McKeesport), where he resided that winter, and in the spring of 1774 came to what is now Washington County and settled on Chartiers Creek. He and his family were of the twenty families who came to this section in that year, among whom were the Scotts, McDowells, Parks, Morrisons, Struthers, Norris, and others. He married a daughter of James Bradford, who came to Strabane township later and settled there. David Bradford, who was prominent in the Whiskey Insurrection, was a brother of Mrs. Allison, and Mrs. John McDowell was a sister. James Allison purchased one thousand acres of land, containing an improvement, of Thomas Moffit, also of Maryland. For the first year after these families arrived in the valley they were accustomed to rendezvous in time of danger from the Indians at a fort that was built on the land of William Norris, in the rear of the old Quail place. The land on which he settled was warranted on the 29th of October, 1784, and surveyed to him Aug. 13, 1785, as "Mount Pleasant," containing three hundred and fifty-seven acres. This tract was adjoining Michael Ralston, James Morrison, and Andrew Swearingen. He was elected one of the justices of the peace of the Court of Common Pleas, and also served the county as member of Assembly at the same time with John McDowell, his brother-in-law. He was a member of the society in Philadelphia formed for the abolition of slavery. He was one of the first elders of the Chartiers congregation, under Rev. Dr. John McMillan. He was later one Of the associate judges of Washington County, and held the position till his death, which occurred at the age of seventy-


seven years. He was a man of great moral worth, highly honored and respected by his fellow-citizens. He had eight children,—James, William, John, George, Thomas, Andrew, Rachel, Mary. James, the eldest son, studied law with John Shannon, of Washington, and removed to Beaver County, where he became prominent as a lawyer. John Allison, the ex-register of the Treasury of the United States, is his son.

William and John Allison, sons of James Allison, Sr., emigrated in 1834 to McDonough County, Ill., where they lived and died. George became a merchant in Noblestown, and died there. Thomas and Andrew settled on the homestead farm. Jonathan Allison, the son of Thomas, resides on the homestead, and the heirs of Thomas -Allison now own the part that belonged to Andrew. Rachel, a daughter of James Allison, became the wife of George Craighead, to whom one hundred acres of the estate was left. Mrs. William Ross, a granddaughter of Mrs. George Craighead, now lives on this portion of the old Allison tract.

A patent for one thousand acres of land was granted by Lord Dunmore, in the year 1775, to Valentine 'Crawford and Col. John Neville, for services rendered in the Dunmore war. This land was located in what is now Chartiers township. It seems to have been left without improvement, and unknown to the Pennsylvania land-office, as the settlers as early as 1783-84 took out warrants for lands that were embraced in this tract, and which lands were surveyed and patented regularly to them, without any doubt of a perfect title. Later, in 1803, came the announcement that a prior title existed. A meeting was arranged of the parties concerned, consisting on the part of the owners of the military patent of Presley Neville, attorney for William Heth, of Henrico County, Va., and the settlers upon the land, Martin Adams, Robert Montgomery, William Gabby, Robert and Paul White, Mary Henderson, John Struthers, Andrew Russell, Robert McCloskey, James McElroy, Samuel McBride, John. McCoy, John Calkins, and Robert Hughes. An amicable settlement was made, and on the 1st of December, 1803, Presley Neville conveyed to them " all that tract of land surveyed under a military warrant for Valentine Crawford and John Neville for one thousand acres." At this time these parties were on the land, "and by this deed they became tenants in common, and not as joint tenants; and also according to their several claims of title, boundary, and possession, as held, owned, and possessed by them respectively antecedent to the delivery hereof."

The land owned by Morton Adams is now in possession of Joseph Willison ; that of William Gabby, now Alexander McConnell ; Robert and Paul White, now Robert Russell ; Mary Henderson, now owned by Joseph Willison, formerly known as the Anderson tract; John Struthers, now in possession of

Charles Coultingham ; Andrew Russell, now in possession of John Russell, a grandson ; Robert McCloskey, now owned by Alexander Moore; Robert Montgomery, John Cockins, and John McCoy, property passed to Samuel McCoy, now in possession of his widow, Mrs. Isabella McCoy.

A Virginia certificate was issued to Samuel Thompson on the 31st of January, 1780, by the commissioners of Virginia, then in session at Coxe's Fort. It is there recited as being " situate on Shirtee Creek, to include his settlement made in the year 1774." This tract was surveyed on the 25th of January, 1785, and named " Thompson's Seasons," and contained three hundred and ten acres. At that time there was no land adjoining it that had been taken up. It was patented on the 27th of March, 1793, and was then mentioned as "adjoining Canonsburg." It is evident that this tract was the first in the valley that was taken up above Morganza. It was taken up before Col. John Canon came in. Sarah Thompson, the widow of Samuel Thompson, sold the property to different parties in 1806.

Rev. Matthew Henderson was born in Scotland in 1735 ; educated at Edinburgh ; studied theology under Rev. Alexander Moncriff, one of the first four Seceders. He was licensed to preach at the age of twenty-one years, and ordained two years later, in 1758, by the Presbytery of Perth and Dumfermline. He was immediately sent out by the Associate Church to the British colonies in America, being the third missionary sent out by that church. Soon after his arrival he settled in Oxford, Chester Co., where he labored until the year 1782. During his residence at that place he visited the western country as early as 1779, and preached at Chartiers and Buffalo. In 1782 he received a call from these congregations to become their pastor. A tract of land was purchased of John Struthers, Jr., the deed for which was dated Jan. 13, 1789. It contained one hundred and fifty-three acres, and-was situated on the north fork of Chartiers Creek, adjoining John Hays, John Struthers, Jr., and Thomas White. It was part of a tract of land called "South Hill," which was patented Nov. 13, 1786. This land had evidently been purchased several years before, as an article of agreement is said to be in existence for a tract of land conveyed to Matthew Henderson by John Struthers, Jr., dated May, 1781. There is also on record a bill of sale dated Dec. 9, 1782, from Alexander Henderson to the Rev. Matthew Henderson, by which was conveyed " One Roan-colored Horse, One Bay Horse, One Red and one Brindle Cow, Six Sheep, furniture of the house, including dresser furniture, Beds and Bed-cloaths, my farming implements, two sows and pigs, my part of grain in the ground." The consideration paid was one hundred and seventy pounds.

On this tract of land purchased of John Struthers, Jr., Mr. Henderson settled with his wife and children, I and lived till his death in 1795. He had charge not


only of Chartiers and North Buffalo Churches, but of the congregations of Mingo Creek (now the United Presbyterian Church in Peters township) and of Mill Creek. He was among the most zealous in the organization of the academy in Canonsburg in July, 1791, and remained a stanch and firm friend and supporter of that institution as long as he lived.

In speaking of this, Dr. Joseph Smith, in the "History of Jefferson College," says, " In July, 1791, it was settled in a conference of citizens and ministers, numerously attended, that the incipient steps should be taken for getting an academy under way. The ensuing day was fixed for that purpose. Many citizens attended, among whom were Judges McDowell and Allison and Craig Ritchie, Esq. The ministers present were Revs. McMillan, Henderson, and Smith. The place of meeting was by a small English schoolhouse. Here, under the pleasant shade of the green sassafras bushes, protected from the rays of the July sun, the two pupils, with Cordrii Collogua in their hands, were just about to read ‘quid agis,' when Dr. McMillan, addressing the two brethren and the small assembly, remarked in substance as follows, ' This is an important day in our history, affecting deeply the interests of the church and of the country in the West,,affecting our own interests for time and eternity, and the interests it may be of thousands and thousands yet unborn.' And turning to Mr. Henderson, he asked him to engage in prayer, seeking the blessing of God on the institution now to be opened. And I must say [continues the historian] the broad vernacular pronunciation never could be more delightful and impressive than it was then, while everything proper to the occasion appeared to be remembered in prayer by this good man." Mr. Henderson remained as pastor of the two congregations until his death, the circumstances of which are given as follows by his daughter Elizabeth (afterwards Mrs. Alexander Murdoch), who was then with him :

"On the evening of October 1st [1795] he had expressed to his children a wish that they would fell a bee-tree which had been discovered on his farm, and preparations were accordingly made to proceed to it early in the morning. He had acquainted his daughter Elizabeth, then a child of ten years of age, with their purpose, and told her that if she could get up in the morning without awakening her younger sister, Jane, she might go with him. Accordingly, the next morning he went quietly to her bed and touched her gently, to awake her without disturbing her sister. She was soon up, and having dressed herself for the expedition, hurried into her father's room, supposing him also to be ready. She found him on his knees engaged in secret prayer, and .immediately withdrew. Soon after this she observed him going down to the spring with a basin and towel to wash himself, as was his custom in the morning. Some time after he had returned she again ventured into his room, and again found him engaged in prayer. Soon afterwards he came out, and taking her by the hand he led her to the place where his sons, Ebenezer and Robert, had been for some time engaged in felling the tree. The tree stood upon a bank, and it was supposed would fall down the side of it. Mr. Henderson and his daughter approached towards it on the higher ground, where it was thought was no danger. Here they stood for a little time, at some distance from the tree awaiting its fall. It proved to be decayed in the centre, and fell much sooner than had been anticipated, and also in a direction opposite to that in which he supposed it to be falling. On this occasion, as usual, he ran, but in the same direction with the falling of the tree. His daughter followed his example, but varied somewhat in her course and escaped any injury. Her father had run to such a distance that it was only the branches which reached him, and his body was but slightly mutilated. Only a slight flesh wound wae discovered on his head, yet he appeared to have died instantly, not having been observed to move or breathe by his sons; who were immediately beside him."

He was buried in the churchyard of the Chartiers Church, to which he had so long ministered. He had fourteen children, of whom four died in infancy. Five sons and five daughters lived to maturity. Matthew, the eldest son, was licensed by the Associate Reformed Church, and was for many years pastor of a congregation in the " Forks of the Yough." He lived to an advanced age. John, the, second son, settled in Mount Pleasant township, and died there.

Ebenezer, the third son, was licensed in the city of New York, May 30, 1799 ; ordained May 24, 1800, and was settled in the united charge of Pittsburgh. and Turtle Creek, Dec. 30, 1801. Early in the year 1803 he was sent to Philadelphia, to supply the congregation left vacant by the death of Rev. William Marshall, and was about to be settled in charge of that congregation when he was sent on a missionary tour to the Carolinas. Having finished his work in the South, he had started on his return northward, when he contracted a fever, but, anxious to reach his home, traveled on from day to day on horseback till he reached an inn in the town of Staunton, in the valley of Virginia, where, growing speedily worse, be died in the midst of strangers, Sept. 17, 1804. He had given promise of eminent usefulness an in his early death was much lamented.

Robert, the fourth son of the Rev. Matthew Henderson, settled on a tract of land which his father purchased May 1, 1792, of Gavin Morrison. This was part of a tract of land which was patented by Mr. Morrison as " White Oak Spring." In the division this property fell to Elizabeth (Mrs. Alexander Murdoch), and was by her conveyed to Robert, June, 1811. Robert married the daughter of Andrew Russell, Sr. He was for many years an elder in Chartiers congregation. His children were Matthew, Andrew, Ebenezer, Alexander, Mary, John, and Robert. Matthew is a resident of Mercer County ; Ebenezer and Andrew resided and died in this township ; John settled on the William Gabby farm. He was elected justice of the peace in 1855. The farm on which he lived is now owned by Alexander McConnell. Robert lives on the homestead of his father, Robert. Alexander now resides in Houstonville. Mary, the eldest daughter, became the wife of a Mr. White, a member of her father's congregation. Ellen, the second daughter, married Dr. Samuel Murdoch, of Canonsburg, later of Washington. She died in early life, leaving a daughter, Ellen, who became the wife of Joseph Templeton, of Washington, Pa. Ann, the third daughter, became the wife of the Rev. Thomas Allison, for many years pastor of Mount Hope congregation, of Hopewell township (now


Independence). Elizabeth married Alexander Murdoch, who for several years lived at Canonsburg, and later removed to Washington. Alexander Murdoch, of Washington, is a son, and Mrs. John L. Gow, of the same place, is a daughter, of Alexander and Elizabeth Murdoch. Jane, the youngest daughter, became the wife of James Clark, of Buffalo township, Washington Co. Dr. Matthew H. Clark, many years a respected physician of Washington, was a son. James R. Clark, the druggist, of Washington, is a grandson.

John Weaver came to Chartiers township from Chester County, Pa., about 1787. He settled in the neighborhood of Canonsburg, and bought one hundred and sixty acres of James Allison. He was a mason, and worked at his trade until his death. He left sons and daughters as follows : John, Sarah, Mary, Jane, Nancy, Isaac, Thomas, Dell, George, and Joshua. John settled in Chartiers township, and purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land of James Allison, now owned by _____ White. He married Mary, the youngest daughter of the Rev. John McMillan. Thomas Weaver, of Cecil township, is the eldest son. Mrs. William A. McNutt, of Independence township, is a daughter. Isaac, a son of John Weaver, Sr., settled in Chartiers township, and bought one hundred acres of land, now owned by Frederick Lesnett. He had but two children, who emigrated to Ohio. Thomas, also a son of John, settled in North Strabane township, on'a farm now owned by his son Isaac. Dell Weaver learned the trade of a blacksmith and settled in Canonsburg, where he is still living, at the age of eighty-four years. George and Joshua both resided in Canonsburg for some years. The family of Joshua are now all in Allegheny County. Sarah, one of the daughters of John Weaver, became the wife of John McMillan, a son of the Rev. John McMillan, and settled on the old McMillan homestead in North Strabane township, now owned by the Fulton brothers, nephews of John and Sarah McMillan.

John Struthers, a Scotchman, emigrated to this country and settled in Chester County, Pa., where he married and raised a family of children. In the year 1772 he came to this county, and on the 22d day of September of that year he purchased six hundred acres of land of James Patterson, " situate on the waters of the Ohio, on a river called Shirtee, and joining the lands of William Bollan on the east, upon the run: known by the name of Patterson's Run." The land was granted to William Long on a Pennsylvania warrant in the year 1769; and sold by him to James Patterson on the 19th of June, 1772. It was surveyed to John, Struthers, July 3, 1785, under the name of " Cawlder." In the year 1774, John Struthers, with his eldest son, John, came to the new farm, built a cabin, and after clearing a small area and planting it to corn, they returned to Chester County, Pa., and spent the winter with his family. In the following spring, with his family and possessions, they moved to the new home, and settled in the log cabin on the farm now owned by Robert Hamilton. The nearest neighbor at that time was John White, who lived about five miles distant, in what is now North Strabane, and about a mile southeast of where Canonsburg now stands. Struthers built a grist-mill on the creek, which was in active operation in 1796. He had four sons,—John, Jr., Alexander, Thomas, and James. The son John took a warrant for a tract of land which was surveyed to him as "South Hill," and contained three hundred and eighty-two acres. Patent for this land was obtained Nov. 13, 1786. Three years later, Jan. 13, 1789, he sold one hundred and fifty-three acres of it to the Rev. Matthew Henderson, and on the 1st of April, 1790, he conveyed one hundred and fifty-two acres to Matthew Bowland. The last tract was adjoining Matthew Henderson, Thomas White, and James and Charles Campbell. John Struthers, Jr., and Alexander soon after went West. James inherited the homestead, and Thomas also lived on a portion of the estate, where they lived and died, leaving families whose descendants live in this and adjoining townships.

Gavin Morrison, a native of Scotland, came to this county with the twenty families who came to this section of country about 1773 and located on the hill lands in Chartiers township under the settlement rights offered by Virginia. On this tract he built his cabin and settled with his family, which consisted of three sons—James, Gavin, and John—and one daughter. Gavin Morrison, Sr., died in the fall of 1782, and left his land to his eldest son, James Morrison, to whom it was surveyed Aug. 3, 1784, on a Virginia certificate. It was named in the survey "Rich Hill," and contained three hundred and eighty-seven acres and eighteen perches, and is mentioned at the time of survey as adjoining lands of James and Gavin Morrison. On the 8th of April, 1785, James Morrison took out a warrant for a tract that was surveyed August 3d the same year as " Copenhagen," containing sixty-six acres, and Feb. 22, 1786, another tract was warranted, and surveyed August 3d as "Springfield," containing fifty-eight acres. In the year 1792 he is

assessed as Capt. James Morrison on four hundred acres of land. He died in November, 1813, leaving sons, William, James, John, and Guion. They all lived and died on the farm, and the widow of Guion Morrison now owns the place.

On the 12th of June, 1786, Gavin Morrison took out a warrant for a tract of four hundred acres which was surveyed as " White Oak Springs," part of which was sold to the Rev. Matthew Henderson, and is now in possession of Robert Henderson, a grandson of the Rev. Matthew. In 1792 Gavin Morrison was assessed on four hundred acres, and John Morrison on one hundred and forty acres.

Andrew Swearingen emigrated from Virginia in 1772. He was a captain in the McIntosh campaign;


was at the Wheeling fort when that place was invested by the Indians, and at the commencement of the Revolutionary war he received a captain's commission, and headed a company of scouts during the greater part of that struggle. He was appointed one of the justices of the peace of Yohogania County at the October term of court in 1776, and in 1783 was appointed treasurer of Washington County, and served till 1794. In 1799 he was elected justice of peace in Chartiers township. As a magistrate he was noted for settling difficulties between neighbors without resorting to the law. He took up large tracts of land on Virginia certificates, which were confirmed to him by warrants of acceptance from the board of property April 19, 1786. Two of these tracts were located on George's Run, a branch of Chartiers Creek. One was surveyed under the name of " Canaside," containing three hundred and ninety-eight acres, and patented April 1, 1788 ; the other was surveyed under the name of " Drusilla," containing one hundred and sixty-seven acres. .This tract was patented March 6, 1789. (It was probably named Drusilla after a daughter of his brother, Van Swearingen, and who became the wife of Samuel Brady, the well-known Indian scout.) On the 30th of July, 1805, he sold these tracts to Joseph Nesbitt, who bought them for himself and his brothers Jonathan and John. He also owned a large body of land on Chartiers Creek, in Chartiers township. On this tract he lived, and conveyed the greater part of it to his children. On the 9th of July, 1796, he transferred six hundred and seventy acres to Joseph Swearingen, a son, who later lived in Philadelphia, and on the same date conveyed seven hundred and seventeen acres to Thomas Swearingen. This last body of land was composed of two tracts that were surveyed as " Belmont" and " Vermont." Warrants of acceptance were issued by the board of property April 9, 1786, and patent issued June 1, 1786. On the 27th of September, 1799, Andrew Swearingen conveyed to his only daughter, Sally Cooke, two hundred and eighty-one acres of land adjoining his other land and Joseph and Thomas Swearingen. Andrew Swearingen lived on his farm till June 26, 1824, when he died in his seventy-eighth year. He became an elder in the Presbyterian congregation of Washington upon the organization of that body, and served in that capacity till his death. Sally Swearingen became the wife of John Cooke, of Berkeley County, Va., on the 25th day of November, 1797. They settled on this place in 1800, and she died here about 1852. Mr. Cooke died July 30, 1858, aged eighty-seven years. They left three children,—one son, John L. Cooke, and two daughters, Sarah and Isabella. John L.. Cooke purchased a farm in South Strabane township, where he resided till his death, leaving three daughters and a son ; the latter, J. Littleton Cooke, removed West. Of the daughters, Ellena became Mrs. W. T. Beatty, of Washington, where she still resides; Sarah became the wife of Alexander W. Acheson, Jr., now of Texas. The third daughter became the wife of a son of John Bausman ; they now reside in Pittsburgh. Sarah, a daughter of John and Sarah Cooke, became the wife of Dr. Alfred Creigh. Isabella married the Hon. Isaac Leet, of Washington, Pa.

Samuel Agnew came from York County, Pa., in the spring of 1780, and purchased (April 15th of that year) two tracts of land of four hundred acres each located on George's Run, a branch of Chartiers Creek. On the 16th of September, 1785, warrants were issued for both tracts,—one to Samuel Agnew, the other to Matthew Henderson. The Agnew tract was surveyed as "Nantucket," containing four hundred and three acres; the Henderson tract as "Strabane," containing three hundred and twenty-one acres. On the 22d of May, 1786, Matthew Henderson sold to Samuel Agnew the tract "Strabane," and on the 9th of December in that year patents were issued for both of them to Samuel Agnew. Upon his first settlement in this section of country, in 1780, he built his cabin on the Strabane tract, where he lived and died. He was elected a justice of the peace of one of the districts, which at that time embraced several townships. Later he was a member of the Legislature of the State. He had three sons and three daughters. Of the sons one settled on the homestead and died there, and his son, E. J. Agnew, now owns the farm. Other children and grandchildren are living in the township. John, son of Samuel Agnew, Sr., settled in what is now West Virginia. James, also a son, settled on part of the " Strabane" tract. The daughters all married and settled in Virginia. The tract called "Nantucket" joined "Strabane" on the northeast. It is now owned by John McKee, Thomas and John Paxton.

Joseph, Jonathan, and John Nesbitt, brothers, came from Cecil County, Md. Joseph, the elder, purchased of Andrew Swearingen, July 30, 1805, a large body of land on George's Run, a branch of Chartiers Creek, lying in the townships of Chartiers and Canton. The land was in two tracts warranted, surveyed, and patented by Andrew Swearingen; one named " Canaside," the other " Drusilla." On the 7th of August the same year Joseph conveyed to Jonathan and to John one hundred and nineteen acres each. The land Joseph retained was in Canton township, and on it he lived and died, leaving a widow and three children.

Jonathan Nesbitt settled on the farm in Chartiers township, set off for him in the division of the large tract purchased by Joseph, his brother. On this he lived and died, leaving four sons and three daughters. The sons were Joseph, John, Alexander, and Robert. Joseph went to Ohio ; John bought a farm adjoining his father on the northwest, where a nephew (John M. Paxton) now lives; Alexander and Robert remained on the homestead ; the widow of the latter and his oldest son (John W. Nesbitt) now own the place.


John Nesbitt, one of the three brothers, settled on his portion of the land. He married Martha Donaldson. In the winter of 1837 the family were attacked by a fever, and the father, mother, and two daughters (Jane and Margaret) died, leaving only one son, Robert, who inherited the homestead. His sons, John and Robert, now own the farm and reside upon it.

Rowland Hughes came to this county from east of the mountains, selected a tract of land, and died before the warrant for it was obtained. Robert, his son, took out the warrant in trust for the children of Rowland. It was surveyed Nov. 13, 1786, under the name of "Good Hopewell," containing three hundred and ninety-five acres. A part of it was sold to Nathaniel Deverall, and later to Robert Montgomery. The church of Chartiers Cross-Roads is located on this tract. Samuel and Elizabeth Hughes, children of Rowland Hughes, also came to a part of the farm. On the 31st of May, 1796, Robert, Elizabeth, and Samuel Hughes conveyed to Morton and Thomas Adams one hundred and twenty acres of the tract. The interest of Thomas became vested in Martin Adams, and after his death the executors of Martin sold (July 6, 1810) to Robert Anderson. This tract was part of the Crawford—Neville military patent, and for which settlement was made and a quit-claim issued to Robert Hughes in 1803.


Hugh McKnight emigrated from Ireland and settled for several years in Cecil County, Md., where he married, and where two sons, John and Joseph, were born. In 1784 he made a journey west of the mountains with a view of purchasing land. He lived for a short time on a farm between Hickory and Washington, and on the 1st of July, 1785, purchased of Samuel Irwin, of Pittsburgh, a " plantation on Shirtee," containing one hundred and ninety-three acres, for £144 158. This tract had been warranted to Samuel Irwin, Nov. 22, 1784, and surveyed Sept. 6, 1786, as "Littleton," containing about one hundred-and ninety acres. It was described as being " on the west fork of Shirtee Creek, adjoining lands of James Ramsey, Samuel McBride, David Shearer, and James Sibbert." A patent was issued to Hugh McKnight, June 18, 1799. He lived on the farm till his death, and left it to his sons John and Joseph. Of the family of John, Joseph McKnight, of Mount Pleasant, is the only remaining member. Joseph McKnight, son of Hugh and brother of John, married Sarah, the daughter of Abraham Anderson. They lived on the homestead and died there. He was a ruling elder in Mount Pleasant congregation many years. He adhered to the 'old customs and wore a cue to the end of his days. He lived to the advanced age of one hundred years, and died on the 4th of May, 1873. He left two children, Elizabeth, who became the wife of Alexander McConnell, and Hugh O. McKnight, who married a daughter of Thomas Paxton, and settled on the homestead of his father and grandfather. Hugh O. McKnight in November, 1879, introduced Hereford cattle into this county for the first time. He purchased five head from a herd in Beecher, Ill., and has since added to his herd by other purchases.

William Moore came into the county and settled upon land held under Virginia certificate, dated February, 1780. It was surveyed to him as " Double Trouble," containing three hundred and eighty-four acres. A patent was obtained on the 18th of June, 1785. In later years he sold his interest in the land to George Frazier. It is now owned by George Miller.

John Hays was of Scotch-Irish parentage, married, and raised a family of five sons, who arrived at maturity before they emigrated to this country. About the year 1775, John Hays, with four of his sons, William, Robert, James, and Samuel, came to this county and located a large tract of land on the head-waters of Chartiers Creek. John Hays, the father, in 1780 took out a Virginia certificate for one tract, which was surveyed to him as " Hay Field," containing four hundred and nineteen acres. Patent for it was obtained in April, 1794. It covered what is now known as the Anderson, Haft, and Ramsey property. He also took out on a Virginia certificate a tract which was surveyed to him March 15, 1788, under the name of " The Compact," containing three hundred and fifteen acres. This tract is now in Mount Pleasant township, adjoining Chartiers. The warrant for it was returned June 11, 1788, to James McElroy. On the tract " Hay Field" .Mr. Hays lived till his death, and left a portion of it to his youngest son, Edward, from whom John Haft purchased about 1820. The remainder of the estate was left to William, the eldest son, and John, the second son, who remained in Ireland.

William Hays, the eldest son of John Hays, located farther up the valley, and obtained title to his land on a warrant. It was surveyed to him as " Hay Woods," containing four hundred and forty-one acres. A patent for it bears date June 3, 1785. William Hays was elected justice of the peace April 3, 1799, and served the remainder of his days. He died on the farm. John Hays, Esq., his son, who died, aged seventy-six years, on the 31st July, 1875, was born on this farm in 1799, and spent his life at and near his birthplace. He was a student at Jefferson College, and devoted his life to agricultural pursuits. He was elected justice of the peace in April, 1840. Six children survived him, four of whom are ministers. The Rev. Isaac N. Hays, for many years pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Chambersburg, later of Junction City, Kan., and at present pastor of Central Presbyterian Church at Allegheny City; Rev. J. S. Hays, D.D., many years pastor of Presbyterian Church in Louisville, Ky., at present professor in the theological seminary at Danville, Ky.; and Rev. George Hays, D.D., former president of Washington and Jefferson College, now pastor of Presbyterian church in Denver, Col. A daughter became 


the wife of Rev. S. G. McFarland, missionary to Siam. Nancy became the wife of James Reed, and now lives in Canonsburg. William, a son of William Hays, resided on the old homestead. and died April 27, 1881.

Robert Hays, a son of John, took out a warrant for a tract of land between that of his father and brother William. It was surveyed to him as " Fine View," containing two hundred and fifty-one acres, and was patented June 28, 1785. It is now known as the Mc-Nary tract. John Hays took out a warrant for a tract of land surveyed as one hundred and thirty Acres, now owned by Mrs. John Campbell. It was patented by John Hays in 1785, and in 1787 was riven by him to his son James.

On the 16th of May, 1792, James Ramsey took out a warrant for a tract of land on the waters of Chartiers Creek, which was surveyed to him on the 12th of August, 1795, as " Smithfield," containing one hundred and sixty-eight acres. Mr. Ramsey resided on this place a few years, and on the 4th of September, 1805, he became the pastor of the Chartiers United Presbyterian Congregation, which relation was sustained until June 12, 1849, when, at his own request, he was released. On the 17th of March, 1796, he sold eighty-four acres of " Smithfield" to John McElroy, and on the 24th of March, 1806, conveyed ninety-five acres of the same tract to Thomas Patton, and fifty acres of " Canaside," part of a tract of land patented by Andrew Swearingen, and sold by him to Joseph Nesbitt, who sold to James Ramsey. The eighty-four acres conveyed to John McElroy, soon after the purchase by him, was sold to James Ryburn, by whose descendants it is still owned. The other portion of the Ramsey property came into possession of Archibald Stewart, and is now owned by his widow and son James. The Rev. James Ramsey died on the 6th of March, 1855, aged eighty-four years. He had two children, James and Maria. The former became a minister of the United Presbyterian Congregation, and died in Beaver County. Maria married and settled in the same county.

Thomas Paxton came to this county from Scotland and settled on Mingo Creek, where he raised a large family of children. Thomas, a son, settled in Mercer County, married there, and in 1806 purchased one hundred and forty-five acres of land of the Rev. James Ramsey, part of the tract " Canaside" and part of "Smithfield." John, a son of Thomas, Jr., settled first in Mercer County, and later moved to this county, and lived on the farm where David Morrow now lives. His children were Eliza, who married John Nesbitt, and settled in Chartiers township. Thomas, about 1820, commenced buying land where he now lives, and has owned exceeding six hundred acres. His first purchase was of the Alexander Castle tract. His sons John and Isaac live on part of the farm. A daughter, Martha, became the wife of Hugh O. McKnight, who settled on the old McKnight homestead. Samuel, a son of John, settled at McConnell's Mills. John, also a son of John, settled at Canonsburg about 1830, and resided there forty-five years. He married Elizabeth, a daughter of Henry Wilson, and sister of the Rev. S. J. Wilson, president of Allegheny Seminary. Their children are John R., Wilson, William, Oliver, and Henry. 

Rev. John R. Paxton studied in Jefferson College two years from 1860, and entered the national service in the One Hundred and Fortieth Pennsylvania Regiment. He passed through every important battle of the Army of the Potomac, and was present when Gen. Lee surrendered. After the war he returned to Jefferson College, and graduated in 1866, after which he entered the theological seminary at Allegheny, and studied three years, and attended Princeton College one year. In the spring of 1870 he was called as pastor to a church in Harford County, Md., where he remained five years, and was called to the Pine Street Church, in Harrisburg, Pa. Here he remained four years, when he received a call from the New York Avenue Church, Washington City, D. C. With this church he remained until the spring of 1882, when a call was extended to him from the West Presbyterian Church, West Forty-second Street, New York City, which he accepted, and he is now pastor of that church.

Wilson N. Paxton rose to the grade of captain in the regiment., and was killed at the battle of the Wilderness. Another brother, Thomas, was a sergeant. He was wounded and captured at Gettysburg. William and Oliver, sons of John, are now residents of Canonsburg. Henry, also a son, resides in Walla Walla, Washington Territory. John Paxton, the father, is now living at Clokeyville. 

Thomas and Samuel Fergus, natives ,of Scotland, came to this country and settled first in Carlisle, and about 1803 they came to this county. Samuel settled in South Strabane township, and Thomas in Chartiers, purchasing two hundred acres of land July 13, 1803, of Moses Coe and John Crawford, who were the executors of Josiah Crawford, deceased. This was part of a tract of land patented to Andrew, Alexander, and William Crawford on the 8th of March, 1803, as the heirs of Josiah Crawford. On the tract Thomas Fergus purchased he settled with his wife and children and died there, leaving four daughters,—Martha, who became the wife of James Taggert and settled in Canton township; Margaret (Mrs. Thomas McCall) moved to Ohio; Sarah (Mrs. Joseph Donaghy) settled in Buffalo ; and. Nancy, who married James White, of Canton township. Of the sons, Hugh married Nancy, daughter of John McClean. After a few years' residence in Canton township they settled on the old Fergus homestead tract, where they lived and died, leaving three sons, of whom John lives on the homestead ; Thomas settled and now lives in Garnet, Anderson Co., Kan. Hugh D. Fergus was in the army in the late war and died at White House, Va.


John McClean settled early on a tract of land in Chartiers township. He died in October, 1813, and left his farm in shares to his widow and children. Ebenezer McClean, on the 8th of April, 1837, sold a portion, eighty-eight acres, to John Boon, and lived on the remainder till his death. Matthew McClean now lives on the place. John, one of the sons of John, settled in Wheeling. William settled in Kentucky. Nancy became the wife of Hugh Fergus. Margaret married Henry Cooke, of Canton; their son Willard resides on the homestead. Martha married Edward I. Cundall, the present superintendent of the County Home. Hannah J. married Capt. H. P. Boon, of Washington, Pa. Mary became the wife of Capt. William Johnston, of Mount Pleasant.

James Ryburn, of York County, Pa., was a soldier in the Revolutionary war from April 1, 1777, to April 1, 1780, when he was discharged. He came to this county and bought a tract of land of James Smith, which had been a part of the " Smithfield" tract, patented by James Ramsey. On this land he lived and died, leaving four children, Matthew, Elizabeth, James, and David. Matthew lived on the homestead where his son, John Ryburn, now lives. He married Catharine, daughter of Thomas Gordon, of Buffalo township. She is now living in her eighty-fifth year on a farm adjoining the homestead with her son Matthew and daughter Elizabeth. David, a son of James, purchased land of his father and died there a bachelor.

Robert McCloskey was a settler in this township as early as 1785. On the 8th of February in that year a warrant was issued to him for land on a branch of Chartiers Creek, which was surveyed to him on the 8th of March following, and was named " Fressan," containing two hundred and seventeen acres. Another mention of this tract gives the name as "Turkey." It was adjoining lands of Andrew Russell and Thomas White. He lived on this farm, and about 1799 he sold to Robert Montgomery three and a half acres of land on the creek, on which Montgomery built a fulling-mill. The place where Robert McCloskey lived is now owned by Alexander Moore. The land was part of the military patent of Crawford and Neville. Settlement was made, and quit-claim deed granted to McCloskey December, 1803. Robert McCloskey died in July, 1815, and left a widow and three sons—John, Wallace, and Robert—and three daughters,—Jane (Mrs. Campbell), Catharine (Mrs. McMillan), and Agnes (Mrs. Mushman).

Matthew Bowland bought of John Struthers, Jr., one hundred and fifty-two acres of land on the 1st of April, 1790, part of "South Hill," and settled upon the farm where he lived and died about 1824. He left sons, Alexander, Robert, and Matthew ; a son James died prior to his decease, A daughter Sarah became the wife of Reynolds C. Niel ; Agnes married Hugh McGill, of Canonsburg; Ann married James Allison, a son of William Allison ; later she became the wife of a Mr. Lyon, of Cadiz, Ohio, who is at present a banker in that place. To Alexander his father left the farm, but to Matthew the use of one-half of it during his life. He died a few years later. The homestead is now in the possession of Samuel Skiles. Robert, son of Matthew, moved to Cadiz, Ohio, and settled there.

Paul and Thomas White settled on the lands of the Crawford-Neville military patent. Robert Russell owns the Paul White tract. Thomas died about 1803, leaving a widow, three daughters—Mary, Sarah, and Jane—and six sons, John, William, Robert, Paul, James, and Thomas. Each of them had a farm given them by their father before his decease.

William Harsha, on the 10th of March, 1797, purchased about two hundred acres of land of James Campbell, a part of a larger tract that was patented to Campbell Feb. 14, 1793. William Harsha died on the 8th of April, 1814, and the land was divided between the three sons,—the east part to John, the middle to James, and the west portion to Thomas. On the 4th of February, 1817, John sold his portion to David Boyce. James died about 1830, and left a widow and nine children, most of whom married and settled near the homestead.

Andrew Miller, native of Ireland, came to this country about 1800 with his wife, and bought land in Mount Pleasant township of John Miller, on the road from Hickory to Canonsburg; later he moved to about one and a half miles northwest of Hickory; later still he removed to Chartiers township to the farm on the north fork of Chartiers Creek, where his grandson Andrew now lives. James C. Miller, a son of Andrew, studied law with the Hon. Isaac Leet, of Washington ; removed to Wooster, Ohio; practiced there, and died in 1844. Mrs. John Haft and Thomas Miller, of Canonsburg, are also children of Andrew Miller.

John Bennett, a native of Ireland, came to this country many years ago, and purchased one hundred acres of land on the head-waters of Plum Run. He had two children, William and The former settled first in Canonsburg, and later in Guernsey County, Ohio. His son, Henry Bennett, is now assistant cashier of the Canonsburg Bank. Ann became the wife of Ebenezer Fulton, a son of Samuel Fulton, of Chartiers township. After a few years they removed to Ohio.

Henry Miller settled in this township and raised a family of children, of whom John settled on the homestead now owned by William Caldwell, a son-in-law. Elizabeth married James Dunlap, of Cecil township; Nancy became the wife of Samuel Johnston, and moved to Ohio; Christina married William Bennett. They settled for a time in Canonsburg, and later removed to Muskingum County, Ohio. Henry Bennett, of the Canonsburg Bank, is their son.

James McNary was a son of James McNary, who settled in Hanover township; a brother of John McNary, who bought in North Strabane township. He


came out to this county in 1780, before his father, and on the 19th of April purchased two hundred and thirty-three acres of land in Chartiers township, near the County Home. He married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Paxton. He was chosen elder of Charatiers United Presbyterian Congregation April 17, 1811, and died in February, 1815, leaving eight children, of whom Samuel married Mary, daughter of Jacob Miller, and settled near Hickory ; John P. McNary, a son of Samuel, lives about half a mile from Canonsburg, in Chartiers ; Jane, a daughter, became the wife of Thomas Forsythe, and resides in Canonsburg.

William McNary was a son of John McNary, of North Strabane., He purchased a tract of land, on which his son, John C. McNary, now resides. He had twelve children. Martha became the wife of Robert Russell; Thomas M. resides in Canonsburg; William P. is pastor of a United Presbyterian Church of Bloomington, Ill.; James is pastor of a church of the same denomination in Sparta, Ill.

Robert and John Welch were settlers in the township of Chartiers before 1800, and located on land where their descendants still live. James P., an only son of Robert, resides on his father's homestead. Thomas P. Welch, the youngest son of John, resides on the homestead of his father. John and James C. Welch, sons of John, settled early in Hopewell township (now Independence), near Mount Hope Church.

Andrew Russell and his wife, natives of Scotland, emigrated to this country and located near Oxford, Chester Co., Pa., where he lived several years. In the year 1782 he came to this county and purchased a tract of land in Chartiers township, on which he lived and died. It was a part of the Crawford-Neville Military Patent, but was taken out under a Pennsylvania warrant, and later was released from the claim under the military patent by a quit-claim deed that was granted by Presley Neville in 1803. Russell also took a warrant for a tract of land on the north branch of Chartiers Creek on the 17th May, 1802. His family consisted of his wife, seven daughters, and three sons. The log cabin that was first built was later used for a blacksmith-shop, when a larger and more commodious house was erected. His son Andrew inherited the farm, and lived upon it till his death, in 1862, at the age of eighty-five years. He married Anna McClelland, by whom he had eleven children,—James, Andrew, Alexander, Robert, John, William, Jane, Isabella, Ann, Eliza, and Nancy. James married Miss McElroy, and resides in Unionport, Ohio. Robert, John, and William are all prosperous farmers in this county. John resides on the homestead of his father and grandfather.

Houstonville.—The land on which this town is located was part of a tract of two hundred and fifty-six acres, purchased Jan. 4, 1827, by Daniel Houston, of the executors of John Haft. It was

parts of two tracts of land, one of which was patented to John Martin and William McClean, April 22, 1794, and sold respectively to James Mercer, David Gault, and Joseph Holmes. The other was patented to James Gault, April 23, 1794, and was sold respectively to Hugh Scott, John Jordan, and Joseph Holmes. The latter conveyed it to John Haft, May 3, 1809. Daniel Houston came to this county from Franklin County, Pa., and settled in Middletown for several years, and later bought a farm of William Patterson, in Mount Pleasant township, and in 1827 purchased the land mentioned above, and in a few years after removed to the brick house, where he lived and died. After the completion of the Chartiers Valley Railroad, David C. Houston laid out the present town of Houstonville. The first dwelling-house in the new town was built by Alexander. Haft. A depot was established and a store soon after started. Shipments of milk were soon made from this station to Pittsburgh, and at the present time the farmers of the surrounding country are nearly all engaged in shipping, and this station is one of the most important along the line of the road that supplies the city of Pittsburgh with milk. The town at present contains a depot, post-office, school-house, church, two blacksmithshops, wagon-shop, boot- and shoe-shops, and a sawmill. Two lots were donated by Mr. Houston for school purposes, and in 1878 the present school-house was erected. About 1874 a lot was deeded to the Seceder Congregation, which society erected a small brick church edifice. This society is few in numbers. The members are mostly residents of the county. Among them are John Nesbitt, Samuel Skiles, Mrs. Hugh Huston, John Smith, Sr., and John Smith, Jr. The church is served by the Rev. Mr. Nealy as stated supply.

Locust Hill, or McConnel's Mills,—This village is located on the north branch of Chartiers Creek. It is on the tract of land that was taken up by Valentine Crawford and Col. John Neville on a military patent, and on that portion of it that was settled on by William Gabby.' In 1847, Alexander McConnel built the grist-mill on the creek, and about 1857 a store was erected near, and has been kept by Daniel Leggett, Samuel Paxton, and others. About 1865 a post-office was established in the neighborhood, and was kept at different places by Joseph McKnight, Robert Miller, and James Cotter. In 1872 it was removed to its present location, and became known as " Locust Hill." Since that time the office has been kept by Samuel Paxton, Alexander McConnel, and William Sprowls, who is the present postmaster. There are at present in the village three stores kept by James Borland, Thomas Paxton and William Sprowls, a grist- and saw-mill, and one physician, Dr. B. A. Lacock.

Allison's Coal-Works, owned by the Hon. Jonathan Allison, are situated on the line of the Char-tiers Valley Railroad, in the township of Chartiers. Coal was first discovered on the James Allison tract


of land about 1800, and was mined many years for domestic use and blacksmith purposes at twenty-five cents per bushel. Prior to 1874 the drift was not more than one hundred yards in extent, but upon the completion of the Chartiers Valley Railroad the :works were extended, and mining commenced for a foreign market. The coal being of superior quality, a demand was soon created in the west and southwest markets. At the present time (1882) the main entry extends about one thousand yards to the northwest. There are four side entries, three on the southwest side, each about six hundred yards in extent, and the one on the northwest side about four hundred yards. About one and a half million bushels of coal are mined annually, requiring the labor of seventy-five miners.

Chartiers Cross-Roads United Presbyterian Congregation.¹ —From the slight knowledge obtained, it is learned that this church was organized by the Presbytery of Monongahela in the year 1810. The first pastor, Dr. Samuel Findley, labored in the congregation in connection with West Middletown. Dr. John Graham, who followed, divided his labors with a congregation in Washington, which was afterwards abandoned. Dr. Alexander McCahan, the third pastor, had as his charge the Cross-Roads and Canonsburg congregations. Rev. David Ferguson, professor of languages in Washington College, being a licentiate, was stated supply for some years. Following him was Rev. T. L. Speer, who died while pastor of the congregation, in 1851. Rev. Joseph Andrews was in charge from 1853 to 1858. Rev. J. C. Herron was installed June 19, 1860, and released Feb. 19, 1867. Rev. H, A. McDonald was ordained and installed Oct. 14, 1869, and released Oct. 17, 1872. The present pastor, Rev. J. A. Grier, was ordained and installed June 23, 1874. The trustees of the society purchased the lot on which their house stands, containing one and a half acres, of Nathaniel Woods on the 30th of September, 1816, it being part of 398 acres granted to Robert Hughes, Nov. 13, 1786. Additions have been made to this, and a cemetery is now on a part of the church grounds. The congregation has had three places of worship,—the "tent" which .was common in early days, the frame building which stood in the area of the present graveyard, and the brick building which is now occupied. They also have a parsonage.

The present elders are Alexander McConnell, E. J. Agnew, Joseph Henderson, and Robert Henderson. The present trustees are James Ross, Jonathan Nesbitt, and Robert Anderson. The membership of the church is 235, and the Sabbath-school in connection has 159 pupils.

Miller's Run Reformed Presbyterian Congregation.—In the early years of the present century a number of Covenanters were scattered over Wash-

¹ By the pastor, the Rev. J. A. Grier.

ington County, a large number residing in the neighborhood of Canonsburg. About 1808 these people were organized into a congregation, and soon afterwards erected a log house for a place of worship on the west side of Main Street opposite the residence of John Briceland. Upon the same lot a burial-place was also used. In 1810, Rev. D. Graham received a call from the congregation of Canonsburg. He was a native of Ireland. He accepted the call of this church, though for some reason was not installed as pastor. After preaching two years to this people he was suspended, and left Canonsburg and the church, and studied and practiced law in New York City till his death. " He was a man of great eloquence and personality, and was successful in multiplying converts ; but it is evident they joined the man rather than the church, for when he left the congregation they left it likewise." The church was without a settled pastor for a short time when a call was extended to the Rev. William Gibson, who was installed as pastor about 1815, served nine or ten years, and resigned his charge. Soon after Gordon T. Ewing was called to the pastorate, accepted, was ordained and installed. At his suggestion the old log church at Canonsburg was torn down with the intention of rebuilding, but the health of Mr: Ewing failed, and the church was not rebuilt. His health continuing delicate, at the end of about two years he resigned the charge and returned to Ireland, his native country. On the site of the old foundation a dwelling-house was erected. Several graves are still to be seen at the west end of the church lot. In the year 1834 the Rev. John Crozier was called to the Monongahela congregation, and served this church as a stated supply, but was not regularly installed. He resigned in 1842, and in 1843 the Rev. William Slater, the present pastor, was, ordained and installed, and is now serving the congregation in the fortieth year. Soon after the settlement of the Rev. Mr. Crozier the church site was changed from Canonsburg to the present site, five miles north, and a brick house of worship erected, and the society became known thenceforward as Miller's Run congregation. The brick house was in use till the year 1870, when a frame building, larger and more commodious, was erected. The present number of communicants in full and regular standing is 101.

Schools.—The assessment-roll of Chartiers township for the year 1800 contains the names of William Guthrie, Samuel and Isaac Miller, George Munroe, William Tate, and George Welsh, schoolmasters. At this time there were four log school-houses in the township. One on the John Hays farm (now owned by Mrs. Quivy) at the foot of the hill, near where the little stream enters Plum Run. Another was on the line between the farms of Daniel Miller and Hugh McKnight. In 1807, Daniel Black and Samuel Miller were teaching. Between 1815 and 1830, Price I Cornwell, John Haft, and others were teaching. At


the time of the passage of the school law (1834) there were 438 persons in the township liable to taxation for school purposes, and $360.91 was collected for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the act. The township was divided into seven districts, and in 1836 comfortable school-houses were erected. In this year there was received from the county tax $732, and $144.15 received from the State fund, making a total of $876.15, and in 1837 the total amount received for school purposes was $696.62. This township was among those that accepted the provisions of the act from the first, and raised its quota of tax regularly. The town of Canonsburg was embraced in the school district of Chartiers until 1857, when it became by act of Legislature an independent district. In 1863 there were eight school districts containing 387 scholars; the amount collected for school purposes was $1138, and, the expenses were $1121. In 1873 the scholars were decreased to 290, and receipts were $2600, with expenses of $2454.11. In 1880 there were ten districts, with ten teachers and 369 scholars. The receipts for school purposes were $3106.75, and expenses $3556.75.



As his name implies, he was of Scotch-Irish origin. His great-grandfather, James McNary, was born in Scotland about the year 1711. The traditions of his family say that he resided a short time in Ireland, and then emigrated to America with his family, consisting of a wife, four sons, and a daughter, some time previous to the year 1760. During that year he bought a tract of land in York County, Pa. He was the head of the largest family of McNarys in the United States, the father of all the McNarys in Washington County. Three of his sons, James, Thomas, and David, emigrated to Washington County with their families. James settled on a farm in Chartiers township, near the poor-house. Thomas bought-a farm in North Strabane township (the Sheriff McClelland farm). David settled in Hanover township, near the West Virginia line. He, being the youngest of the sons, brought his father with him, and at his house the old patriarch died in the year 1796, and was buried in the Harmon's Creek Seceder 'graveyard, near Paris.

John, the grandfather of our subject, was probably the oldest of these four brothers. He also came to Washington County, and bought a tract of land in North Strabane township. He then went back to. York County for his family, and died there in 1802.

John McNary, the father of our subject, was the third son of John, of York County. After the death of his father he settled up his father's estate and brought the family to the new home in Washington

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County, and thus became one of the pioneers of the county.

At the time of his death, in 1844, he owned the farm his father bought, and it is still in the possession of his son, James S. McNary. He was a man of upright character, thrifty in business, and an elder in the Chartiers Seceder Church, and raised his family under the old Scotch system of family discipline. He was married to Jane Hill, of Dauphin County, a woman of similar origin, of fine, large physical form, and of very marked character. She was well suited to support him in his pioneer labors, and left the impress of her character upon his children.

William Hill McNary, the subject of this sketch, was their oldest son. He was born on Nov. 26, 1805, amid the forests and stumpy fields of that early settlement. What little schooling he received was obtained in a log school-house, with puncheon floors, seats made of split logs with four legs. It consisted of reading, writing, and arithmetic as far as " the single rule of three." From his very childhood the Scotch-Irish blood began to show itself in his character. Besides being a good reader and penman, he became a diligent student of books, and intuitively selected the books that furnished the best food for his mind. He became very familiar with the theological and religious books that were to be found in the family libraries of the community, and always kept himself acquainted with the political literature of times.

At the age of twenty-two he was married to Margaret Murray, a daughter of George Murray, who lived on the hill above Vaneman's Station, a woman of like descent, and of meek and gentle spirit, who by her piety promoted the religious culture of her husband and children, and by her patient industry ministered to his temporal prosperity. They had twelve children, of whom seven survive in 1882,—John C. McNary, Esq., of Chartiers township, who lives on the old homestead ; .Mrs. R. H. Russell, also of Chartiers township ; Rev. James W. McNary, of Sparta, Ill. ; Rev. William P. McNary, of Bloomington, Ind.; Thomas M. McNary, of Pittsburgh ; Mrs. Rev. E. G. McKinley, of Ligonier, Pa. ; and Mrs. Rev. J. B. Jackson, of Elderton, Pa.

Soon after his marriage he bought what is now known as the McNary homestead, on Plumb Run, in Chartiers township, and having settled upon it his character began to develop and his influence to be felt in the community. He was naturally a progressive man, and had a foresight which enabled him to place himself in the advance in almost everything among the men of his generation.

He took a great pride in improving his farm and making a pleasant home for his. family; introduced improved machinery upon his farm ; introduced an improved stock of merino sheep, and had one of the best flocks of sheep in the county as long as he lived on the farm. It is said that he had the first horse-rake and two-wheeled mower in the county.


He took a special interest in education. Believing that the best is the cheapest, he always endeavored to get the best teachers that could be found at any cost, and when the subscription was not sufficient he quietly made up the salary out of his own pocket in order to secure such as he desired. In this policy he was zealously supported by some other patrons of the school, and, as a consequence, the Plumb Run school became somewhat celebrated as one of the most advanced schools in that part of the county.

When he came into the community the citizens were somewhat divided on the question of temperance. Whiskey had been the household beverage of the best families of the community in which he was raised ; but he had seen the evils of its use, and promptly ranged himself on the side of good morals. Contrary to the prevailing customs of the neighborhood, he refused to furnish liquor to harvest hands or to the guests of his house, and took every opportunity to speak against the evil of using intoxicating liquors as a beverage, and as long as he lived was a radical temperance man.

He was especially distinguished in the community as an anti-slavery man. His intuitive sense of fairness, his natural love of right, and his benevolent nature led him instinctively to espouse the cause of the downtrodden and oppressed race, and at a risk of fine and imprisonment he helped many a fugitive in his flight for liberty. He had been a Whig; but when the Whig party refused to come out against slavery he left it and joined the Free-Soil party. Henceforth standing out against his party, against the pastor of his church, whom he loved and reverenced, against his relatives and neighbors, facing all the odium that gathered around the name of abolitionist, he boldly avowed his principles in every presence, and voted the Free-Soil ticket from 1844 to 1856. He brought Dr. Le Moyne down from Washington to make an abolition speech in Canonsburg When he could not get permission for him to speak in school-house, church, or public hall, nor even in the theological seminary, and finally stood by him while he spoke to a crowd assembled on the street. When a call was made for a convention in Pittsburgh, in 1855, to organize a party in Pennsylvania representing the old Whig party, with a plank in its platform declaring in favor of " non-extension of slavery in the Territories," he was promptly on hand.

The other declarations of the party in favor of "Free Homesteads" and "Internal Improvements," proposing to give free homes for laboring men, to build a Pacific Railroad, and to develop the resources of the great West, so happily accorded with his ideas• of progress that he at once became a zealous Republican.

At the Pittsburgh Convention he secured the services of Mr. Ichabod Codding, and brought him out -with him to Canonsburg and Washington at an expense of twenty dollars, which he paid out of his own pocket, to make the first Republican speeches that were made in the county, when there was not enough Republican sentiment in those towns to give the speaker a free supper, and there was no happier man than he when the old Free-Soil party was vindicated by the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. He was not properly a party politician, but rather a man of principles, a man who without rank or official position made his influence felt in society. He did his own thinking, made up his mind intelligently on every question, and was always ready to give a reason for his opinions. When he believed any position to be right he frankly avowed it, and stood up for it even if he had to stand alone. He was a born leader and reformer, and was so recognized by all who knew him. He knew how to give and take hard knocks in the advocacy of his views, but never appeared to know such a feeling as resentment, and his neighbors with whom he had his severest tilts in controversy always knew that they could depend upon his friendship.

He was charitable to the poor, liberal in the support of every good cause, and his home was always characterized by generous hospitality.

He was an elder in the Chartiers Seceder Church from 1841 to the time of his death, always taking an active interest in the affairs of the church and the cause of Christ, and frequently represented the congregation and the Presbytery in the higher courts of the denomination.

He died at his home in Canonsburg (where he resided in a kind of retirement since 1860) on the 10th of September, 1877.

In the presence of a very large assembly that had gathered in the church at his funeral, the Rev. Samuel Collins, D.D., who knew him for many years, said of him, " as was said of John Knox, ' There lies one who never feared the face of clay.' "

The respect of the old colored men of the town was so great that they requested the privilege of walking bareheaded by his bier on its way to the grave, and a grateful widow, speaking for herself and for others whom he had befriended, requested his sons to inscribe on his monument, " The Widow's Friend."


Alexander McConnel, Sr., a native of Charlotte County, Va., born July 10, 1755, came to Washing. ton County when a young man, and married for his first wife Esther Reed. They were married May 16, 1786, and Esther died Nov. 30, 1786. April 28,1789, he married his second wife, Elizabeth McCrory, who was born Feb. 26, 1767. By this marriage there were six children,--Alexander, born Feb. 2, 1790; David, born Oct. 5, 1791 ; Jeane, born Oct. 11, 1793; Prudence, born Nov. 14, 1795 ; Nancy, born Sept. 20, 1797 ; Matthew, born Oct. 25, 1799.


The oldest of the children, Alexander, whose portrait is here given, was a farmer—a professional one—took great interest in improved methods of farming; was the first in the region in which he resided to lay aside the flail for the threshing-machine, and the scythe for the mower. After his marriage he first lived upon a rented farm in Allegheny County; near the county home. After remaining there about two years he removed to the Huffman farm, in the same county, where he lived two years, when he purchased and moved to a farm in Cecil township, Washington County, where he remained for seven years, when he purchased a farm in North Strabane township, where he lived until his death, June 4, 1874.

He was a member of the United Presbyterian congregation of Canonsburg, Pa., from its organization by the Associate Reformed Church in 1830. Soon after, April 5,1832, he was ordained as ruling elder in the same congregation, and continued in that relation until his death. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and served in what was then called the " Northwest Territory." During this campaign he and Dr. Abraham Anderson were messmates. He was twice married, first to Ann Berry, Nov. 29, 1815. She was the mother of his children,—seven sons and four daughters. They were,—

Alexander, a sketch of whom appears in Chartiers township.

Elizabeth, born Jan. 7, 1819, unmarried.

Jane, born Feb. 6, 1821, was first married to Daniel Boyles, and after his death to ____Collins.

Mary A., born Oct. 4, 1822, married Richard Fife.

Isabel, born Sept. 7, 1825, married Dr. Vaile. She is dead.

John B., born March 19, 1826, married Mary Pollock.

David, born Nov. 4, 1827, married Bell Watson. He is dead.

Rev. William L., born Sept. 19, 1829, married Anna M'Lurkin.

Matthew, born April 30, 1831, married Nela Brazleton.

James L., born Oct. 25, 1833, married Maria Henderson.

A. As, born April 20, 1839, married Lide Johnston.

In 1859, Mr. McConnel married his second wife, Miss Sarah Torrens, of Westmoreland Co., Pa., who by her kindness and attention proved to be a source of great comfort to him in his declining years. She survived her husband seven years, and had for her consolation the many sweet promises God has made to the widowed heart. He was much attached to the church of his choice, and took great interest in her prosperity; and, when the infirmities of age prevented him from attending upon the ordinances of grace, he could say, " Lord, I have loved the habitation of Thy house, and the place where Thy honor dwelleth." During his last years his mind, especially his memory, became impaired, yet his faculties seemed as bright as ever when conversing upon spiritual subjects, and his memory of divine truth Was remarkably clear. While his mind lost its hold upon earthly things, it still clung to heavenly things. As an indication of his estimate of the' value of religious truth, and the importance of storing it in the youthful mind, he made a provision in his will for giving to each of his grandchildren twelve dollars for committing the shorter catechism within a specified time, and eighteen dollars for committing Fisher's catechism with like condition. "Those that be planted in the house of the Lord shall flourish in the courts of our God. They shall bring forth fruit in old age."


Alexander McConnel, Jr. (a sketch of whose ancestors appears in North Strabane township) was born in Allegheny County, Pa., Dec. 29, 1816. He was trained to farm-work until sixteen years of age, when he engaged in milling. He began without previous preparation for his work, but by diligent study of the process of flour-making he was soon what he set out to be, a good miller. When twenty-one years of age he was employed to build a mill, which work he entered upon without especial preparation ; but he was a natural mechanic, and when the work was completed his employer said, " Well done!" This caused for him a reputation as a skillful, substantial workman, and he was employed for a number of years in different parts of the country in building mills. He built for Hazlett, Dil, Prigg & Co. the first successful steam-mill in Washington, Pa. In 1859 he engaged in farming, which has since occupied his time. While he has lived a busy life, devoted to his own and his family's interests, he has not been unmindful of his duties as a citizen, and measures .for the enhancement of the public weal have found in him a ready and liberal supporter. He gave liberally of his own means, and was instrumental in obtaining the assistance of others, for the construction of the Chartiers Valley Railroad. Before he attained his majority he united with the Associate Reformed, now the United Presbyterian Church of Canonsburg, Pa. In 1847 he removed his membership to the Chartiers Cross-Roads United Presbyterian Church, it being nearer to his home, and of that organization he has been a ruling elder for about thirty years. He was married Dec. 8, 1853, to Eliza McKnight, of Chartiers township. Two of their children died in infancy and two are living,—Joseph M., a farmer, living with his father, and John O., who is a member of the senior class of New Wilmington College, Lawrence Co., Pa.

Mr. McConnel has in his possession the old Bible which has been in the family for generations. It bears the following inscription upon its title-page :

"Imprinted at London by the Deputies of Christopher barker, Printers to the Queenes most Excellent Majestic, 1599."



In 1773, James Allison came from Cecil County, Md., and settled upon a farm in Washington County, Pa., which he had purchased from Thomas Moffit, and which is now owned and occupied by his grandson, Hon. Jonathan Allison. He was of Irish parentage, and married Jane Bradford, who was of Scotch ancestry, a sister of David Bradford, of Whiskey Insurrection notoriety. He was a prominent citizen, being an associate judge of the courts of Washington County, and in the years 1786, 1787, 1788, and 1789 a member of the Supreme Executive Council at Philadelphia. He was a ruling elder in Dr. John McMillan's church for a number of years. His son, Thomas Allison, married Mary Johnson; by whom he had ten children. He was a good farmer, a man of exemplary life, and died Oct. 21, 1849, aged sixty-eight years. His wife is still living, an active woman' of eighty-four years. Hon. Jonathan Allison, the sixth in the order of birth of Thomas and Mary Allison's children, was born in Chartiers township, Washington County, Feb. 3, 1828. When seventeen years of age he entered Jefferson College, where he remained for two years, when owing to the death of a brother he returned home and engaged in farming, which has been the principal business of his life. Since the completion of the Chartiers Valley Railroad he has been engaged in developing the bituminous coal with which his farm is underlaid. This vein of coal was first discovered by his grandfather, James Allison, about eighty-five years ago, and was the first bituminous coal discovered in Washington County. It was hauled for many miles for black-smithing and other purposes, and, as an instance of its then estimated value, it may be stated here that soon after the discovery James Allison sold four acres of it to Judge Baird, of Washington, Pa., for seventeen hundred and fifty dollars.

Jonathan Allison has always taken an active part in politics. He was an ardent Old-Line Whig, being a delegate from his township to the last county convention of that party held in Washington, Pa. He has been a radical Republican from the organization of that party, and was by it elected a member of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania for 'Washington County in 1873, and re-elected in 1874. While in the House he served on the Committees of Ways and Means, Foreign Relations, Mines and Mining, etc. In 1882 he was nominated by acclamation by the Republican convention of Washington County for State Senator for the Forty-sixth Senatorial District, composed of the counties of Washington and Beaver. He has also held the office of justice of the peace and school director in his native township. In public and private life he has borne himself with unquestioned fidelity to duty, and enjoys among the people of the county a high character for probity and honorable dealing. He is and has been for thirty years a member of the Presbyterian Church.

He was married April 7, 1857, to Margaret, daughter of William and Margaret Gabby, of Franklin township, Washington Co., Pa. To them were born eleven children, three of whom died in infancy. One son, William E., was drowned Feb. 10, 1881. His age was ten years. Their living children are Maggie, Albert J., Thomas G., Edwin E., John B., Ralph M., and Jennie.


THE territory now embraced in the townships of Cross Creek, Jefferson, and part of Mount Pleasant was included in the original township of Hopewell for more than eight years from the erection of the last-named township. The first movement towards the formation of Cross Creek township from a part of Hopewell was the presentation of a petition to the court on the 31st of March, 1789, setting forth

"That your petitioners, as well as many others who may have business to do before a single justice of the peace, labour under a very considerable inconveniency, being situate such a great distance from the present Justice, who lives very near to the extremity of the township; and as the township is very extensive and will admit of a division, and both be compact, which of course will be, moreover, less trouble and expense to the inhabitants at large ;"

and for these reasons praying that the township be divided and a new one erected according to certain suggested boundaries. The petition was laid over to the next term, when "the court request the following men to point out a proper division of said township and make a report to next court, viz.: Col. John Marshall, James Gillespie, James Marshall, Esq., William Cuttraugh, and John Buchanan." These viewers performed the duty assigned them, and reported in the matter to the court as follows :

"Agreeably to your request we have the honor to report that the proper division of the township of Hopewell in our opinion should be as followeth, viz.: Beginning at a certain spring of the head waters of Cross Creek, which rises near about. ten perches from the township of Strabane, between the dwelling houses of James Anderson and Timothy Spinner; thence down the south branch thereof to Wells' Mills; thence across the creek [by Cross Creek] to the State line."

This report was approved by the court, and the new township ordered erected, " to be called Cross Creek township." The court also recommended "the northern division of the divided township as a district for a justice of the peace." The action of the court was certified to the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, and was confirmed by that body on the 10th of December, 1789, thus creating the township of Cross Creek, and making it a separate justice's district. The first justice of the peace for the new district was Henry Graham, appointed Aug. 24, 1790. He resided at Cross Creek village.

The township of Cross Creek retained its original territory and limits until May, 1806, when a portion of it was taken to form the township of Mount Pleasant; and in 1853 the township of Jefferson was formed from the western part of Cross Creek, reducing the township to its present limits. It is bounded on the west and northwest by Jefferson, on the north and northeast by Smith, on the east by Mount Pleasant, and on the south by Hopewell and Independence townships, from which it is separated by Cross Creek, which is its only stream of any importance. The north, middle, and south branches of this creek flow through the township in a southerly direction to their junction with the main stream.

Early Settlements.—Alexander Wells was one of the earliest, if not the first, of the pioneer settlers of Cross Creek township, as he came here prior to the year 1772, and located a very large area of land. He came from Baltimore, where he had purchased soldiers' rights from men residing in that city ; and upon these he located tracts amounting to two thousand acres of land, which are now within the boundaries of Cross Creek, Jefferson, and Independence townships. Fifteen hundred acres of the land was situated on the middle branch of Cross Creek, and the remaining five hundred was located near Cross Creek village, on the head-waters of the north branch of Cross Creek. The patent for this land was granted to Alexander Wells in 1780 ; and on April 23, 1796, five hundred acres of the land, situated on the middle branch of Cross Creek, was sold by him to Thomas Bay. That property is now owned by Arnold Lawton, Joseph Brownlee, James Stevenson, and John F. Sharp. The five-hundred-acre tract situated near Cross Creek village was conveyed by deed to Rev. Thomas Marques, Aug. 27, 1794. Whether sold by Alexander Wells to Marques is not definitely known ; but tradition has it, and it has become an established belief, that it had previously been sold by Wells to William Parks, a brother-in-law of Thomas Marques.

Subsequent to the first location of land made by Alexander Wells, he at different times took out warrants for other tracts, some of which were in his own name and others in the name of some member of his family. For the tract " Stillton" he received a Virginia-certificate, Dec. 21, 1780, and also one for " Mayfield" upon the same date. " Stillton" received its name from a still which was in operation upon the tract, at the head of the creek.

A Virginia certificate, dated Marcia 23, 1780, granted Alexander Wells the tracts " Wellwood" and " The Cliffs," but the dates upon which he warranted " The Grove" and " Rocky Ridge" are not given. " Jerusalem" was warranted May 9, 1785, in the name of James Wells, son of Alexander. The tract contained

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two hundred acres, and was adjoining the lands of Alexander Wells, Thomas Wells, and Mrs. Mary Patterson. " Wellington" (two hundred and twenty-two acres) was warranted to James Wells on March 29, 1786, and surveyed June 1st of the same year. " Well-ton" was warranted by Thomas Wells March 29, 1786 ; " Black Walnut Thicket," by James Wells on Aug. 4, 1788; " Sugar-Tree Run," by Richard Wells, Jan. 9, 1788; and "Buffalo Lick," by Richard Wells, Jr., Jan. 22, 1788. In the first survey book of Yohogania County, opened in 1780, is found the following record of land taken up in Cross Creek township : " No. 12 Preemption Warrant. Alexander Wells produced a warrant from the land-office for one hundred acres-of land, in right of preemption, "dated March 23, 1780, No. 314, which he enters on lands adjoining his settlement made in 1776, on the waters of Cross Creek."

In the location of the large amount of land which Alexander Wells warranted in this vicinity, he was very careful to so run his lines that he cut off and prevented all other persons from gaining any of the water privilege of the streams upon which his lands were situated. Three of the tracts were made to corner in very acute angles on the Creek Bottom, near the old Patterson Fulling-Mill, while the dividing lines of the tracts cross and recross the stream at several points. But .in 1794; Thomas Patterson, who was equally alive to the advantages of water-power, established the Patterson Mills upon the stream, securing a site for it and a right to reach the creek by purchasing two abutting patents. The first mills in this section of Cross Creek township were built by Alexander Wells in 1775, at the junction of the north branch of Cross Creek with the main stream. These mills were operated by himself in 1796, when the Western Telegraphe, published on January 11th of that year, contained the following advertisement of his property : " I will sell sixteen hundred acres of land with my mills, and the property on which I, live."

A store of general merchandise had been for some time in operation at these mills at the time the above offer of sale was announced, the proprietors announcing the fact through the following advertisement of Oct. 25, 1795: "John Kerr & Co. have opened and are now selling at Alexander Wells' mills, on Cross Creek, a neat assortment of merchandise suitable for the season, for cash or country produce."

Richard Wells was a nephew of Alexander Wells, and his son-in-law also, having married his daughter. When Alexander Wells advertised his property in 1796, it was purchased by Richard Wells, mills, homestead, and all entire. He continued the business until his death, when all the property except the mills was inherited by his youngest daughter, who was the wife of Thomas Patterson. The mills' were left to Bazileel Wells, who operated them for some time and then sold them to Thomas Patterson. After conducting the business for a while, he in turn sold them to his brother, James' Patterson, who prosecuted a very successful business for a year or two, when the mill again changed hands, David Campbell being the purchaser. William Bushfield afterwards came into possession of this property, and in time it was owned by William Fullerton, who was a member of a family of bachelor brothers and maiden sisters. Under this last proprietorship the mill ceased its functions as a grist-mill, after nearly a hundred years of continual service, and was remodeled into a woolen-factory. In this business it was run for a few years, but has. now passed into disuse. The saw-mill is still in existence and operation, the water by which it is driven running through the same old race used when Alexander Wells started it. Alexander Wells died in 1813, aged eighty-six years, and was buried on the old homestead. Many of his descendants still remain in this section.

The fort known as Wells' Fort was located on Alexander Wells' land, a little east of the stone house built by Richard Wells, and now occupied by Oliver Clemmens.

Vance's Fort was situated one mile north of Cross Creek, upon land later owned and occupied by Allison Vance. It was at Vance's Fort that the first gospel sermon ever given in this township was preached. It was-in the year 1778, and Rev. James Powers was the minister. His great-grandson, J. Torrance Powers, has since been Assistant Secretary of the Treasury at Washington, D. C. A copper half-penny, bearing the date 1740, was picked up not long ago where the old Vance Fort stood. It was at Vance's Fort that William Parks, a brother-in-law of Rev. Thomas Marques, was killed by Indians in 1782.

John Tennel came from Maryland to Cross Creek township with Alexander Wells and family about 1772, and settled upon a tract of land containing six hundred acres. Included in that property Were the farms now belonging to William C. Jackson, the heirs of Hugh Thompson, and a part of those owned by R. M. Patterson and Giles and Thomas C. Lawton. Four hundred acres of the land Tennel located was patented to him March 26, 1789, under the title of " Prague." In 1790 he purchased more land, it being a tract that had been patented by William Patterson. In 1796, Mr. Tennel sold four hundred and fifty-four acres of his land, part of the tract " Prague," and the remainder made up from the Patterson tract, to Capt. John Johnston, who came with his family from Lancaster, Pa., and settled in this township. Having disposed of the rest of his land, Mr. Tennel removed with his large family to Kentucky.

Capt. Johnston was a Revolutionary soldier who took part in the battle of Brandywine. Upon the small stream that ran through his farm he built a mill, which was first run by water-power, but later


steam was substituted. It is said to have been the first steam-mill known in Washington County. Capt. Johnston's family was four sons and five daughters, most of whom settled in Cross Creek township. Rebecca, one of the daughters, died here in 1873, aged ninety-six years. The sons—William, John, Thomas, and Robert—were all very active business men. In the year 1800, William went to New Orleans with a flat-boat loaded with flour. On his return by sea to New York he was attacked with ship-fever and died. The other sons all died in this township,—Thomas in 1838, John in 1850, aged eighty-five years, and Robert in 1852, at the age of seventy years. Old Capt. Johnston died here in 1821, at the remarkable age of one hundred and one years.

Samuel Johnston was a backwoodsman of Virginia, who came here in 1772 and made a tomahawk improvement. It is believed by many that he was the first' person to invade and settle within the limits of Cross Creek township. It was through Col. James Marshel's assistance that Samuel Johnston later obtained the patent on his land, which is- now owned by Thomas Marshall and Robert Jeffries. In 1817, Mr. Johnston sold it to David Martin, and removed to Wayne Co., Ohio, dying there soon afterwards. Descendants of Samuel Johnston in the families of Cummings, Ewing, and Henwood are still living in this vicinity.

The Rev. Thomas Marques and his brother John were among the early settlers of Cross Creek township. They were sons of Thomas and Mary (Colville) Marques, who lived in Opequan Valley, near Winchester, Va. Their father, Thomas, was a son of William and Margaret Marques, who emigrated from Ireland in 1720 and settled in Virginia. This family are descendants of French Huguenots who fled from France on account of religious persecutions and settled in Ireland.

John Marques, the third son of Thomas and Mary Marques, was born June 10, 1750 ; married Sarah Griffith, a daughter of Edward and Letitia (Blackburn) Griffith, of Frederick County, Va., afterwards of Washington County, Pa. John Marques was the first of his family to emigrate west of the mountains, settling on Cross Creek about 1774, on a tract of land for which he obtained a warrant Feb. 23, 1786, and afterwards received a patent. This tract was called Marquesata," and contained four hundred and twenty-one acres and allowance, and embraced the farms now owned by H. C. Anderson, Robert Anderson, and a farm of Richard Wells called the " Mason Farm." For some time, on account of the Indian raids, he was obliged to keep his family in Vance's Fort, while he went back and forward to his farm. On one of these trips, while in his cabin, he heard the report of a rifle close at hand, and going out he saw a party of Indians killing his hogs. On seeing him they immediately gave chase. It was a race for life, and although the Indians were so close at the start he could hear the sound of their, footsteps as they ran in the trail behind him, he soon distanced them and succeeded in getting safely into Vance's Fort. He was noted among the scouts' and backwoodsmen as a fleet runner, an accomplishment which was a good deal cultivated, as a man's life not unfrequently depended upon his speed. He was a man of strong and decided character, and was for many years an elder in Cross Creek Church. He died Feb. 25, 1822. He raised a family of nine children, all of whom grew to man and womanhood, married and raised families. Their names are Thomas, who married his cousin, Nancy Marques, of Winchester, Va; Mary Marques, married Hon. Joshua Robb; of Bellefontaine, Ohio ; John, who married Eliza Taggert ; Sarah Marques, who married John Nelson, of Bellefontaine, Ohio ; Edward, who married first, Margaret Marques, second, Elizabeth Newell ; they lived and died near Mount Vernon, Ohio ; Robert, who married, first, Hannah Vanordstrand, second, Mary Stevenson ; James, who married, first, Nancy Roberts, second, Nancy Elliott ; they lived and died near Mount Vernon, Ohio; William, who married Elizabeth Adams, lived and died near Tiffin, Ohio ; Anne Marques married Isaac Morrison ; they lived in Logan County, Ohio.

The only descendants of John and Sarah (Griffith) Marques now living in Washington County are the families of James T. Marques, son of John and Eliza (Taggart) Marques, and Rev. John S. Marques, son of Robert and Mary (Stevenson) Marques.

Rev. Thomas Marques, the fourth son of Thomas and Mary (Colville) Marques, was born in Opequan Valley, Virginia, in 1753; was married March 5, 1776, to Jane Park, and soon after they removed to Cross Creek. He settled on a tract of land, for which he took out a warrant Feb. 23, 1786, and afterwards obtained a patent. This tract was called " Marrigate," and contained four hundred and seventeen acres and allowance. This tract embraces one of the farms now owned by Richard Wells, the farm of the Beabout heirs, and a part of the Perrine tract. Afterwards by deed dated Aug. 27, 1794, he purchased from Alexander Wells, of Cross Creek, and Nathan Cromwell, of Baltimore, a tract of five hundred acres, embracing lands now owned by Hon. John S. Duncan, H. L. Duncan, John Lee, part of a tract owned by Craig Lee, called the McConnell farm, and a part of the farm now owned by Rev. J. S. Marques. His family were obliged to live in Vance's Fort to escape the Indian incursions, and while there he was converted, and by the advice of Revs. Smith and Dodd commenced to prepare himself for the ministry. His classical education was obtained at Canonsburg Academy, and he studied theology under the direction of Rev. Dr. McMillan and. Rev. Joseph Smith ; was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Redstone at Dunlap's Creek, April 19, 1793. He soon


received three calls,—from Bethel and Ebenezer, Ten-Mile, and Cross Creek. The call from Cross Creek was dated Oct. 18, 1793, and was accepted on the 23d of April, 1794. He was a natural orator, and the tones of his voice were so musical that he was called the "Silver-tongued Marques." He continued to be pastor of Cross Creek for thirty-two years, resigning in-1825, but continuing to preach there until October, 1826. He went to visit his son-in-law, Rev. Joseph Stevenson, at Bellefontaine, Ohio, and while there was taken down with fever, and died Sept. 27, 1827, and was buried in the cemetery at Bellefontaine.

Thomas Marques, as well as his brothers and sisters, were brought up from an early age (their father having been killed by a limb falling from a tree) under the direction of their uncle,. John Wilson, who married their father's sister. He was a school-teacher, a well-educated and a religious man, who looked carefully after the instruction and training of the children. The children of Rev. Thomas and Jane (Park) Marques were William, married Sarah Marques, lived and died on his father's farm ; James, married first Anne Marques, second Margaret McCune ; Sarah Marques, married Rev. Joseph Stevenson, of Bellefontaine, Ohio ; Mary Marques, married George Newell; Jane Marques, married Samuel Caldwell ; Susannah Marques, married John Wilson Marques, and they afterwards lived and died in Logan County, Ohio ; Anne Marques, married Joseph Clark, lived and died in Logan County, Ohio; Thomas Marques, son of Rev. Thomas, died while at Jefferson College, Canonsburg ; was never married. All of the other children, with the exception of Anne, left descendants, some of whom still live in Washington County.

George Marques was among the early settlers on Cross Creek. On Nov. 1, 1776, he bought from Thomas Bay a tract of land on Cross Creek containing two hundred and sixty acres; also Sept. 18, 1787, he bought of John Marshall a tract of one hundred and ninety-six acres. He was one of the first elders in Cross Creek Presbyterian Church, and was leader of the music. He was a cousin of John and Rev. Thomas Marques. He afterwards sold his land and removed to Mercer County, Pa., in which section a number of his descendants still reside.

Among the early settlers in what is now Cross Creek township were members of the Crawford family, whose earlier residence was in Maryland. Oliver and Thomas Crawford were the eldest two sons of Margaret Crawford, a widow, who lived at Kenick's Gig, in that State. When these two were but lads they were taken prisoners by Indians and carried into captivity, where they remained till Oliver was twenty and Thomas eighteen years of age, when they were brought back to their mother by an Indian trader. Oliver married and moved out to the Monongahela to the Redstone settlement, where he raised a large family, who with himself finally moved to what was then called " Kayntuck."

Thomas married about the year 1770, and in the spring of 1774, with his wife and two children and his aged mother, removed to Cross Creek and settled on the Hays farm, near the Beech Knob school-house. Here he commenced an improvement, and took up some two hundred and fifty acres of land. About the year 1778 he lost his aged mother. She was buried under the old white-oak tree in the old graveyard at Cross Creek, and was the second person buried there. Soon after this he removed to another part of his land, where Thomas Andrew now resides. Here he lived till his death, which occurred in June,-1783. The land that he held at the time of his death is still held by his descendants. William Perry, Esq., owned the spot where he died, his wife being a great-grandchild. He was also the grandfather of the venerable Thomas Marshall, of Cross Creek township, and also of Mrs. Dr. Creigh, of Washington, Pa.

William Reynolds came into Cross Creek township as early as 1775, and upon a Virginia certificate took up three hundred and ninety-nine acres of land next to lands of James Jackson, Samuel Patterson, and Thomas Marques. This tract was surveyed Dec. 4, 1785, and given the name of " Reynoldsville." It was the farm now owned by William Dunbar, one and one-half miles southwest of Cross Creek village. It was often termed the Old Wilson farm. Mr. Reynolds had built upon his land a block-house, which occupied the site of the present owner's barn. This fort was the refuge of the families of James Jackson, James Colwell, Widow Mary Patterson, Ephraim Hart, and all other neighbors near enough to avail themselves of its protection against the Indians. In the summer of 1779 the Indians attacked Reynolds' house during his absence, carried off his wife and child, and while on the way to their towns west of the Ohio, being hotly pursued and attacked by Reynolds and a small party of whites, they murdered Mrs. Reynolds and the child. Reynolds would never again live on the farm, but sold to Joseph Patterson, who afterwards became the Rev. Joseph Patterson of Raccoon Church. The whites who were in this encounter were the Rev. Thomas Marques, John Marques, his brother, and Robert McCready. The two latter are buried in the old graveyard at Cross Creek.

Mr. Reynolds removed to Ohio in 1801. David Reynolds, an elder brother, who came to Cross Creek township with William Reynolds, located land on the main branch of Cross Creek. The property is now known as the Neil farm, and is owned by John F. Sharp. David Reynolds died in 1809, and was buried in the Buffalo Church cemetery.

Robert Rutherford came from Virginia, and took up large tracts of land, which are' now within the limits of Cross Creek, Smith, and Mount Pleasant townships. The first tract was granted on pre-emption warrant No. 29, dated June 17, 1780, which gave him one thousand acres of land, "including an improvement made by Henry Highland in 1774."


On Dec. 23, 1779, the State of Virginia certificated to Robert Rutherford twenty-five hundred acres of land, situated on the southwest branch of Raccoon Creek, adjoining the tracts of Alexander Wells and James Stephenson. Two thousand acres of this body of land, which is in the townships of Cross Creek and Mount Pleasant, were sold by Rutherford to Samuel and Robert Purviance, April 25, 1782. They sold a portion of it to James Campbell, and now the entire property is owned by John Campbell, Jefferson Lyle, William or Martin Robb, Moses Lyle, and the McGugan heirs. The remaining portion of Rutherford's land was in Cross Creek and Smith townships. It is now owned by Walter C. Lee, Hugh Lee, Allison Vance, William K. Lyle, James Buchanan, the heirs of David and Perry Cook, Col. Samuel Magill, Abraham Pry, John Johnson, William McCurg, Mr. Russell, and part of the lots of Cross Creek village.

Henry Graham came from Chester County, in this State, and settled in Cross Creek township in 1776. For the land on which he made settlement he received a Virginia, certificate in February, 1780. It was situated on the waters of Cross Creek, bounded on two sides by the lands of Robert Rutherford, and on the other two by James Jackson and John Marques' property. This property of Henry Graham is now comprised in the farms of Rev. John S. Marques and, estate of Rev. John Stockton, D.D., and a part of the site-of Cross Creek village. Afterwards Mr. Graham purchased tracts of Dorsey Pentecost, land agent, of Samuel and Robert Purviance, of Hugh H. Brackenridge, and of Thomas Marques a part of the tract patented to Alexander Wells and Nathan Cromwell, June 6, 1780, and bounded by lands of Thomas and John Marques and David Henderson. Mr. Graham sold portions of his property at different times, including a sale of forty-two acres to James Kirk (which was no doubt the land upon which Graham & Kirk had built their tannery in 1780, and which was continued in operation by various proprietors until the year 1854), and a sale to David Williams of three acres of land, which was divided into lots in Cross Creek village. David Williams built the first brick house in the village.

Henry Graham was one of a party who emigrated to this county together, a part of whom settled on Pigeon Creek, in the townships of Chartiers, Hopewell, and Buffalo. On their journey over the mountains they entered into an agreement to establish a church wherever they included to settle. Mr. Graham was very active in the organization of the Cross Creek Presbyterian Church, and donated the land upon which the church edifice was erected. In August, 1790, he was chosen to the office of justice of the peace for Cross Creek township, in which position he served the people faithfully and with credit. That portion of Cross Creek village which has been built upon the laud of Henry Graham was laid out before his death, which occurred in 1827. He left but one son, John Graham, who died three years later. After the death of John Graham his children inherited all the property of their father and grandfather. The son Joseph thus came into possession of the homestead. 

Thomas Beatty was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to this country, and located first in Fayette County. Later, about the year 1779, he came to Cross Creek township, and took up a three-hundred-acre tract of land called " Victory." Mr. Beatty died June 11, 1816, aged sixty-nine years, and his wife died in 1825. The property descended to their sons and daughters, who all died many years ago. In 1827 Robert Simpson purchased one hundred and forty acres of the land, which is now owned by James Simpson. The remainder belongs to Simeon and Eli Marques. 

Joseph Patterson came from Maryland in the autumn of 1779, and settled in this township. Mr. Patterson was a Seceder from the north of Ireland. In the Cross Creek Church, after coming to this township, he was a ruling elder, and finally studied for and entered the ministry. He eventually removed to Robinson township, where he had pastoral charge of the Raccoon Congregational Church. Before leaving this township Rev. Mr. Patterson sold his property here to James Jackson. Mr. Jackson and his family removed to Ashland County, Ohio, and the farm is now owned by John F. Sharp.

John Campbell was born in York County, Pa., and came to this township in 1778 or 1779. He located a tract of one hundred and ninety-one acres, which was called " Fumanah," the warrant for it being dated Sept. 3, 1785, and the patent granted April 4, 1787. His family numbered six sons and three daughters. Of the sons, John, William, and James went to Belmont County, Ohio. The other sons, David, Charles, and George, all remained in Cross Creek, and some of their descendants still own and occupy a part of the old homestead farm. The daughter Grace became the wife of Maj. Benjamin Bay, and they removed to Ohio in 1812. Elizabeth Campbell married William Rea, a son of Squire William Rea, and they reside on the Rea homestead. Mary, the third daughter of John Campbell, married William Fulton, and they are still living in Mount Pleasant township. George Campbell, Jr., a son of George and grandson of John Campbell, lives at Midway, in Robinson township. John Campbell died in 1813, and was buried in Cross Creek Cemetery. William M. Campbell, son of Charles and grandson of John Campbell, is a descendant, and occupies a part of the old homestead. 

Joseph Reed was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to America prior to 1763, settling first in Lancaster County, having married Miss Jeannette Brotherton. Rev. Joseph Smith was at that time also residing in York County. In 1779 Rev. Mr. Smith received a call to take charge of the Upper Buffalo and Cross 


Creek congregations in this vicinity, which he accepted, and Joseph Reed was employed to convey the clergyman and his family to their new home in this county. Mr. Reed did not come himself, but sent his son-in-law, also named Joseph Reed, to drive the team. In return for these services the congregations who extended the call purchased for Mr. Reed a tract of land in Cross Creek township, called " Pensacola," containing one hundred and ninety acres and seventy-five perches, with six per cent, allowance for roads. Joseph Reed did not remove to this county, but in addition to the "Pensacola" tract he bought three hundred and sixty-nine acres of land in Cross Creek township, about one mile east of the first tract granted him. He served as colonel in the earlier part of the Revolutionary war, and was appointed quartermaster. In 1784 he was a member of the Pennsylvania State Legislature. He died in 1804 at his home in York County. By his will the tract of three hundred and sixty-nine acres of land which he purchased in this township was divided into two parcels; one, comprising the east half of the tract, and containing two hundred and ten acres, was bequeathed to James Reed, his eldest son, who had occupied the property prior to this time. The other parcel of one hundred and fifty-nine acres was divided into three equal parts. The first one-third was left to his daughter Agnes and her husband, Joseph Reed. The second one-third was given to the daughter Margaret and her husband, James McNary, and is now the property of. Robert Withrow and his wife, Rhoda, who is a granddaughter of Joseph Reed. The last portion was given by Joseph Reed to his daughter Esther, who was the wife of Evan Turk. They never occupied their inheritance, but sold it to James McNary.

Joseph Reed, the son-in-law of Joseph Reed, who brought Rev. Joseph Smith to this township in 1779, returned here in 1790 and settled upon the farm now owned. by John C. Rea. After living there a number of years he removed to the present property of William J. Patterson, residing upon that until his death. Following this event was the removal of his family to Armstrong County, in this State, where some of his children still live. James Reed, the eldest son of Joseph Reed, inherited, as stated, the larger portion of his father's last land purchase in this township. He had several sons and daughters, who came into possession of his property at his death. Mary, one of the daughters, became the wife of Joseph Lyle, of Mount Pleasant township, which is now their home. Joseph, one of the sons, married Miss Beatty and went to Richland County, Ohio: William married Rosanna Lyle, a daughter of Aaron Lyle, of Cross Creek township. The sons James and John remained on the farm together for a number of years, when they divided it and each sold his share. Thomas Marshall purposed and now occupies James' portion, and John disposed of his to Alexander B. Reed, removing to Hardin County, Ky., where he still lives.

Nicholas Reed was another of the sons of Joseph Reed, whose home was in York County. After his father came into possession of the tract " Pensacola," he married Elizabeth Fulton and came to Cross Creek and settled upon it. His cabin stood upon the site of the present residence of J. C. Reed, and remained until the year 1867, when William Reed, a son of Nicholas and father of J. C. Reed, replaced it with the present dwelling-house. Nicholas Reed died in 1854, leaving seven sons and two daughters,—Joseph, James, William, Hugh, Samuel, John, Robert, Jane, and Eliza. James went to Huron County, Ohio, where he died at an early age, and Joseph settled in Richland County of the same State. William was a cabinetmaker, married Isabella Curry, daughter of Robert Curry, Sr., and settled in this township. In 1838 he removed to the farm of his father, Nicholas Reed, but two years later went into Allegheny County. He remained there until 184,5, and then came back upon the homestead. At the death of his father in 1854 he bought the interests of the other heirs and became sole owner of " Pensacola." In 1859 he deeded one hundred and three acres of the tract to his son, James M. K. Reed, who yet occupies the property. The rest of the real estate, including the homestead lot, was left by William Reed at his death to his other son, John C. Reed, who now resides upon it.

James Patterson was the first member of that family who settled in this country, having come to America in 1728. His son William was born in 1733, and in 1758 married Rosanna Scott, of Cecil County, Md., by whom he had four sons and one daughter. His wife died April 5, 1769, and he was married a second time to Elizabeth Brown, April 10, 1770, a family of ten, children being born to this last marriage. In the spring of 1778, William Patterson, with two or three of his sons, came into Cross Creek township and settled upon a tract of land containing three hundred and fifty acres. Before coming here William Patterson and two of his sons had seen something of military life, having been engaged in one or two campaigns in the Revolutionary war. During the summer following their advent into this township the Pattersons built a house, cleared some ground, and put in what crops they could, and in the fall all, except the son Thomas, returned to the old home to bring out the rest of the family. During their absence Thomas boarded with the widow, Mrs. Mary Patterson, whose land adjoined that of his father. William Patterson returned with his entire family to Cross Creek township, and continued to live upon the land he had located until his death, which occurred in 1818 at the age of more than eighty years.

Thomas Patterson, son of William Patterson, was born Oct..1, 1764. In 1794 he purchased land of his father, upon which he built a grist- and flouring-mill, the mill being situated upon the north branch of Cross Creek. At the same time he bought the property of the widow Mary Patterson (that upon which


John Boyce now lives), and not long after enlarged his estate by purchases from the Wells tracts. Oct. 1, 1795, he married Elizabeth Findley a daughter of Hon. William Findley, of Westmoreland County, Pa. He had built a log house upon his land, in a part of which he kept a general store, but after his marriage the stock was removed to his mill, which was then in operation. In this log house Thomas and Elizabeth Patterson lived,. and here their eleven children—eight sons and three daughters—were born. Mr. Patterson was very active in all church affairs, being an elder in one of the Cross Creek churches for many years. He also held all the commissions of militia rank to that of major-general, and during the last war with Great Britain organized and led a force into Ohio to repel a supposed British invasion.

He was a member of Congress from 1817 to 1825, being elected during the administration of James Monroe, and was a member of the Electoral College in 1816. Gen. Patterson died of apoplexy Nov. 17, 1841, aged seventy-seven years. His sons were William, James, Samuel, John, Thomas, Findley, Moses, and David Patterson. The daughters were Mary, Elizabeth, and Rosanna Patterson. William, the oldest son of Gen. Thomas Patterson, was born Sept. 25,1796. Upon him gradually devolved the management of his father's extensive business interests. His wife was Margaret, a daughter of Hon. Carson Lyle, of Cross Creek township. His first experience in business was the management of the farm and flouring-mills, which his father intrusted to him at a very early age, in consequence of his absence at Congress. This was no small responsibility for a youth, as the business was conducted on a large scale, much larger than that of any other in the region at that time. In 1812, on account of the demand for woolen goods created by the war with Great Britain, his father erected a fulling-mill. Over this William was placed after he had acquired a thorough knowledge of the business, under the instruction of a competent fuller named Jonathan McCombs. Aside from his industrial habits, he was somewhat distinguished as an officer in the militia, which was then quite prominent in the public esteem. A company was raised and commanded by him, belonging to a battalion then called the "Union Volunteer Battalion," organized in accordance with the State law of that period. He also occupied a position on the staff of the brigadier-general of militia with the rank of major. Having become well known to the people, he was chosen to represent them in the popular branch of the State Legislature in the year 1828, being re-elected for four terms, during the last of which (1834) he served as Speaker of the House. His deep interest in educational matters made him a warm advocate of the public school law, and largely instrumental in having it put into practical operation in his own county. At his instance, and much at his expense, an elegant school building, looked upon for many years as a model, was erected a few rods from his residence. Serving a long period as a director, he used his influence to secure such a high grade of teachers as rendered the new system a success in his own neighborhood, equal if not beyond that of any Other in the county. During his legislative service, on the application of the Rev. Matthew Brown, D.D., president of Jefferson College, for an appropriation from the State, he succeeded in securing the handsome sum of $8000, which was used in the erection of a new college building

After the death of his father he came into possession of the farm and mill property, on account of which he was very closely occupied in the management of his own private business. Yet he continued to manifest a deep interest in public affairs. In 1844 he was chosen a member of the Electoral College. This was his last appearance in public life. Retiring from active business in 1859, he spent his declining years in well-earned repose in the family of his eldest son, with the companion of his youth, to whom he had been united in marriage sixty years on the 29th of April preceding his death.

Of the other sons of Gen. Thomas Patterson, James, the second, was both a merchant and farmer at Patterson's Mills. He died in 1860, and his son, Thomas, Jr., inherited his property. Samuel Patterson, the third son, was also a farmer, and settled on the farm now owned by his son, Robert M. Patterson, which is a portion of the original Capt. William ,Patterson tract. Samuel Patterson made a specialty of sheep-raising and wool-growing, and was much interested and very successful in improving the quality of his wool. In 1846 he purchased a farm in Eastern Virginia, whither he removed with his family and died there.

John, fourth son of Gen. Thomas Patterson, removed from Cross Creek township to Armstrong County, in this State. He served one term in the State Legislature from that section.

Thomas Patterson, the fifth son, married a daughter of Richard Wells, and settled upon a portion of the old Alexander Wells homestead. Later he removed to Illinois, and thence to Nebraska.

Findley Patterson, who was the sixth son of Gen. Thomas Patterson, married a sister of Hon. John A. Bingham. He was the one selected from among the heirs to go to Armstrong County, Pa., to survey the large landed estate of his grandfather, Hon. William Findley. In Armstrong County he became an extensive mill-owner, and also filled many important offices. He served three successive terms in the State Senate ; also served in the Lower House of the Legislature, and was twice elected Speaker; was appointed revenue commissioner in 1843. In 1850 he went overland to California, and spent a year there successfully. In 1857 he was appointed by the President receiver in the land-office in Kansas, and held the position four years. Having returned to Washington County, he was, in the fall of 1878, elected q representative in the


State Legislature from this county, and While there was an active member of several important committees. In whatever public or private business Mr. Findley Patterson has ever been engaged, he has always proved himself most thorough and efficient in its management.

Josiah Patterson, born Nov. 10, 1783, in Cross Creek township, was a son of William Patterson by his second marriage. April 13, 1809, he married Ann Templeton, and they had a family of ten children,—John, William, Thomas, Joseph, Nathan, Elizabeth., Ann, David, Esther, and Rachel. Josiah Patterson was a farmer in this township, and died upon his homestead in February, 1843, aged sixty years. His sons Joseph and Nathan still reside in this township, the latter upon his father's farm, and William and Elizabeth (Mrs. Smiley) are residents of Mount Pleasant township.

Nathan Patterson was also a son of William Patterson's second marriage. He was born Sept. 11, 1788, and Oct. 14, 1816, married Lydia Houston. They settled in Cross Creek township. Their children were Daniel, William, John, Nathan, and Mary Patterson. The father, Nathan Patterson, Sr., died in February, 1846, at fifty-eight years of age. The son, William Patterson, is. now living at Patterson's Mills, in this township. Daniel and Mary, who married Mr. Atchison, removed to Iowa, and John and Nathan, who lived in Cross Creek township, died, leaving no descendants. Mrs. Hannah Vance was a daughter of Capt. William Patterson by his second wife, Elizabeth Brown. She was born May 22, 1786, at the old Patterson homestead, near Patterson's Mills. Mrs. Vance was the youngest of the Patterson family who emigrated to Cross Creek, and when she died, in May, 1879, she still retained her mental faculties in full. She was buried in Cross Creek Cemetery. Her husband, Hon. William Vance, was a representative in the State Legislature from this county in 1816 and 1817.

Of William Patterson's first family of children, John settled in Belmont, Ohio, from which place he was elected to Congress in 1822 ; Samuel, another son, was killed by the Indians in 1787, while he was boating flour on the Wabash River to Vincennes, lnd.

Col. James Marshel¹ was a resident of Cross Creek township as early as 1778. On December 26th of that year he purchased of Jacob Frederick " a tract of land situated on the head-waters of Cross Creek, in the counties of Yohogania and Ohio, and State of Virginia," said tract containing four hundred acres with allowance, and the consideration being £419 138. 9d. "Marshel Hall" was the name given to a tract of four hundred and thirty-two acres which was warranted and surveyed to Col. Marshel in 1785, ad-

¹ Col James Marshel and his son John always spelled their surname in this peculiar way—Marshel. The cousins of Col. Marsha, though of time same family, spelled their name in the usual way—Marshall.

joining the lands of Thomas McKibbin, Robert, John, and Thomas Marshall, and Samuel Johnston. The middle branch of Cross Creek runs through this place. " Mecklenburg" must have been Col. Marshel's next land purchase. This tract se secured from Francis McKinne, to whom it was warranted Feb. 13,1786, and afterwards surveyed as containing four hundred and one acres, located next other lands of James Marshel and those of David Vance and John Campbell. " The Point" was a tract of three hundred and fifty-eight acres which Col. Marshel warranted in March, 1786, and then deeded part of it to Mr. Johnston, who lived upon it. On April 20, 1781, the Supreme Executive Council of the State of Pennsylvania appointed Col. James Marshel county lieutenant of Washington County. He was also recorder of deeds and register of wills for Washington County from 1781 to 1784, and from 1791 to 1795. He was also sheriff of the county from 1784 to 1787. During the years of his official life, Col. Marshel resided the principal part of the time at the county-seat, where his public duties required his constant attention. He was a prominent actor in the events of the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794, as elsewhere mentioned. Soon after the close of the insurrection (in September, 1795) he advertised thirteen hundred acres of patented and improved lands on Cross Creek for sale. This must have been preparatory to his removing from Cross Creek township to Brooke County, Va., which he did at about that time. Col. Marshel's wife was his cousin, a sister of Robert and John Marshall. Their son, John Marshel, was elected sheriff of Washington County in 1835, served one year, and then resigned to accept the position of cashier of the Franklin Bank, in Washington, Pa., where he remained several years. Col. James Marshel died at his home in Brooke County, Va., in 1829. "Marshel Hall," his home in this township, is now owned by Thomas and Thomas B. McCorkle.

Col. John and Robert Marshall (half-brothers) were cousins of Col. James Marshel. They came here together in 1779 from Lancaster County, and both purchased land of Col. James Marshel. Robert Marshel continued to live upon his purchase in Cross Creek township until his death, which occurred in 1833, at seventy-three years of age. His wife survived him until 1858, and died at the age of eighty-nine years. Their only daughter, Esther Marshel, is living near -Mount Prospect Church, in Mount Pleasant township, and the old farm is now owned by Robert Jeffries, and occupied by Robert Jeffries, Jr.

Col. James Marshel was a captain in the Revolutionary war, and was wounded at the battle of Brandywine, Sept. 11, 1777. He was afterwards colonel in the Washington County militia. In Au-.gust, 1781, he was appointed a justice of the peace for Hopewell township, which at that time embraced the whole of the territory now Cross Creek township. In 1802-5 he was a member of the House of Repre-


sentatives in the Pennsylvania Legislature. In 1820, Cal. Marshel sold the two-hundred-acre tract which he had purchased of Col. James Marshel to Walter Craig, and removed to Crawford County, Ohio, where he died soon after. This land was adjoining the "Pensacola" tract of Joseph Reed. Mr. Craig resided upon it but a few years, when he sold it and removed to Cross Creek village. It is now in the possession of David E. McNary.

Thomas and William Marshall were brothers, and natives of Ireland, who came into this section at least as early as 1779. Thomas Marshall located upon the land now owned by R. T. Johnson, upon which he had a distillery in operation in 1784. He was an eider in Cross Creek Church. In 1800 he sold his property in this township to Col. James Marshel, and removed to Smith township, in this county. In 1827 he again sold out, going to Ohio, where he died in 1839, at the age of ninety-six years. The property which Thomas Marshall owned in Cross Creek township was warranted to him March 31, 1786, and surveyed Oct. 24, 1787. The tract contained four hundred and five acres, was called " Buck Forest," and was bounded by the lands of William Reynolds, John Marshall, John Tennel, and Thomas Marques.

William Marshall, who came out with his brother Thomas in. 1779, settled upon the farm now occupied by David Gault. Mr. Marshall had left his family in Ireland, and in 1783, having sent for them, started for Philadelphia to meet them. They had arrived earlier than he expected them, and had journeyed from Philadelphia to Chartiers township, in this county, where the husband and father found them at the home of Andrew Russell. Mr. Marshall sold his property here in 1817, and with all his family except the son William removed to the State of Ohio. William Marshall, the son just mentioned, married Ann Crawford, a daughter of Thomas Crawford, and through the inheritance of his wife came into possession of a portion of the Hugh Stephenson land. The property is now occupied by some of their descendants, and William Perry, S. L. and Matthew McCollough. Mr. Marshall died in 1860, aged ninety-three years,.and his wife survived him but a month, dying at the age of ninety years. Their son, Thomas Marshall, is still living in this township, and is now eighty-two years old.

Thomas Bay was a resident of Cross Creek township before the year 1780, living upon the five-hundred-acre tract of land which he located here. It was the farm adjoining that of Squire Rea, and which is now owned by Arnold Lawton, and occupied by his son, Arnold Lawton, Jr. Mr. Bay's early home was a strong house, into which all the immediate neighbors gathered when alarmed by the Indians. In 1780 he furnished supplies for the government, as shown by the minutes of the Supreme Executive Council of the State of Pennsylvania. Besides his property in this township, Mr. Bay also located land in Smith township. In 1812, when he removed to Ohio, he sold the Cross Creek property to Daniel Huston, who lived upon it until his death in 1829. The land in Smith township was sold to James Stephenson, and is now the property of John B. and James Hayes. Mr. Bay was a man of much note and influence, and his removal to Ohio was greatly regretted by his townsmen. His large family of sons and daughters accompanied him.

Jacob Buxton came to what is now Cross Creek township in 1880. He was an Englishman by birth. He located first in Fayette County, and from there attempted to go down the river to Kentucky, but his boat was snagged near Georgetown, and all his goods were lost. He then gave up the idea, and in the spring of 1780 bought the farm in this township where Samuel K. White at present resides. It was sold to Buxton by Joseph Armstrong, of Ohio County, Va., for £85, " paid in grain." The sale was of "three hundred acres of land and implements," dated Jan. 29, 1780.

Jacob Buxton resided upon the place until his death in 1836, when he had reached the age of eighty-six years. His wife died in 1842, forty-two years of age. Before Mr. Buxton's death he gave his son, Aaron Buxton, one hundred acres of the original farm. 'He died in 18G1, and his son, Richard F. Buxton, owns and lives upon it. The remaining portion of the old farm was sold in 1836 to Col. James Lee, who, in 1844, disposed of it to William White, and his son, Samuel White, is the present owner.

William Scott received in 1780 a Virginia certificate for "Bowling Green," a tract of land in this township, containing three hundred and eighty-one acres, next the lands of Alexander Wells and Alexander Nesbitt. April 3, 1787, he sold the property to William Cuttreaugh. In the conveyance it was described as situated on Cross Creek, and " including the settlement of the said William Scott, made by John Doddridge, for which the said William Scott obtained a certificate of settlement right from the commissioners of the State of Virginia." In December, 1781, Mr. Scott was appointed agent of forfeited estates for the county of Washington.

Joseph Scott was a brother of William Scott, and came into the township at the same time. Some time before 1788 Joseph took up or purchased three hundred and fifty acres of land, which he resided upon until his death in 1825. What further land investments he made is not known, but the assessment-rolls of 1791 show him to have been assessed that year upon four hundred acres. In 1781 he was a justice of the peace in this township, and in 1791 a mill was in operation upon his farm. Descendants of Joseph Scott still reside in this township, but his original land property is owned by John and Harvey Lawton.

Robert Curry was a native of Scotland, who emi-


grated to America in 1782. On 'his voyage across the ocean he had for a fellow-passenger Miss Isabella McKenzie, who had left the Highlands of Scotland to find another home across the sea. From strangers they became acquaintances, and upon their arrival in this country were married. They came at once to the Monongahela country, and lived for a time at Fort Pitt. Mr. Curry was a cooper. Thinking to improve the prospects of himself and family, they removed in 1790 to Wheeling, Va., settling near the fort then located there. Eventually they removed to Cross Creek village, where they lived many years, be dying June 25, 1838, aged eighty-four years, and she living until March 28, 1856, when she died at the great age of ninety-eight years. Their children were eight daughters and four sons. Robert Curry lived near Hanlan's Station, in Hanover township, where he died in 1866. The daughter Nancy became Mrs. David Caldwell, and lived in Mount Pleasant township. John Curry married and lived and died near Claysville. Archibald was a bachelor: He .and Robert were in the army at Black Rock, N. Y., in 1814. These three brothers, John, Robert, and Archibald Curry, made several trips to New Orleans in flat-boats; on one occasion Archibald walking the entire distance home. Another and a fourth son of Robert Curry, Sr., was at one time deputy State superintendent of public instruction of Pennsylvania. In 1876 he was appointed superintendent of the State Normal School in Nebraska, an important position that he still holds. Two of the eight daughters of Robert Curry, Sr., are also still living,—Mrs. Sarah O. Stevenson, of Smith township, and Mrs. William Van Ostrand, of Cross Creek village.

David and Robert McComb were brothers, who emigrated from their home in Scotland to America, and both took part in the Revolutionary war. They came into this township as soon as they left the service, and their father, Robert McComb, Sr., who came with them, purchased four' hundred acres of land, which he divided equally, giving each son two hundred acres. Robert McComb, Sr., died in 1794, in Cross Creek township: Robert McComb, Jr., lived upon the farm his father gave him until his death in 1827. About the year 1795 he built a fulling-mill on Cross Creek, upon the site of which the Wilson gristmill now stands. The Western Telegraphe of May 6, 1796, contains his advertisement announcing that he had " erected a fulling-mill on Cross Creek, one mile from James Monsey's mill." His farm is now owned by the heirs of John Manson. David McComb also spent his days upon the property his father purchased for him, dying there in 1837 at the age of seventy-eight years.

Andrew Ritchie, who was a Revolutionary soldier, came to this township just after the close of the war and settled. on Muller's Run. In 1796 he bought a farm of Ephraim Hart, the or e that has since been known as the Ritchie farm. He had a son James, who lived upon the farm with his parents. He died in 1834, at forty-five years of age. The wife of Andrew Ritchie and mother of James died in the same year, aged seventy-nine years, and Mr. Ritchie's death occurred four years later, when he was eighty-fire years old. Andrew S. Ritchie, clerk in the First National Bank in Washington borough, is a son of James and grandson of Andrew Ritchie.

Aaron Lyle was a native of Northampton, Mass., and came into Washington County in the fall of 1784. He settled and always lived on a tract of land, the farm now owned and occupied by William Rankin, Jr. In 1790 he purchased one hundred and fifty acres of land, which was added to the farm he already owned. Aaron Lyle was a Revolutionary soldier, and when he participated in the battle of Long Island, N. Y., which took place Aug. 27, 1776, he was but sixteen years of age. He was a member of the House of Representatives in the Pennsylvania State Legislature from 1798 to 1801, and again in 1805. In 1808 he was elected to Congress, and continued to represent this district there until 1816. In 1807, before his election to Congress, he served as county commissioner in Washington County. Mr. Lyle died in 1825, aged sixty-six years. His children were three sons and four daughters,—Moses, James, Robert, Mary, Ellen, Margaret, and Jane. Ellen died very young; James died in Smith township in 1806; and Moses, who lived on the homestead, died in 1840. After his death the home farm was sold in 1846, and now belongs to David Gault. Moses Lyle was elected to the office of county commissioner in 1817. Robert Lyle was a physician, and practiced in Cross Creek township for several years. He finally removed to Steubenville, and from there went West. The daughter Mary became the wife of John Campbell, and went to a Western State, and Margaret, who married Hon. William Patterson, is still living at Patterson's Mills, in this township. Jane Lyle became the wife of Samuel Ewing, the son of Thomas Ewing, of North Strabane township, in Washington County. Hon. Thomas Ewing, of Pittsburgh, is a son of Samuel and Jane Ewing.

Thomas Ewing came from the north of Ireland to this country, and settled first, as stated, in North Strabane township in 1794. On April 10, 1815, he purchased sixty acres of land of Samuel Johnston in Cross Creek township. This was a part of the tract " The Point," which was warranted and patented April 18, 1788, to Col. James Marshel in trust for Samuel Johnston, and which Col. Marshel deeded to Mr. Johnston Dec. 13, 1793. Thomas Ewing's wife was Miss Esther McNary, and their son Samuel married Miss Jane Lyle, as mentioned in the history of the Lyle family. Hon. Thomas Ewing, of Pittsburgh, son of Samuel, and grandson of Thomas Ewing, Sr., is judge of one of the courts in that city.

Several persons of the name Stevenson, or Stephenson, as it is often spelled, have lived and owned prop-


city in Cross Creek township, but nothing is found to indicate any relationship between them. Col. Hugh Stevenson was granted, July 5, 1774, one thousand acres of land on a military warrant. One hundred and four acres of this tract, situated on the waters of Cross Creek, is now owned by S. L. McCullough. James Stevenson received two certificates, granting him seven hundred and seventy-seven acres of land in this section, adjoining two of the Robert Rutherford tracts. This land was surveyed to James Stevenson, June 28, 1790, and is now occupied by William and Robert Stevenson and other Stevenson heirs. It has remained in the family from the first.

The records show that in 1791, John Stevenson was assessed upon three hundred acres of land. John Stevenson died on this property in 1819, aged eighty-six years. After this event his son, John, Jr., remained upon the place until 1840, when he died. The property was still held by the descendants of John Stevenson until 1875, when it passed into the hands of John S. Lee and H. L. Duncan, who now own it. The Rev. John S. Maroues is a grandson of John Stevenson, Jr.

Andrew Ferguson, who was a native of Maryland, followed his brother-in-law, Rev. Joseph Smith, to this county in 1786, and settled in what is now Cross Creek township, where he purchased a farm of Thomas Bay. It was the one on which D. M. Stewart ,now resides, and upon it Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson lived and died. Their seven children were David, Andrew, Samuel, Benjamin, Joseph, Mary, and Abigail Ferguson. Andrew died before 1812, and Samuel, who went to Ohio to reside, died there in 1841. David was engaged in several campaigns against the Indians. He finally made a trip down the river, from which he never returned. Joseph Ferguson, the youngest son, removed to Guernsey County, Ohio. His son, Rev. William M. Ferguson, is a prominent Presbyterian clergyman in Fredericktown, Knox Co., in the same State. The daughter, Mary Ferguson, became the wife of James Cummings, of Cross Creek township, who was killed during the war of 1812.

Robert Armstrong came from Ireland to this country accompanied by his family, and in 1787 settled in Cross Creek township on the farm now in the possession of Hugh Lee, one mile southwest of Cross Creek Church. On March 30, 1789, he purchased one hundred and seven acres of land of Henry Graham in addition to his first purchase. In 1787, the first year of Mr. Armstrong's residence here, his son, Adam Armstrong, a young man twenty-one years of age, died. Mrs. Armstrong died in 1796, and the husband and father in 1810. At his death the property passed into the hands of his four daughters,—Sarah, Miriam, Anna, and Jane Armstrong,—none of whom ever married. The farm was finally sold, and the daughters removed to Cross Creek village, where they all died. William Rea came from Northampton County, in this State, to Cross Creek township in 1789, and purchased one hundred and eighty-five acres of land of George Marques. In the spring of 1790 he made a permanent settlement here, where he spent the remainder of his life.

William Rea was identified with the early history of the Cross Creek schools as one of the most efficient teachers, and in 1823 he was a justice of the peace for the territory including Cross Creek, Hopewell, and Mount Pleasant townships. He died in 1835, aged seventy-two years. His grandsons, William, Charles C., and Joseph V. Rea, now own the old homestead and other of the Rea lands.

Francis McCauley, who was of Scotch descent, was settled in Cross Creek prior to 1791, and had possession of one hundred and fifty acres of land, that upon which John N. Walker now resides. Mr. McCauley remained upon the farm of his early settlement until his death, in 1825, when his son, John McCauley, sold it to James Patterson. David Ramsey, of Hopewell township, is a grandson of Francis McCauley.

Isaac Martin was a resident and property-holder of Cross Creek township before 1791, his name appearing among the taxables in that year. He died in 1806, and left his farm to his son, who very soon sold it,, and the land at present belongs to R. B. Thompson, David Cummings, and Joseph Patterson.

On March 22, 1794, Peter Perrine purchased the tract of land in this township-called " Buffalo Lick," containing three hundred acres, from Richard Wells, Jr., who had received a warrant of acceptance for it dated Jan. 22, 1788. This land Peter Perrine settled upon, and there passed the remainder of his life. He had several sons. Of these Nicholas, James, and Stephen Perrine emigrated to Ohio. Benjamin removed to Harmon's Creek, where he lived and died, and Isaac remained upon the old homestead. Isaac Perrine's sons were Peter, John, Robert, Isaac H., Samuel, and James. Peter is in Steubenville, Ohio, John and Samuel live in Burgettstown, Isaac H. went to the West, and Robert occupies the old Peter Perrine farm, as did his father before him.

Walter McClurg was a native of Ireland, who in the early part of the year 1794 settled in this section. For the consideration of thirty-five pounds he bought seventy acres of land of Henry Purviance, a part of that patented by Purviance in September, 1788. The farm upon which he resided in this township is still known as the McClurg farm, and is now the property of William Porter, a descendant of the McClurg family.

Walter Craig was a native of Ireland, born in 1786. When still quite young he came with his father's family to America, and to Washington County, Pa., settling near West Middletown, in the northern part of Hopewell township. On August 24, 1818, Walter Craig purchased property of John Marshall in Cross Creek township. It was the tract "Justice," situated on the waters of Cross Creek, adjoining the lands of William Rea, Nicholas Reed, Thomas McConkle, Thomas Meason, James and Thomas Marshall. In


1818-19, Walter Craig was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, and in 1820 he removed to this township, to occupy the property he had bought here. In, 1828 he became a member of Cross Creek Church, and in 1831 was elected a ruling elder. The latter position he retained during his life. In the year 1838 he was a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention, and from 1843 to 1845, inclusive, was a member of the State Senate. While on a visit to his daughter in Indiana Walter Craig died, Feb. 10, 1875, in the eighty-ninth year of his age.

Hugh Lee came from Ireland to America, and eventually settled in Cross Creek township, on a tract of two hundred and nineteen acres of land purchased of William McFarren April 3, 1826. His purchase was of the tract called " Holmes' Victory," or which James Holmes made settlement in 1774, and for which he received a Virginia certificate in 1780. A part of the tract was sold in 1808 to William McFarren, who sold as above stated to Lee, by whose descendants it is still owned.

Mrs. Hannah Lee, wife of Hugh Lee, and daughter of John and Mary Orr, was born in Cumberland County, Pa., May 2, 1787, and with her parents moved west of the mountains in 1790, and after a time settled at Holliday's Cove, Va. Mrs. Lee was one of the first subjects of what was called the " falling work," a religious revival which visited all the churches in Of northern end of Washington County, Pa. She was present at Cross-Roads, Cross Creek, during the falling exercises, and, in company with her mother, attended what was termed the " Big Sacrament" at Upper Buffalo, at which place it was supposed .ten thousand persons were present and over fifteen hundred communicants. She was married Aug. 14, 1804, to Hugh Lee, then of Smith, now Cross Creek, township, and removed to her future home.

Hugh Lee became an active elder in .the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, and died April 24, 1837, at the house of William McLain, Esq., near Claysville, where he was a guest, attending the sessions of Presbytery. Mrs. Lee remained on the old homestead farm for fourteen years, then she removed to the adjoining farm, the home of her son in-law, John S. Duncan ; there she lived almost thirty-one years, and died Feb. 24, 1882, of old age and debility. She was the last of the members belonging to the church of Cross Creek at the settlement of Rev. John Stockton, D.D., who, although feeble, was able to be present and officiate at her funeral. She was buried beside her husband in Cross Creek Cemetery.

The sons of Hugh and Hannah Lee were William, John, and Hugh, Jr. William Lee settled on the homestead which his son, Craig Lee,. now occupies. His daughter became the wife of John N. McDonald, of Robinson township. John Lee, second son of Hugh Lee, lives with his sons in Jefferson township. Hugh Lee, Jr., resides in Pittsburgh. A daughter of Hugh Lee, Sr., married John S. Duncan; and an. other daughter became the wife of Rev. George Ma shall, D.D. Of the children of Hugh and Hannah Lee five, two sons and three daughters, are now living.

Villages.—The date of the platting and laying out of Cross Creek village is not accurately determined, but it was about the year 1820. On Jan. 1, 1821, David Wilkin purchased. of Henry Graham three acres of ground lying within the present limits of the village, and upon it built the first brick house in the place, the one recently owned and occupied by Rev. Dr. Stockton, who purchased it of Mr. Wilkin. A portion of the dwelling-house of Israel Beabout is said to have been the third house ever put up in Cross Creek village, and was built and occupied by George McClean, a wagon-maker. Among the earliest taverns kept here were those of Alexander McConnell and James Marques, who each kept public-house in 1823 and 1824. In 1825, Joseph Cook opened the first store in the village. In January of that year the post-office was established here, and Mr. Cook was appointed postmaster, the office being in his store. His successor was George McClean, the wagon maker, who removed the post-office to his wagon-shop. John Moore followed Mr. McClean as postmaster, but he only retained the position one year, when Andrcw McFarlane assumed the duties for a few months. Dr. Cornelius Summers came next in the list of postmasters, and continued from 1838 to 1841, and from 1845 to 1860, the interval from 1841 to 1845 being held by Benjamin F. Murray. James Donahy was the postmaster from 1860 to 1861, when Andrew McFarlane received the appointment from President Lincoln, and continued in the office until 1881. His son, Samuel T. McFarlane, succeeded him, and held the office until 1881, when John S. Cummings became postmaster, and still holds the office. The village of Cross Creek has one church, a school building,' two blacksmith-shops, two wagon-shops, and three stores.

Woodrow Post-office is located on the line between Mount Pleasant and Cross Creek townships. The place received its name from Simeon Woodrow, who owned and operated a saw-mill at this point. The post-office was established here in 1855, with John Morgan as first postmaster. His successor was William S. McCreary. The office is now over the line in Mount Pleasant township. Another post-office in Cross Creek township is the one at Patterson's Mills, established in 1829. The persons who have held the position of postmaster at this place are James Patterson, Thomas Patterson, Johnson Ellet, and George L. Weigman, the present incumbent. Patterson's Mills Post-office village also has one store, a mill, a school building, and an Associate Reformed Church.

Physicians.—Although the settlement of Cross Creek township began at least as early as 1772; not


much mention of resident practicing physicians is made previous to 1815. In that year Dr. Robert Lyle, a son of Hon. Aaron Lyle, and a native of this township, began practice here. He had studied his profession under the instruction of Dr. Kerl, of Hickory village, Mount Pleasant township. In 1820 he removed from Cross Creek to Steubenville, Ohio, and two years later removed thence farther west.

Dr. Murray, of Lancaster County, Pa., came to Cross Creek township in 1820, upon the removal of Dr. Lyle, and very soon followed the regular routine of Dr. Lyle's practice. He also occupied the house in which his predecessor had lived (the present residence of Mrs. Dinsmore), and died there about the year 1830.

Dr. Gladden came from near Canonsburg in 1826, and settled in Cross Creek village for the practice of his profession. He remained here until 1831, when he removed to other parts, and was succeeded by Dr. Henry Hannan, of Pittsburgh. Dr. Hannan's residence here continued until 1836, when he returned to Pittsburgh.

Dr. Robert Anderson was a native of Westmoreland County, Pa., and a graduate of the college at Canonsburg and the Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia. In the year 1836 he came to reside in Cross Creek township, and remained here until his death, which occurred in 1868. He was a member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1861, and was an excellent practitioner.

Dr. J. M. Dunn, of Frankfort, Pa., came into Cross Creek village in 1860, and continued here in his professional capacity until 1868, when he removed to Kentucky.

Dr. J. L. Rea was a great-grandson of Squire William Rea and Hon. Aaron Lyle. He was born in Cross Creek township, and graduated from Jefferson Medical College. He commenced his practice in this section, but during the war of the Rebellion entered the Army of the Potomac as a surgeon. During his service he contracted the disease of which he died Dec. 30, 1869, at the age of thirty-two years.

The present physician, and the only one residing and practicing in this township, is Dr. F. C. M. Stockton, of Cross Creek village. He is a son of the Rev. Dr. Stockton, a graduate of Washington College and of Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, and is a prominent member of his profession.

Schools.¹—The earliest. authentic account of a school in this township that can be found is of one that was taught in the old log church at Cross Creek village, about the year 1782 or 1783, by Joseph Patterson, afterwards a Presbyterian minister, and first pastor of Raccoon congregation, at the village of Candor. is also thought that Robert McCready, afterwards for a long time justice of the peace, and an

¹ This article on the Cross Creek schools is taken principally from a published account written by James M. K. Reed, Esq.

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elder at Cross Creek village church, taught at Wells Fort at or near the same time. There are pretty reliable accounts of schools being held at houses on farms now owned by A. S. Richey, Esq., John F. Sharp, James Buchanan, Esq., R. T. Johnson, R. W. Wells, R. F. Burton, and at Cross Creek village.

About the year 1803 a house was built on the Presbyterian Church property, for the accommodation of the workmen who built the stone church at that place. It was afterwards known as the" study house," and was for a long time used as a school-house. It is said that there was not a sawed piece of timber in it. Robert Lee was the first teacher that we have any account of at this point. Thomas Best taught in the house for many years. During the spring of 1835 the boys of Cross Creek village, thinking the house a disgrace to the place, and being tired of going to school in it, met at night, and with ropes, etc., pulled the logs of one end out. It was used during the following summer, and then abandoned. The school was then kept in the academy building until the erection of the brick school-house.

At the McNary school, on Johnson's farm, among other teachers was a Mr. McCready, a native of Ireland, who had one of his thumbs cut off. He was said to be a very severe and tyrannical teacher. Among the earliest teachers that we have any account of at the McMillen school-house (now owned by J. F. Sharp) was George Miller, and a teacher by the name of Leeper. Hon. William Patterson, who was born at Patterson's Mills in 1796, and commenced going to school at this house, informed the writer that the first teacher that he went to was William McCaskey, about the year 1801. He taught there several terms. McCaskey was a bound boy raised by Judge Edgar, who gave him a good education; he was also a surveyor. He taught at other places.

About the year 1803 a house was built near the residence of Lysander Patterson, Esq., which was occupied about three years. At this house George Davis was the first teacher. The second teacher was James McGee, an Episcopalian. He could not write, but taught writing by using brass plates. John Kelley was the third and last teacher at this house. He was considered a good instructor. Among the early teachers was William Rea, who taught for several years, principally at the old house known as the McKibbin school, now the Buchanan farm. Mr. Rea afterwards served as a justice of the peace (appointed in 1823), and was also an elder of Cross Creek congregation. It is thought that Mr. McClain also taught at this house. Mr. McClain wielded the ferule a long time in this township and in different schools. He was appointed justice of the peace in 1818, afterwards removed to East Finley township, and died there. William McCleery taught at Cross Creek village prior to the year 1800.

About the year 1806, Gen. Thomas Patterson and Richard Wells built a school-house on the ridge be-


tween Patterson's mill and Wells' mill. In style of architecture, etc., it was considered far in advance of the times being built of hewed logs. It has a shingle roof, tight board floor, and glass windows, and Mr. Wells put in a ten-plate wood-stove. Gen. Patterson and Mr. Wells hired Mr. James Haney to teach at twelve dollars per month by the year, they being responsible to him for his pay. The teacher had alternate Saturdays to himself. Mr. Haney was also a surveyor, and worked at that on his spare days, surveying many of the farms in that vicinity. He kept a day-book of the attendance of each pupil, and handed the accounts to Patterson and Wells, and they collected the tuitions from such as were able to pay, and those that were unable to were allowed to attend free. Mr. Haney taught there until 1813. Of the pupils of his school many have held high positions of trust and honor. About the same time that this house was built a school-house was built on the farm now owned and occupied by Mr. Thomas McCorkle. Among other teachers here was Thomas Ewing, a native of Ireland, and who came here from Crawford County. He was the grandfather of Judge Ewing, of Pittsburgh, and taught many years in this vicinity.

It is difficult to learn when the school-house on It. W. Wells' farm was built. It stood between the present dwelling of Mr. Wells and the public road, and was burned down about 1812 or 1815. Among the last teachers was Mr. Robert Marques, the father of Rev. John S. Marques, of Pigeon Creek.

About the year 1812 a school-house was built on the farm now occupied by William Dunbar. Among the first teachers here was Richard Freeborn. Israel Bebout taught one year in this house in 1822. Mr. Bebout taught school two terms, and has since served for many years as committeeman and school director in this and Beaver County. He still lives in Cross Creek village, now in his eighty-fourth year.

About the same year, 1812, a house was built near where, Hampton Walker now lives. Its location is in Jefferson township, but by a special act of Assembly approved Feb. 14, 1867, the real estate of David S. Walker and Francis Cunningham was annexed to Cross Creek for school purposes. The first teacher here was Andrew McColloch, who taught about three years: William Elder taught one term, then an Irishman by the name of McDermott, who was educated for a Catholic priest. Cornelius Barber taught two years. This was a large and very successful school, and was attended by the Bebouts, Walkers, Grahams, and Van Ordstrands, many of whom are still living, having passed, full of honor, their threescore and ten years. Andrew McColloch was considered a successful teacher in his day. In the year 1835 he held the office of supervisor and constable, and about 1836 he removed with his family to Tuscarawas County, Ohio, where he resided until his death, about 1860. There was also a Mr. Scott taught at that house, and a Miss Ann McDermott.

There was an old school-house near the above building, on the Walker farm, within a few rods of where once stood an old saw-mill. Mr. Joseph Smith taught in this house. He afterwards became au elder of Cross Creek congregation. -This building was abandoned in 1810 or 1811.

About this time, or previous, a school was kept for a while where Mr. John Purdy lives, on the farm of Arnold Lawton. A Mr. Pervard was teacher. About the year 1810 or 1812 there was also a school held for a while on the Dinsmore farm, now occupied by Samuel D. White. No particulars can be learned in either of the above cases.

In 1812 a frame school-house was built on the farm now occupied by Robert Vance. It was then in Smith township, but an adjustment of the lines afterwards threw it into Cross Creek. This house, like the one built the same year on the D: S. Walker farm, was a frame; they were the first frame school-houses in the township, and had large windows of glass. The teachers at this house were Thomas Allen, a Mr. Noyes, William Galbraith, Mr. McClure, Mr.Gilton, Alexander McConnell, John Boggs. The house was abandoned for school purposes about the year 1833.

About the year 1810-15, Master Ewing (Thomas) taught for four or five years in an old house on the Lyle farm, now owned by David Gault. We have no account of any other person teaching at that place.

There was a second school-house built on the Buchanan farm near Rea's Rocks, in which Samuel Reed taught several years. Joseph Littlefair and Rev. James Sloan also taught in this house. It was abandoned about the time that the school law came into force. Samuel Reed taught many years in this county, and then removed to Marion County, Ohio, where he died.

About the year 1815 a school-house was built on the south side of the farm of Nathan Patterson, near Patterson's Mills. In this house the teachers were William Smith and Joseph Templeton. Templeton' afterwards studied medicine, and located in the borough of Washington. About 1820 the building was removed to the northern part of the farm, near a spring. In this house a Mr. Gilpin taught two or three terms. James Fulton afterwards taught in the same house one term, but refused to . teach any longer on account of its being uncomfortable, and in 1833 a new frame building was erected, where Mr. Fulton taught several terms. He was a very successful teacher, a native of New York State. He taught several years in this and adjoining townships, removed to Richland County, Ohio, taught there a while, and afterwards settled near the town of Wabash, in Wabash County, Ind., where he resided until his death. The next teacher here was William P. Sampson, who afterwards went to Kentucky, studied law, and became chief justice of that State. Samuel Reed also taught in this house.

During the summer of 1827 Miss Hettie Reed


taught in the old cabin on the farm owned by James Simpson. She afterwards taught two or three terms in the old house that stood near the present residence of Simon Marques.

About the year 1822 a school-house was built on the line between the farms of A. S. Richey and William Perry. Thomas Ewing taught in the house a while, and was succeeded by Robert Adams. About the year 1828 a school-house was built at the lower end of John N. Walker's lane, on the corner of the farm of John Lawton,'Sr. The teachers at the house were Peter Lawton, Joseph Cummins, Nancy Wishart, David Wishart, and John Powlson. This house was used eight or ten years for schools. Previous to the erection of this building there was a school kept in an old house near the corner of the farm of John N. Walker. In 1833 a school-house was built on the farm of Nicholas Reed, now owned by J. M. K. Reed. The teachers in this house were Samuel Reed and Richard Kersams. About the year 1830, Rev. Daniel R. Hervey built a house at his residence near Woodrow P. o., where a student from Jefferson College, Canonsburg, taught one season.

At the convention of school . directors held during the fall of 1834, relative to the acceptance of the provisions and requirements of the public school law passed in that year, Hon. William Patterson was the delegate from Cross Creek township, and advocated the acceptance of the school law. Robert Patterson,. of Smith township, presided at that meeting, and the law was adopted by all the townships in the county, with five exceptions., The first board .of school directors of Cross Creek township under that law were Moses Lyle, Eben Smith, Alexander Walker, Gen. James Lee, Nathan Patterson, and the Hon. William Patterson.

Hon. William Patterson was president of the first convention of school directors to elect a county superintendent, when John L. Gow, Esq., was elected. He was also Speaker of the House of Representatives during the session of 1834, when the school law was passed.

The school law of 1834 having come in force and the township being divided into sub-districts, about the year 1836-37 school-houses were built on farms of James McNary, Nancy Houston, and John N. Walker. The house at McNary's was used until the spring of 1855. The teachers in this house were W. Huston Walker, afterwards Reverend ; Alexander Hays; John Campbell ; David R. Campbell, afterwards Presbyterian minister; Alexander Thompson, Associate minister; Serissa Lyle ; William P. Sampson, afterwards C. J. of Kentucky ; Mary A. Vincent; John McCarrell, afterwards studied medicine, now at Wellsville, Ohio ; A. W. Guthrie, afterwards studied medicine, died at Germano, Ohio ; Mr. ____ Wallace ; James P. Able, taught three or four years, and died of consumption; Margaret Galbraith ; Thomas P. Smith ; Daniel Donahoo, afterwards studied law; R. Lyle White, who studied law and since became an editor; Mr. — Johnson ; Nancy Glass; J. Boyd Stephens, taught two terms, is now a Presbyterian minister ; John McKee ; J. M. K. Reed, taught two terms ; Adaline Cassidy; Mary E. Curry; Miss Cassidy taught for several years; and Miss Eva Simmons taught a subscription school one summer.

Among other teachers at Rea's School (on Nancy Huston's farm) were George W. Forrester, John W. White, Simon Webster French, James A. Stewart, Miss Jane S. Ramsey, Charles C. Fulton, R. T. Johnson, J. M. K. Reed, and Miles W. Marques. Among others who taught at Bushy Rock were Robert Curry, P. D., now of Nebraska Normal School; Matthew Templeton, Mary Grier, Thomas W. Thompson, J. M. K. Reed, M. W. Marques, Sarah A. Maxwell, William Plummer, Alexander E. Walker, Isaac M. Lawton, J. Edgar Rankin, William E. Scott, and S. H. Lawton.

In the year 1846 the citizens of West Point School, built a brick house on a lot of land containing one acre, deeded in fee simple by Mary P. Smith for school purposes. Among others who taught in this house were Hon. George W. Miller, R. T. Johnson, Rev. John M. Smith, J. S. Gormly, H. P. Durant, J. M. K. Reed, S. J. Jeffrey, Jane S. Ramsey, Hon. Samuel F. Patterson, William P. Montgomery, and W. W. Teagarden.

In September, 1865, the two schools in Cross Creek village were consolidated and graded, the higher department being taught in the old academy by Josiah Marques and the primary by Eva Simmons. At a meeting of the school board, Sept. 28, 1854, a uniform series of text-books was adopted for the first time, and the board resolved to encourage the attendance of the teachers at the County Institute by continuing their pay during said attendance.

When the township of Cross Creek was first divided into districts the number ten with the following designating names : No. 1, Nosco Hall ; No. 2, Bunker Hill ; No. 3, Cemetery ; No. 4, White Oaks ; No. 5, West Point ; No.. 6, Willow Valley ; No. 7, Bushy Rock ; No. 8, Beech Knob; No. 9, Limestone Lane ; No. 10, Buckeye Valley. In 1853, when the territory comprising Jefferson township was set off, some of the numbers were changed and Nos. 2 and 3 were consolidated and known thereafter as Cross Creek Village District.

In 1863 Cross Creek township had nine school districts, in which ten teachers taught, and two hundred and ninety-seven pupils were enrolled; $98.40 was received from the State, $1082.50 from other sources, and the cost of the schools for the year was $1132.23. In 1873 a new school building was erected at Patterson's Mills, at a cost of $2000. It was a building two stories in height, and well equipped with the best of school furniture and apparatus. In that year the township was divided into eleven districts, and eleven teachers were employed. Two hundred and eighty


pupils were enrolled. The amount of State money received was $164.92, the sum received from other sources $4167.29, and the total expenditures amounted to $4404.81. In 1880 the districts of the township had been again reduced to nine, in which nine teachers were employed. Three hundred and thirty.-nine pupils were enrolled. The receipts from all sources for schools amounted to $1931.13, and the expenditures for the school year aggregated $1791.87.

Cross Creek Academy, established in 1828, has already been mentioned in Dr. Brownson's article on " Higher Education," in the general history of the county.

Justices of the Peace.—The following is a list of persons who were and have been appointed and elected to the office of justice of the peace in Cross Creek township from 1790 to the present time, except for the period from 1803 to 1838,¹ viz. :

Henry Graham, Aug. 24, 1790.

Samuel Smith, April 11, 1796.

John S. Duncan, April 12, 1839.

George Elliot, April 14, 1840.

James Donahoo, April 14, 1840; April 15, 1845.

John Cole, April 15, 1845.

James Donahoo, April 9, 1850.

John Cole, Apt 11 9, 1850.

James Donahoo, April 10, 1855.

Thos. M. Patterson, April 10, 1860.

James Donahoo, April 21, 1862.

A. E. Walker, April 20, 1864.

James Donahoo, April 9, 1867; April 12, 1872.

A. E. Walker, Jan. 9, 1874.

John S. Duncan, April 28, 1874.

A. E. Walker, May 24, 1874.

Lysander Patterson, March 16,1876.

James M. K. Reed, March 21,1877.

Lysander Patterson, March 9,1881.

Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek.²—The region of country called Cross Creek began to be settled about the year 1770-71. The first settlers were mostly Scotch-Irish. Some came directly from the north of Ireland and west of Scotland, some from York County, Pa., and from Winchester, Va., and a few from Mecklenburg, N. C. Among these pioneers were some pious men, who began to hold meetings for worship as early as 1776-77. Two such societies were organized within the bounds of Cross Creek. One was on Irish Ridge. The leading members of this society were John Morrison and Robert McCready (both of whom afterwards became ruling elders of the church of Cross Creek), William McCandless and Samuel Strain. The other society held their meetings at the house of Maj. William Vance, and in the houses around. The leaders here were Maj. William Vance, James Campbell, John Stone, Robert Barr, and William Wilson For several years the settlers were greatly harassed by incursions of hostile Indians. Not a few of those who fell under their murderous tomahawks he in the burying-ground of

¹ Cross Creek township was a separate justice's. district from its erection in 1790 till the erection of election districts, May 4, 1S03, when it became embraced with other territory in District No. 3, and so remained till 1838, when the office of justice became elective, and the township an independent district. The names of the justices who held jurisdiction with in this township during the period front 1803 to 1838 will be found included in the list of justices of Hopewell township. In 1833 Jefferson was taken from the territory of Cross Creek and made an independent township.

² Taken from a historical sketch of the church, by the Rev. John Stockton, D.D.

this congregation. From these incursions the people fled into Vance's and Wells' Forts; the former one mile north, and the latter five miles west of this church. In these forts social and afterwards public worship was kept up for about' seven years, especially in summer and autumn, the seasons when the Indians were wont to make their raids. At these meetings in Vance's Fort some seven or eight persons were converted. Among them were Thomas .Marques and his wife Jane. Mr. Marques subsequently became first a ruling elder, and afterwards a pastor of this congregation. The Rev. James Powers, from the Forks of Youghiogheny, visited this region, and preached the first- gospel sermon ever heard in it, on the 14th of September, 1778. This was under an oak-tree just outside the gate of Vance's Fort. After the sermon twenty-one children were baptized. Among them was the first-born of Mr. and Mrs. Marques.

In April, 1779, the Rev. Joseph Smith, from York County, Pa., visited this region and preached several sermons. After his return home the Rev. John McMillan (who had come with his family to Chartiers in 1778) preached a few sermons in the bound of Cross Creek. These sermons greatly stirred up the people to obtain the stated ministrations of the gospel among them. In the early summer of 1779, James Edgar came from York County, Pa., and purchased a farm in Cross Creek [then Smith] township. About the same time Messrs. William Smiley and Robert Caldwell and others came from the same region (Chanceford and Slate Ridge) to Upper. Buffalo. These likewise desiring the ministrations of the gospel; the two companies met at the house of James Marshel, midway between Buffalo and Cross Creek, and made out a call for the Rev. Joseph Smith, who had been their minister in York County. This call was dated June 21, 1779. The salary promised was seventy-five pounds. This call was carried down to the Presbytery of New Castle, then met at Carlisle, by Mr. Edgar, and was accepted on the 27th of October, 1779. In the summer of that year a committee of three persons from Cross Creek and three from Upper Buffalo were appointed to locate sites for the two meeting-houses. The three members of the committee from Cross Creek were Maj. William Vance, Robert McCready, and Henry Graham, and Messrs. William Smiley and Robert Caldwell were two of the members from Buffalo. These located the sites where the houses now stand. Henry Graham, Esq., donated the land for the church at Cross Creek.

In the autumn of 1779 the Rev. Joseph Smith removed with his family to his new charge. Shortly .after his arrival three ruling elders were chosen by vote of the congregation, viz.: James Edgar, John Morrison, and George Marques. . Mr. Edgar had been -ordained an elder in York County. Mr. Marques was appointed the first leader of the singing in the church. In the autumn of 1779, mainly through the influence of Mr. Edgar, Joseph Patterson removed from York


County into Cross Creek. He was a Seceder from the north of Ireland; had been a school-teacher in York County ; was an ardently pious man ; became an active leader in meetings for social worship ; afterwards a ruling elder in the church of Cross Creek ; subsequently a minister of the gospel, and for many years was the faithful, successful, and greatly beloved pastor of the congregation of Raccoon Church.

In the winter of 1781-82 there was a considerable revival in the congregations of Upper Buffalo and Cross Creek. In the autumn of 1782 the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered for the first time in Cross Creek. About fifty persons from both of the congregations were received into full membership. This work continued with but little abatement for six or seven years. In June, 1787, about fifty members were added to the church of Cross Creek. Mr. Smith preached his last sermon at Cross Creek (from Galatians I. 8), and died of fever and inflammation of the brain on the 19th of Aril, 1792, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. His remains rest in the cemetery of Upper Buffalo. The epitaph recorded on his tombstone was written by his intimate friend and fellow-laborer, Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, of Ten-Mile, Pa.

In the winter of 1782-83 the first addition was made to the session. This addition was made by the appointment of the session, and consisted of Thomas Marques, Joseph Patterson, and Joseph Vance. Near the end of Mr. Smith's pastorate another addition was made, consisting of Robert McCready, Esq., William Rea, Esq., Henry Graham, Esq., Robert Lyle, Hugh Newell, and Thomas Marshall. They were elected by the people, and this has continued ever since to be the mode of addition. These were ordained and installed by the Rev. James Hughs, pastor of the congregation of West Liberty, after the decease of Mr. Smith. After being suppled by the Presbytery for a little more than a year, Cross Creek gave a unanimous call to the Rev. Thomas Marques to become their pastor, which was accepted. The preaching of Mr. Marques was very popular, and soon he received three calls for his ministerial services,—one from the united congregations of Bethel and Ebenezer, another from Ten-Mile, and another from Cross Creek. The call from Cross Creek (dated Oct. 18, 1793), was accepted on the 23d of April, 1794, and as the congregation of Cross Creek was under the care of the Presbytery of Ohio, he was dismissed to put himself under the care of that Presbytery, and was by them ordained and installed on the 13th of June following. About the same time Upper Buffalo had given a call to the Rev. David Smith, son of their former pastor, which he held in his hands for consideration, and by agreement Mr. Marques was to supply their pulpit half of the time till they obtained a pastor. This he continued to do till the beginning of the year 1798. From that date all his ministerial labors were given to Cross Creek till October, 1826,—a little over thirty-two years from the beginning of his pastorate.

Under the ministry of Mr. Marques a revival began in 1799. This brought about thirty members into the church. A season of great religious declension followed. In the summer of 1802 there began to be an increased interest on the subject of religion, and some additions were made to the church. This feeling increased till-on the 5th of October what has been called "the great revival" was fully ushered in. This work was attended by extraordinary bodily exercises. This exercise was never reached upon by the ministers and elders of the Presbytery as evidence of true religion. Some of the subjects never became pious; some who were eminently pious were the subjects of it and not a few of the subjects became hopefully pious, and held fast and adorned their profession till death. This revival continued through the years 1803-4, and brought into the church about one hundred members. During this pastorate two additions were made to the session : in 1807, John Wilkin, Esq., Thomas Smith, Esq., John Marques, Hugh Edgar, and Samuel McKibben; and in 1818, John Henry, James Fleming, George Newell, Hugh Lee, George Miller, Andrew Farrer, and Joseph Smith.

Mr. Marques was a natural orator. The tones of his voice were so musical that he was commonly called the "Silver-tongued Marques." Before resigning his charge in 1825 he earnestly requested the Rev. John Stockton to consent to become his successor, and used all his influence to effect that end. Shortly after seeing his wish accomplished he went on a visit to Bellefontaine, Ohio, to visit his son-in-law, Rev. Joseph Stevenson, and while there was taken ill with fever, and died on the 27th of September, 1827, in the seventy-fourth year of his age.

The Rev. John Stockton was descended from Scotch-Irish ancestors. His great-grandfather, his grandfather, and his father were ruling elders in the Presbyterian Church, while many of his near relatives were ministers and elders in the same church. He was born in the valley of Chartiers, near Washington, Pa., on the 18th of November, 1803 ; graduated at Washington College Oct. 3, 1820; studied theology with several others under the direction of Dr. John Anderson, of Upper Buffalo, and the Hebrew language and church history with Dr. Andrew Wyhe, president of Washington College, for three years; was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery .of Washington April 20, 1825, and afterwards spent a year at Princeton Theological Seminary. Shortly afterwards he received two unanimous calls, one from the congregation at Congruity, in the Presbytery of Blairsville, the other from Cross Creek. After consulting with Messrs. Anderson, McCurdy, Wyhe, and O. Jennings, and the congregation agreeing to be satisfied with whatever ministerial services he might be able to give them, he accepted the call of Cross Creek in April, 1827. He began to preach statedly on the first Sabbath of May, and was ordained and installed on the 20th of June following.


In these services the pastor elect preached a trial sermon . on al text chosen for the occasion by Mr. McCurdy, viz: Ps. cxxv. 1: "They that trust in the Lord " etc. Dr. Jennings preached the ordination sermon from Col. iv. 17: "Take heed to the ministry," c., and Dr. Anderson gave the charges to the pastor and the congregation.

In the winter of 1827-28 another revival began in Cross Creek. This work spread over every part of the congregation, and continued for between four and five years. And so powerful was it that at one time one hundred and twenty persons applied for privilege to come to the Lord's table. Again, in 1835, 1836, and 1837, was another revival, and some one hundred and forty members were added. Again, in 1840, 1841, and 1842, there was another season of refreshing, when about one hundred persons were converted. At the commencement of this pastorate the, session consisted of the following members, viz.: Hon. Joseph Vance, Robert McCready, Esq., Samuel McKibben, George Miller, James Fleming, Andrew Farrar, Hugh Lee, and George Newell. In 1831, Hon. Walter Craig, and Messrs. William Cowen, Ebenezer Smith, and John Armspoker were added. In 1837, Gen. James Lee, Abraham Barber, and James Dinsmore were installed ; in 1843, Messrs. George Miller, Jr., Robert Lee, Thomas Wilkin, and John McKibben; in 1854, Messrs. Joseph Graham, Joseph Vance, Jr., and Andrew Reed; in 1858, Messrs. William Lee, Russell T. Johnson, and Samuel Cowen; in 1866, Messrs. James Walker and William Campbell; and in 1870, Messrs. Samuel White, David Gault, Richard Wells, and James Donahoo, Esq. In 1866, Samuel White and John D. Cowen were chosen and ordained to be deacons, and in 1876, Messrs. Isaac M. Lawton, Daniel Haines, John M. Boyce, and William K. Lyle were added to the board.

The congregation of Cross Creek has erected in succession five houses of worship, viz.: The first in 1779 of unhewed logs, twenty-six feet long by twenty-two feet wide ; the second in 1784 of hewed logs, sixty feet by thirty, one story high, and pulpit in the side. To this afterwards another story and a gallery were added. This house was burned (supposed to have been fired by an incendiary) on Sabbath morning; April 20, 1803. Forthwith the congregation built another house of stone, fifty-six feet square. This was the house in which the congregation worshiped at the beginning of the pastorate of Mr. Stockton. This house becoming too small, another was erected of brick in 1830, seventy-six by fifty-six, with a gallery. The walls of this house becoming cracked, and in the opinion of some unsafe, were taken down, and the present house built in 1864 on the same site. This house is of brick, eighty-two, feet by fifty-four, with a lecture-room, a session-room, and a library-room in the basement.

The writer of the preceding historical sketch of the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, its venerable and beloved pastor, the Rev. John Stockton, completed a full half-century in his pastorate. Feeling the infirmities of age increasing upon him, he desired to retire from the charge of the congregation at the end of his fifty years. of service here, and accordingly, about three months before that time would expire, on the 29th of March, 1877, he addressed to the session a letter of resignation, expressing the wish that the pastoral relation should be dissolved on the 20th of June following, and asking that they unite with him in a request to the Presbytery to accept his resignation. In response to this letter the church met on the 2d of April, 1877, and gave formal but regretful assent to Dr. Stockton's proposal by the passage of resolutions, the sixth of which was as follows : " That though thus consenting in these providential circumstances to the dissolution of the pastoral relation, and the release of Dr. Stockton from the responsibility of jurisdiction and labor, yet it is our earnest wish that he will accept, and that the Presbytery will grant to him, the title of ' Pastor Emeritus' of this church." Messrs. I. M. Lawton and H. C. Anderson were appointed to present the letter of Dr. Stockton and the resolutions of the congregation to the Presbytery, which, at its next meeting at Burgettstown, April: 24, 1877, took the desired action, accepting Mr. Stockton's resignation, and conferring on him ,the, title "Pastor Emeritus." .

Agreeably to the request of, this congregation, the Presbytery met on the 20th of June following at the Cross Creek Church, whence an adjournment was made to the grove near the village, where the people and members of Presbytery present listened to an address by Dr. Stockton embracing a history of his long pastorate. The Rey. J. S. Marques spoke on behalf of the congregation, and the Rev. J. I. Brownson on behalf of the Presbytery. In the address of Dr. Stockton he said that during the ministry of the Rev. Joseph Smith between one hundred and two hundred members were added to the church; that under Rev. Thomas Marques four hundred members were gathered into its fold; that during his own pastorate fifteen hundred and forty-five were enrolled, more than one hundred had become ruling elders, forty-three had become ministers of the gospel, and others had filled important places in the State. Of . all who were members when his pastorate commenced, a half-century before, only one, he said, then remained, "a venerable mother in Israel, who is with us to-day, in the ninety-first year of her age." This old lady (Mrs. Hannah Lee) lived nearly five years longer, and died Feb. 24, 1882, in her ninety-sixth year. Her funeral was attended by her old pastor only about two months before his death.

After his retirement from the pastoral charge of this church, Dr. Stockton passed the remainder of his useful life in the quiet of his home at Cross Creek village. He died on Friday, May 5, 1882, in the


seventy-ninth year of his age. The funeral services were held at the church on the 8th of May. "About thirty ministers were present. The services were introduced with a brief and affectionate statement by the present faithful pastor, the Rev. W. H. McCaughey, Dr. Stockton's successor; the Scriptures were read by the Rev. Smith F. Grier, and prayer was offered by the venerable Dr. Beatty, of Steubenville, Ohio. Then came three most suitable and timely addresses by members of the Presbytery. The first was delivered by Dr. J. I. Brownson, who gave a beautiful life-picture of Dr. Stockton as a preacher, friend, scholar, educator, theologian, and presbyter, having known him intimately for more than thirty-three years. He was always the same in sunshine and in storms, in safety and danger. He was a wise counselor. He was always firm and decided, but never rash nor reckless. He was one of the most prudent men of his day. This was owing to his excellent judgment and profound corn mon sense. These never failed him, but served as regulators to all his actions, and a balance-wheel to all his movements. He was extremely modest and unassuming. He made no display of his power or parade about his learning. But the speaker had no time to portray all the noble traits of character. Dr. Stockton was an eminent Christian man. His piety was not of the negative kind, but was a life in the soul, a principle that regulated all his actions. His life was an embodiment of all the truths he so ably preached for more than fifty-five years." The address of Dr. Brownson was followed by others by the Rev. W. H. Lester, Rev. John S. Marques, and Rev. Dr. C. C. Beatty. The services were of an unusually impressive character and attended by a great assemblage of people.

The successor of Dr. Stockton and present pastor of this church is the Rev. W. H. McCaughey, who first preached here as a supply July 8, 1877, about two weeks after Dr. Stockton's retirement. A call was extended to him on the 13th of August, which was accepted, and he was ordained and installed on the 31st of October, 1877. In 1878 a lot was purchased and a parsonage built upon it at a cost of about two thousand five hundred dollars. The present membership of the church is two hundred and twenty-five.

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church¹ at Patterson's Mills.—During the years 1864 and 1865, Rev; Alexander Weills, a Lutheran minister, preached part of his time at the school-house at Patterson's Mills. In the spring of 1866, Rev. James Calderhead, an Associate Reformed Presbyterian minister, came into the vicinity and preached, and on the 8th of July, 1866, he organized the present congregation with forty members. Thomas McCorkle, William J. Patterson, and James G. Smiley were the first elders, and were ordained May 10, 1867. Rev. Mr. Calderhead supplied the congregation until May, 1867. The Rev. W. M.

¹ By James M. K. Reed.

McElwee then came and supplied until 1869, when he was followed by Rev. W. S. Moffitt, who supplied during part of the year 1869.

During the summer of 1869 the congregation, which was still worshiping in the school-house, built a frame church at a cost of about $2500, on one acre of land purchased from Samuel M. Cowen for $100. On the first Sabbath of November of the same year the new church was dedicated to the worship of Almighty God, the Rev. Moffitt holding communion services at that time. During the spring and summer of 1870, Rev. James A. Myers, of Kentucky, supphed the pulpit. On Wednesday, August 10th of the same year, Rev. W. S. Moffitt preached, and moderated a call for the Rev. Mr. Myers for two-thirds of his time and services, which call was accepted, and on Nov. 6, 1870, Mr. Myers preached his first sermon as pastor of this congregation, and on the 24th of April, 1871, he was installed by Presbytery, the Revs. Moffitt and Barrowes delivering the charges. Mr. Myers devoted the remaining one-third of his time to a congregation in West Virginia known as Roach's.

On the 21st of May, 1877, James M. K. Reed and W. C. Jackson were elected elders, and soon after Mr. Jackson was installed, but Reed declined. A Bible-class and Sabbath-school was formed in 1865, and continues to meet during the summer seasons.

Rev. Mr. Myers continued with much acceptance as pastor until May, 1881, when, on account of ill health of himself and family, he was constrained to resign his charge. Rev. R. H. McAulay has since supplied the pulpit. On the 14th of September, 1874, a choir was appointed with Joseph R. Brown as leader. which position he still retains. On the 28th of November, 1871, the first interment in the burial-ground connected with this church was made,—a young son of Simeon Marques.




James Patterson, the elder, was born in Ireland in 1708, emigrated to America in 1728, and settled in Little Britain township, Lancaster Co., Pa. There he married and raised a family of ten children, five sons and five daughters. The sons were William, John, Samuel, James, and Thomas. The first-named son, William Patterson, was born in 1733. He was twice married. His first wife was Rosanna Scott, who died April 5, 1769. By her he had these children : Mary, Moses, Samuel, Thomas, and James. April 10, 1770, William married his second wife, Elizabeth Brown, by whom he had ten children,—John, Rosanna, William, Nathaniel, Rachel, Elizabeth, Josiah, Hannah, Nathan, and Eleanor. In 1779, William removed with his family to Washington County, Pa., and settled in Cross Creek township


upon a farm now owned by his great-grandson, R. M. Patterson, where he died June 29, 1818. His wife, Elizabeth Brown, died about the year 1828. Their son, "Gen." Thomas Patterson, was born in Lancaster County, Pa., Oct. 1, 1764, and was fifteen years of age when he came with his parents to Washington County. He was a farmer and miller, was a prominent and influential citizen, representing Washington County for a number of years in the United States Congress, and died Nov. 17, 1841. About the year 1795 he married Elizabeth Finley, of Westmoreland County, Pa. She died Jan. 6, 1837. They had twelve children. Two died in infancy. Those who grew to manhood and womanhood were William, James, Samuel, Mary, John, Thomas, Finley, Elizabeth, Moses, and Rosanna.

James, the second son of Gen. Thomas and Elizabeth (Finley) Patterson, and whose portrait is here given, was born in Cross Creek township, April 24, 1798. His home was always in the township where he was born, and the principal business of his life was farming. But when a young man he was employed in his, father's mill, and was at one time engaged in merchandising. In 1837 he moved to the farm now the home of his son, T. M. Patterson, where he died Aug. 17, 1861. He was married June 29, 1820,10 Eliza Walker, daughter of Alexander and Elizabeth (Norris) Walker, of Cross Creek township. Their children were eleven in number. The .oldest and youngest died in infancy. Those who grew up and married are Elizabeth, the wife of Russell T. Johnson; Mary, the wife of Richard Wells; Thomas M., married to Sarah J. Barber, is a farmer in Cross Creek township ; Alexander W., married Jane Hodgens. He is a wool dealer, and resides in New York City ; Jane, the wife of Robert Marques, died May 29, 1859, aged twenty-seven years; Ambrose, married Margaret A. Richey, and resides in Plattsmouth, Neb.; James M., married Eleanor Campbell, and resides in Plattsmouth, Neb. ; David F., married Mary Gardner, and is a lawyer, residing in Allegheny City ; Emily A. is the wife of Samuel Latta, and resides in Cass County, Neb.

In politics James Patterson was a decided Democrat, but not so well known in the party councils as his brothers, Finley, William, and John, who were members of the General Assembly of the State. Trained by a father who was proverbial for his honesty, his life was marked by strict integrity in all business transactions. As a business man, he was one of the most successful in the county, winning wealth and position without sacrificing any of those exalted characteristics which betoken the honest man and pure citizen. For nearly thirty-four years he was a member of the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, Pa., and as Providence had put him in trust of ample means, he gave a liberal support to all the institutions of the gospel, especially to those schemes of benevolence in which the Presbyterian Church is engaged. During many painful and lingering months of sickness he was sustained and cheered by the promises of the gospel, and when he passed through the dark valley of the shadow of death, the rod and staff of the Shepherd of Israel so comforted him that he feared no evil.


Hon. Walter Craig was born in Ireland. Dec.1, 1786. He was the youngest in a family of seven children, and when six years of age he came with his family to America, and was settled near West Middletown, Washington Co., Pa. He received a good English education, and learned the business of surveying. He was also in early life a "down" river trader. In 1818-19 he was a member of the House of Representatives of the State. In 1837-38 he was a member of the State Constitutional Convention. In 1843, '44, and '45 he was a member of the State Senate. He also held important county offices. All of these trusts he fulfilled with honor to himself and profit to the State. His character for incorruptible integrity was not excelled by any of his compeers. A part of his life was spent in farming, but about 1830 he sold his farm and engaged in mercantile pursuits in the village of Cross Creek, where he continued for about ten years, after which he retired from active business.

Aug. 3, 1819, he was married to Elizabeth Scott, who was born in Washington County, Pa., Aug. 8, 1794. She died Aug. 18, 1866. The children by this marriage were Jane, the wife of Maj. William Lee; Margaret A., the widow of Dr. P. W. Dryden, deceased, of Christian County, Ky. ; Elizabeth, the wife of Rev. A. H. Kerr, of Rochester, Minn.; David married Amanda White. He was a prominent lawyer of New Castle, Lawrence Co., Pa. He was a member of the convention which formed the present Constitution of the State, and died. Nov. 10, 1873 ; John married Catharine Phipps. She died in 1852, and he has since spent much of his time in the western country. Henry Martin married Mary Templeton and resides in Nebraska ; Joseph died in 1855, aged twenty-one years; three others, Walter Scott, William, and Walter Stockton, died in infancy.

In 1828, Hon. Walter Craig became a member, and in 1831 was elected, ordained, and installed a ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church of Cross Creek, Pa., and continued to be one of its strongest pillars to his death. He was wise in counsel, remarkably attentive to all the ordinances of divine worship, and ever ready to sacrifice his time, labor,. and money to promote the cause of Christ. He died Feb. 10, 1875, at the house of his daughter in the State of Indiana, whither he had gone on a visit, and at his request his flesh was brought to sleep with the dust of his deceased wife in the cemetery of Cross Creek, Pa. " Mark the perfect man and behold the upright; for .the end of that man is peace."



David Walker, grandfather of John N. Walker, was a native of New Jersey, and his wife was Elizabeth Elliott, of the same State. Soon after their marriage they settled in Huntingdon County, Pa., where their ten children were born. The oldest of these children, Alexander Walker, born in 1774, settled in Cross Creek (now Jefferson) township, Washington County, Pa., in 1795. He was a farmer, and in 1800 married Elizabeth Norris, by whom he had twelve children, two of whom died young. Those who grew up and married were Eliza, James, John N., Susan, Alexander, Mary A., David S., Isabel, Drucilla, and Samuel.

Alexander Walker died in 1855, and his wife, Elizabeth Norris, in 1866..

John N. Walker was born in what is now Jefferson township, Washington County, June. 24, 1808, and died in Cross Creek township Feb. 15, 1882. He was a lifelong farmer. Until twenty-one years of age he worked upon his father's place, and from that until his death upon the farm now owned by his son, John N. Walker. Nov. 18, 1830, he married Anna Vance, who died May 15, 1870. They had twelve children, none of whom are now living. Mr. Walker was thoroughly in earnest in whatever he undertook, energetic, hard-working, and diligent. His habits were temperate and regular; his manners unassuming. His business capacity enabled him to accumulate enough to give each of his children a fair start in life. He was for many years a member of the Presbyterian Church.

He early identified himself with the Democratic party, and always advocated its principles. He held important township offices, and in 1855 was elected to the office of county commissioner, which he filled for three years. In 1869 he was a candidate for the State Assembly, and carried his native county, but was defeated in Beaver County, which was then a part of the legislative district. In all public positions he labored for the welfare of those whom he represented,


David S. Walker was born in Cross Creek township, Washington County, Pa., July 5;1816. His early life was marked by no special incident, and he entered upon the threshold of manhood possessed of a strong constitution and habits of industry, and with traits of character which distinguished him through life as generous-hearted, honest, and true. He acted from convictions, and no temptation or influence could swerve him from the path of honor and duty. He was truly patriotic, and was an earnest advocate of the free institutions of his country. He was married March 8, 1838, to Eliza Vance, and settled in his native locality, where, by his industry and frugality, he acquired considerable wealth, and became the owner of one of the finest agricultural farms in the vicinity, upon which he lived until 1875, when he retired from active business pursuits and moved to Burgettstown, Pa., at which place he died in May, 1877. He was a great admirer of curiosities and the natural scenery of his country, and visited and traveled in almost every State of the Union during the latter years of his life. He was one of the early excursionists to California over the Pacific Railroad after its completion. Possessed of remarkable descriptive powers, it was always a treat to his friends and neighbors to engage him in conversation after his return from such visits. As a citizen; he was enterprising and identified with the leading industries and improvements of the community in .which be moved. He was frequently chosen a juror in the State and United States Courts, and in 1876 was a candidate for the State Legislature. As a friend, he was all that could be asked or expected. He was frank and generous, with no jealousy in his nature. Of him it can be truly said, " His words gave courage and new strength to every heart." He was always a liberal contributor to benevolent objects, and took great interest in the welfare of the needy and oppressed. As a husband and father, he was devoted to his family. He loved to see others happy, and found much of his enjoyment in the happiness of those who surrounded him. He had no personal enemies, and his generous heart had no place for enmity. His children were seven in number. One, Eva, died in infancy. His oldest son, William H. Harrison Walker, enlisted as a soldier in the civil war. He was the chief musician in Capt. Templeton's company, and died Oct. 4, 1861, in his twenty-third year. The others are Mary, Anne, Alexander H., Alice, and Jane.


The grandparents of Maj. William Lee, Hugh and Mary Lee, emigrated from Ireland to America in 1789, and with their family of five sons and three daughters settled in Washington County, Pa. They purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land, and cleared and improved the same. The children all married, and all left the old homestead except Hugh, the father of Maj. William, who remained with his parents, and at their deaths, about the year 1815, became the owner of the land by will. In the same year he purchased one hundred and sixty acres adjoining what he had inherited. At that time business was very much depressed from the effects of the war of 1812, and wheat was the principal product or his farm, and sold as low as twenty-five cents per bushel. Sheep-raising, now one of the principal industries of Washington County, was then confined to a few coarse ones for family use. In 1817, Hugh Lee, Gen. Thomas Patterson, and William Vance purchased a few fine sheep from the importation of Wells and Dickerson. The flocks steadily increased, others em-


barked in the same business, and it grew until it became the staple industry of the county. n 1804, Hugh Lee married Hannah Orr. They had ten children, five of whom are yet living. Hugh Lee died in 1837. His wife, Hannah (Orr). Lee, died in 1882, in her ninety-fifth year. Maj. William Lee, the oldest son of Hugh and Hannah (Orr) Lee, was born in 1807. He became the owner of the Lee homestead in 1835, it being willed to him by his father. In 1836 he married Jane, eldest daughter of Hon. Walter Craig. His life business has been farming and stock-raising. In 1876 he divided his property among his children, and has since been living a retired life. He holds a commission as major in the State militia from Governor David R. Porter. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, in which he has been an elder since 1858. His grandfather and father were elders in the same church. Maj. Lee's success in life is the result of earnest purpose, determination which never flagged, exactness and promptness in the transaction of business, a deep sympathy with others' wants, a sacred regard for his word, and a faithful discharge of all obligations, with a settled purpose of right which knows no such word as fail. Although nearly as old as the century, he is still strong in body and mind, and enjoys the prosperity and society of his children and neighbors. His children, all of whom are living, are Hugh, a farmer in Cross Creek township, married to Marion Stockton, daughter of the Rev. John Stockton, D.D.; Elizabeth Mary, the wife of John N. McDonald, of McDonald's Station, Washington Co., Pa.; Anna, the wife of Richard V. Johnson, of North Strabane township, Washington Co. ; Walter C., married to Thomasine Buchanan, owns and resides upon the farm upon which his great-grandfather settled; Hannah is unmarried and resides with her parents; John S. is unmarried and resides upon a farm near his father's home,


DONEGAL was one of the thirteen original townships of. Washington County laid out in 1781. Its territory then embraced what is now included in the townships of Donegal; Buffalo, East and West Finley, and the western portion of Greene County. The first reduction of the large area of this township was made by the erection of Finley township from it, in 1788, as mentioned in the history of East Finley. Five years later (1793) the petition of John Hill, Martin Horn, Nathaniel McDole, David McMillan, John Buchanan, and fifty-five others, inhabitants of the township of Donegal, was 'presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions at the June term of the year named, representing that the inhabitants of the eastern part of the township were laboring under great difficulties in transacting business before the justices "at unreasonable distances from home, as also in being obliged to repair roads at extreme distances, with divers other inconveniences occasioned by the great extent of the township," and praying that the court divide the township and erect from a part of it a new township, to be called New German township, with boundaries as follows : "Beginning at the forks of the run near Richard Waller's, thence by a straight line to Buffelow Creek at. Capt. Glover's, thence up the creek to Canton or Hopewell Line, thence by Canton township line to the Widdow Dickerson's, inclusive, thence strait by the Ridge Dividing the waters of Wheelen and Buffalow until south of Thomas Byers', thence by a straight Line to the place of Beginning."

This petition was reported on unfavorably and rejected by the court. Five years later, at the April sessions of the court, in the year 1798, the inhabitants presented another petition praying for a division and erection of a township, to embrace the territory mentioned in the former petition, and an additional area lying north of it. This petition was laid over from the April term till the January term of 1799, then continued through the February term and to March, at which term the court ordered a division of Donegal township, and the " upper division" to be erected into a new township, " to be called Buffalo township," thus reducing Donegal to limits nearly identical with those of the present time, only slight changes in boundary having since taken place. The boundaries of Donegal are Independence township on the north, Buffalo and East Finley on the east, East Finley and West Finley on the south, and the State of West Virginia on the west. The principal streams of Donegal are Buffalo Creek and the " Dutch Fork" of the same creek, the former marking the northern boundary o this township against Independence, and the latter flowing northwardly through the central part of Donegal into Buffalo Creek. Buck Run and Rodgers' Run are inconsiderable water-courses, flowing into Buffalo Creek by courses generally parallel to that o the Dutch Fork. Several small streams head in the


southwest part of Donegal, and flow southwestwardly to join their waters with those of Wheeling Creek. The old National road crosses Donegal township south of the centre, running in a general east-and-west course, and passing through the boroughs of Claysville and West Alexander. The Hempfield Railroad, connecting Wheeling, W. Va., with Washington, Pa., also passes in the same general course through the township and by the two boroughs above named. Its route through the eastern part of the township is nearly parallel with that of the National road, but through the western half lies more northerly along the waters of the Dutch Fork. The railroad has been in operation from Claysville westward for more than twenty-five years.

The earliest white settlement within the limits of the township of Donegal of which any record or other information has been found was that made by Thomas Clark in 1773. Proof that such a settlement was made by him at that time is found in the records of the surveyor of Ohio County, Va., which county at that time, and until the adjustment of the boundary line between that State and Pennsylvania, was supposed to extend eastward so as to include the western half of the present county of Washington. The part of the surveyor's minutes above mentioned as proving Clark's settlement has reference to a tract of three hundred and sixty-three acres, called " Apollos," taken up by John Chapman, assignee of Thomas Clark, on a certificate issued by the Virginia commissioners at Redstone Old Fort, Nov. 16, 1779, describing the tract granted as " lying in the county of Ohio, on the waters of Buffalo Creek, to include an actual settlement made by the said Thomas Clark in the year 1773." Nothing beyond this is learned concerning Thomas Clark or his settlement. His name has not been found elsewhere in any of the records pertaining to this region, nor does it occur in any of the early assessment-rolls of the township. The names of John, Benjamin, and Hezekiah Clark are found among those of the early taxables of Donegal, but whether or not they were sons or other relatives of Thomas, or whether the latter died or removed to other parts after his settlement here, and before the issuance of the Virginia certificate to Chapman for the tract on which Clark settled six years before, is not known. Other facts taken from the survey books, having reference to tracts on which very early settlements were made by persons concerning whom no further information can be had, are given below, as follows:

The tract of four hundred acres named " Sylvia's Plain" in the survey, which was made Feb. 17, 1785, was granted to Jacob Lefler by a Virginia certificate, which it was described as being adjoining lands of Jacob Rice (Reis) and Christopher Wygand, "in the county of Ohio, on Buffalo Creek, to include his Lefler's] actual settlement made in the year 1774."

"Content," a tract of four hundred acres on Buffalo waters, in what afterwards became the township of Donegal, was granted to Thomas Waller, on a Virginia certificate, dated Feb. 22, 1780, " to include his actual settlement made in the year 1775." In the survey this tract is described as adjoining lands of Richard Wallace, Samuel Boyd, and Barnet J. Boner. The name of Richard Wallace is not found on subsequent assessment-rolls of Donegal, bait there are found in 1787 the names of Barnet Bonerand Thomas Waller. The last named was the original owner of the tract " Superfine Bottom," on a part of which the town of Claysville was laid out as elsewhere related. It was a tract of four hundred acres, taken by him on a Pennsylvania warrant, Feb. 25, 1785; surveyed on the 2d of April next following, and adjoining lands of Robert Henry and Robert Walker, both of whose names appear in the Donegal assessment of 1787.

A Virginia certificate dated Nov. 16, 1779, grants to Thomas Chapman four hundred acres of land " lying and being in the county of Ohio, on the waters of Buffalo Creek, to include his settlement made in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five (1775)." This tract was surveyed to Chapman as " Indian Burying-Ground." It appears that he became a permanent settler in Donegal, for his name is shown on the assessment-roll of the township for 1787, but without specification of the number of acres on which he was then assessed.

"Spring Head" tract was surveyed to Lorgy (?) Smith Nov. 25, 1785, on a Pennsylvania warrant issued to him on the 8th of the preceding September. It was surveyed as two hundred and fifty-nine acres, adjoining lands of James McMillan and Thomas Hamilton. McMillan is found named as a taxable in Donegal in 1787, but neither Thomas Hamilton's nor "Lorgy" Smith's names appear.

James Glover received a warrant (dated June 3, 1793), for forty-seven acres, situated on the waters of Buffalo Creek, and including an improvement. This improvement was evidently made by Glover prior to 1787, for in that year his name appears on the Donegal assessment. The tract warranted to him as above mentioned was surveyed, to the Rev. David French Dec. 30, 1823.

Jacob Rice's (Reis') tract of four hundred acres, surveyed to him by William Hoge, Sept. 21, 1785, as "Turkey's Nest," was taken up by him on a Virginia certificate granted in January, 1780. This tract has before been mentioned as adjoining the tract on which Jacob Lefler made a settlement in 1774.

William Hawkins (as assignee of Robert McKain, who must therefore have been an earlier settler here) received a Virginia certificate for four hundred acres of land on the Dutch Fork of Buffalo. The certificate bears date Feb. 17, 1780, and it was surveyed to Hawkins in the July next following. On this tract William Hawkins built his cabin home, on the south


side of the route of the later National road, at or near the foot of the hill which has since been known as Hawkins' Hill. The land on which the Hawkins home stood is or was recently owned by John Connor. The old Hawkins cabin was demolished, and the logs from it were used to build a stable on the opposite side of the National road. William Hawkins did not long occupy and enjoy the farm obtained on the Virginia certificate as above mentioned. In September, 1781, the Indians made an incursion, attacking the house of Jonathan Link, on Middle Wheeling Creek,¹ and taking prisoners the inmates (except Jacob Fisher and Frank Hupp, whom they killed) proceeded to the Hawkins cabin, where they captured Miss Elizabeth Hawkins, daughter of William Hawkins, who had himself already been taken prisoner by the same party at the house of Presley Peak (or Peck) on the Dutch Fork. Mrs. Hawkins, the wife of William and mother of Elizabeth, avoided capture by hiding (with an infant in her arms) in the bushy top of a fallen tree near their cabin. On their journey West the Indians barbarously murdered Link and William Hawkins. His daughter Elizabeth became the wife of a Shawanese chief, and though she afterwards revisited the settlements, and could have remained had she so elected, chose to return to live among the savages, and did so. Jacob Miller, who was captured with Link and William Hawkins, made his escape from the Indians, and returned to his friends on the Dutch Fork of Buffalo.

Capt. Jacob Miller received a Virginia certificate for four hundred acres of land in Donegal township, which was surveyed to him Sept. 23, 1785, under the name of " Wild Cat's Forest." He married Ann Lefler, and their family was a large one—four boys and five girls. Adam Miller married Miss Hewitt, and for many years they lived on Ten-Mile Creek. Being left a widower Adam was married again, to Miss May Hootman, and they removed to Ohio. Isaac Miller married Catharine Kelley, and they lived and died in Licking County, Ohio. John Miller's wife was Margaret Miller, and they lived on Buck Run, in this township. Jacob, Jr., fourth and last son of Capt. Jacob Miller, married Rebecca Miller. Mary, Capt. Miller's oldest daughter, married Nicholas Clemens. Ann married Christian Horn, and Catharine became the wife of Jacob Winter, who in those days was a minister of considerable celebrity. Jacob Winter, of Ohio, a politician of note and popularity, is a descendant of theirs.

John Hupp was one of the early settlers in Donegal, coming here from the East before 1780. An account of the manner in which he was killed by Indians at Miller's block-house in 1782 is given on-page 112 of this volume. The block-house mentioned stood on the farm now owned by Clinton Miller. Two miles

¹ In Donegal township about three miles south southwest of the site of West Alexander, and only two or three rods from the State line.

distant, on Buffalo Creek, was another called Rice's block-house. This was on the farm now owned by Charles Burrick. The locality where Hupp and Miller were killed is between West Alexander and West Middletown, in Donegal township.

Isaac Cox might properly have been termed one of the pioneers of Donegal township, as well as of Washington County. In 1776 he held the military grade of captain, and was afterwards colonel. He took part in Crawford's campaign, with Col. John Canon and many other prominent people in the county. On Nov. 3, 1786, Col. Cox took up one hundred and seventy-eight acres of land in this township, to include his previous improvement on the waters of Buffalo Creek, James Clemens, James Russell, and James Williams being the adjoining owners.

Robert Humphreys took up the tract of land upon which West Alexander is built, and on it he laid out the town as elsewhere mentioned. He was a Virginian, and lived nearly on the State line between Virginia and Pennsylvania. Robert Humphreys was a Revolutionary soldier, and also took active part in the numerous expeditions against the Indians. He was a farmer afterwards, and for fifty years was an elder in the Seceders' Church. He died Aug. 19, 1834, aged nearly eighty-three years. His son Robert owned his farm after his death, and it is now the property of William Rice. The descendants of Robert Humphreys, Sr., are few. Miss R. Humphreys and Thomas Patterson, Esq., are said to be lineal descendants, as is also Robert Humphreys, of West Virginia.

William Humphreys took up, on a Virginia certificate, four hundred acres of land on Buffalo Creek, which was surveyed to him Jan. 27, 1786, under the title of " Venice." It was situated close upon the State line, and adjoined the lands of David McClure, John McPherson, and Robert Humphreys.

Robert Stephenson came into this section from York County just after the close of the Revolutionary war, in which he served as a soldier. He owned four hundred acres of land in Donegal township, near the present railroad station near Vienna. His wife was Elizabeth Baird, of Virginia, and they had eight children. John Stephenson married Sally Porter, and Esther became the wife of Andrew Kerr. Robert Stephenson was a justice of the peace during his residence in Donegal township. After some years living here he sold his property to Thomas Stokely, and removed to Brown County, Ohio.

James Stephenson, a brother of Robert, on April 18, 1796, warranted ninety-two acres of land on the waters of Buffalo Creek, in Findley township. He also had two hundred and two acres adjoining, called "McCauley," which was warranted July 13, 17E6. He was a member of the State Legislature of Pennsylvania, and died during one of the sessions. James Stephenson had but one son, John, and he never married. The daughters were Margaret, who married


Benjamin Anderson, and lived and died on the old farm; Mary, who married John Barr, and emigrated to the West, where she died ; Ann, who married David Brownlee, and also went West and died; Nancy, who is the wife of Adah Ramsey, and resides in Ohio ; and Catharine, who married James Denison, and lives on a part of the old James Stephenson tract.

John and William Bryson bought land in Donegal township as early as 1792. On August 27th of that year they purchased two hundred acres of David M. Clemens, who had bought it of John and Andrew Moore. The land was described as " lying on Castleman Run," and was held' by the last-named gentlemen by virtue of an old improvement. William Bryson also bought one hundred and sixty-six acres of land in this township of John Williamson, Nov. 30, 1808. John Bryson's wife was Priscilla Lefore, and their family numbered ten children,—five sons. and five daughters. Of the daughters, Margaret married John Lowe, and after some years removed to Ohio and died there. Mary married another John Lowe, a cousin of the former, and also went to Ohio. Jane became the wife of Kennedy Kerr, and lived in Kentucky. Hannah was the wife of William Bryson, who purchased the land with her father, John Bryson. Priscilla became Mrs. Andrew Anderson and emigrated to Ohio. Of the sons of John Bryson, three—John, Thomas, and James—never married. Isaac married Jane Kerr, and went to Kentucky. William also married, and removed to that State. William Bryson, who was a .son-in-law of John Bryson, had a family of six children. His daughter Margaret married Thomas M. Hughes, and resides in Taylorstown. John married Nancy Chambers and lives in Missouri, and William married Louisa Wyatt and emigrated to Texas. Mary is Mrs. David Winters, of Donegal township. John married Isabella Rizer, and lives near the Virginia line, and Hannah is still unmarried. The farm of the elder John Bryson is now in the possession of his grandson, Joseph Bryson.

Christopher Winter emigrated from Germany to this country, stopping first in this State east of the mountains. There he married Miss Catharine Shaffer, and with her crossed the mountains, and settled in Donegal township. He took up a tract of land containing four hundred acres, and afterwards bought three hundred acres of the McClelland tract. The land which Christopher Winter took up is now the property of the Linvilles and David Winter. The family of Christopher Winter was four sons and flair daughters. John, the eldest, married Miss Fremmer, and removed to Indiana. David married Elizabeth McCoy, and remained in Donegal township. A son of theirs lives on the Winter homestead. Samuel Winter and his wife, Catharine Ravenaught, went to Hancock County, Va. Jacob Winter became a minister. His wife was Catharine, a daughter of Capt. Jacob Miller, and their home was in Licking County, Ohio. Christopher Winter; Jr., married Catharine Simmons. Catharine Winter became Mrs. Simmer, and emigrated to Kentucky. Elizabeth was the wife of Samuel Sheller, and lived and died in Washington County. Daniel Sheller, of Claysville, is her son. Mary Winter married Solomon Reed, and moved to Coshocton County, Ohio. The Winter family has been intimately associated with the church of the United Brethren in Christ. 

William Bonar was of Scotch-Irish descent. On Jan. 28, 1797, he purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land of Charles Bonar, a part of the three hundred and seventy-five acre tract called" Quarrel," for which Charles Bonar received a patent in 1786. Barnet Bonar, a son of William Bonar, married Miss Jane Donoughey. They had a family of nine children. William married and went to Indiana. David married Miss Dickey, and emigrated to Fairfield, Iowa. Joseph married Miss Brotherton, and went to Ohio. Samuel married Elizabeth Andrews, and lives in this township on the old Bonar homestead. Mary Bonar became Mrs. Kirkpatrick; Elizabeth became Mrs. McCullough ; Sarah became Mrs. Kelley ; Martha died in infancy ; and nothing is learned of Margaret. 

Robert Gourley was a resident of this township in 1798, and at that time lived on the farm now owned by John Stewart, which is the Gourley homestead. He was a son of the Mr. Gourley who was killed many years ago near Claysville. Robert Gourley married Margaret Roney, whose people lived in Wheeling, Va., where her mother died in 1852. The children of Robert Gourley numbered nine, five sons and four daughters. Of these Robert, Eliza, Thomas, and James never married. Robert, Thomas, and James-are residents of Illinois. Alexander married Hester Richey, and they live in Montgomery County, Iowa. John married Mary J. Marshal, and Sarah is the wife of Rev. N. L. Laferty, of the United Presbyterian Church, and lives in Illinois. Catharine married James Mercer, also of Illinois, and Susanna died unmarried in 1850. Robert Gourley and his wife are still living, both octogenarians. They have had no death in their family for thirty years.

James Campsey was a farmer, who came from the north of Ireland in 1794, and first located in the East. From there he came to Washington County, arriving here May 1, 1801. He purchased one hundred and thirty acres of land in Donegal township and built him a cabin after the fashion of those days. He reared a family of five children,—four sons and one daughter,—all of whom are dead save the two youngest, James Campsey and Mrs. Rebecca Connaughey. The nearest neighbors to the cabin home of James Campsey were the Bonar and Roney families, and that of James Hutchinson. The Roney descendants now live in East Finley township. Before Mr. Campsey's arrival. the Honeys had erected a fort as a place of refuge in times of danger, which


was located on Hercules Roney's farm. Another fort was built on the farm now belonging to T. C. Noble, near Claysville. North of the site of Claysville was the renowned Rice's Fort, built by Daniel Rice, who owned the farm upon which it was built. Northeast of that was the property of Robert Walker, who also built a block-house; and not far west of Claysville was still another block-house, built and owned by Thomas Wallower. Notwithstanding Robert Walker had built a place of safety upon his own farm, the Indians captured his wife and took her down the Wheeling Creek trail, but she escaped and returned home. Thomas Stokely took up mid received a patent for a tract of land containing three hundred and fifty-two acres, on the head-waters of Buffalo Creek, in Donegal township, which was called "Stockdale." This property still remains in its original shape (save improvements that have been made upon it), and has never changed hands but once, when James Campsey, Sr., its present owner, purchased it of the Stokely heirs. James Campsey, Sr., is the son of the subject of the beginning of this sketch, and is now in his seventy-ninth year. He has a property of one hundred thousand dollars made by farming. He has a fine home in Claysville, and, having placed his splendid farm in the care of his son, James Campsey, Jr., is enjoying the evening of his life in the midst of plenty, and surrounded by his family and numerous friends.

Charles Stoolfire was a farmer who lived and died in Donegal township. His home was a farm of one hundred and six acres of land, which he purchased of George Humbaugh, Aug. 18, 1804, a part of the tract " Freedom," patented to Mark Causland Jan. 15, 1798. The homestead of Charles Stoolfire is now owned by Mr. Ralston. He had a very large family of children, eleven of whom reached mature age. Joshua married Margaret Miller. Jacob, who married Isabella Rogers, and Margaret, the wife of Alexander Hunt, both live in Licking County, Ohio. Catharine married Jacob Grear,.and went to Hancock County, Ohio. Lydia also married, and lives in Ohio. Sarah became the wife of James McKey, and removed to Illinois. George married Nancy Madden, and lives in this State. David went to Kansas, where he married, and Susan, who became Mrs. Joseph Ritchie, lives in Ohio. Nancy is Mrs. John Rush, and resides near West Middletown, in this county. Eliza died single. Mrs. Daniel Sheller, Mrs. Ruth Hayburn, and other residents in this vicinity are lineal descendants of Charles Stoolfire.

George Morrow came with his family from the north of Ireland directly to Donegal township in 1819. He settled on a farm containing one hundred and sixty acres, which he bought of Adam Weaver. It is now owned by Abraham Morrow, his son, who was born in 1817, two years before their emigration to America. George Morrow had a family of ton children, two of them, girls, dying in infancy. Of the others, Thomas died when five years of age, and Isaac died quite young. David married Emily Snedbaker, and now lives in Licking County, Ohio. Abraham married Jane Defrance, and lives in this township. Noah married Mary A. Guy, and went to Delaware County, Ohio. Mary became the wife of Joseph Alexander. Their only son, Joseph, resides in Athens County, Ohio. Elizabeth Morrow married John M. Sloan, and removed to Ohio; and Matilda Morrow, who became Mrs. Milton Samburn, removed to Athens County, in that State.

James McQuown, who died in 1864, at the age of eighty years, was an early settler in this township. In 1805 he married Miss Sarah McGaw, and in 1810 they settled in West Alexander, where he 'followed the trades of carpenter and cabinet-maker. In 1840 he was county surveyor. He purchased a farm of William Hawkins, which is at present owned by John G. Page. His wife, Sarah McQuown, died in 1858, aged seventy-six years..

John Laird was born in Ireland, and with his father, John Laird, Sr., emigrated to America, and after some years came to Donegal township. John Laird, Jr., bought the tract of land which is now the property of the widow of Alexander Hayborn. He had five children,—Jesse resides in Kansas, Robert is in this township, John resides in Claysville, and Mary Jane died after her marriage. The daughter Margaret died many years ago.

Jacob Rizor was a settler in Donegal township before 1787, as his name is found on the assessment-roll of that year. He purchased by verbal contract from Jacob Lefler, the father of his wife, fifty acres of land, to which he did not obtain a legal title during his lifetime. On the 20th of October, 1825, the land was conveyed to Elizabeth, widow of Jacob Rizor, for her use during her life, to go at her death to the sons of Jacob and Elizabeth Rizor, viz.: John, Abraham, Jacob, George, and Henry Rizor. An account of an interview with the last-named son of Jacob Rizor, by a correspondent of the Chronicle, was published by that paper in the fall of 1880, as follows:

" At Dutch Fork there resides an old man, Henry Rizor by name, who it was said could possibly relate something about the Indian ravages in the county. Thither the writer bent his steps, and had the pleasure of meeting a white-haired old man, whose health was quite vigorous until within a year since. He was born at Dutch Fork Feb. 29, 1790, and if he lives until next February he will be ninety-one years old. A year ago he was knocked down and run over by a buggy. He was ruptured, and has since been unable to perform work or go far away from the house. He distinctly recalled the incidents connected with Abraham Rice's block-house, and says at one time two hundred Indians appeared at the fort. Until within w year ago Mr. Rizor rode to Claysville, distance twelve miles, on horseback every Saturday evening, and got on and off the beast without assistance. Up


to that time be was also in the habit of walking to Acheson post-office for his mail. The distance is two miles. 'If the sun shines,' said Mr. Rizor, I can see to read without spectacles. Until I was hurt I could chop and haul wood with any of them. I could make seventy-five rails a day,—a full day's work.' Mr. Rizor has been married twice, and lives in the old-style log cabin, with the veritable latch-string on the outside of the door."

Justices of the Peace of Donegal.¹ —The following-named persons were and have been appointed and elected to the office of justice of the peace in Donegal township from the time of its erection to the present, viz.:

Samuel Mason, July 15, 1781.

Samuel Williamson, July 15, 1781.

William Johnstone, Feb. 9,1786.

John Stevenson, March 12, 1793.

Jacob Wolfe, June 7, 1793.

Samuel Taylor, Aug. 29, 1797.

Joseph Alexander, Feb. 9, 1799.

William Clemens, Feb. 5, 1801. 

Robert Stevenson, June 22, 1803.

Joseph Henderson, Jan. 7, 1803.

Jacob Letter, Jan. 7, 1805.

Samuel England, Oct. 24, 1807.

Isaac Mayes, July 13, 1811.

Isaac Lefler, Feb. 17, 1813.

Henry Endow, Dec. 10, 1816.

David Frazier, Dec.10, 1816.

Joseph Alexander, March 26,1817.

David Winter, Sept. 20, 1819.

Thomas Miller, April 4, 1822.

Jacob McVey, Aug. 12, 1827.

Jesse St. Clair, Aug 13, 1827.

Hugh Armstrong, Oct. 29, 1829.

Nathan Ruckafeller, April 24,1834.

Amos Enlow, April 24, 1834.

Humphrey Blakeway, May 6, 1835.

David Peden, May 6, 1835.

Isaac Mayes, April 14, 1840.

John Sutherland, April 11, 1843.

John Miller, April 15, 1845.

John Sutherland, April 11, 1848.

John Miller, April 9, 1850.

John Sutherland, April 13, 1853.

Hugh Defrance, April 13, 1853.

Shepherd L. Guy, May 19, 1857.

Wm. S. Alexander, May 19,1857.

John C. Hervey, April 10, 1860.

Joseph F. Mayes, April 21, 1862.

James Noble, Aug. 23, 1864.

John Jameson, July 12, 1865.

Joseph F. Mayes, April 17, 1867.

John Jameson, April 13, 1870.

Joseph F. Mayes, April 12, 1872.

John Jamieson, May 27, 1874.

T. C. Noble, March 24, 1874.

Alex. Chapman, March 17, 1875.

T. C. Noble, March 27, 1879.

George Y. Holmes, March 30,1880.

Borough of West Alexander.—Upon a tract of four hundred acres of land lying in the extreme western part of Donegal township, very near the Virginia line, Robert Humphreys ² (who was the original owner of the tract, having taken it up on a Virginia certificate) laid out and platted a town in tile year 1796, and called it West Alexander, in honor of his wife, who was Martha Alexander. In the plat and charter he reserved and set apart certain grounds in the northern part of the town as a common for the perpetual use of the inhabitants. A suit at law was brought by Thomas Stokely against the proprietor, Mr. Humphreys, for this tract of land, which suit resulted in a compromise.

Immediately after the laying out of the town a considerable number of the lots were sold, and these were from time to time resold by the first purchasers. On the 21st of May, 1806, John Wilson sold a number of town lots in West Alexander to William Carroll, who, on the 8th of January, 1810, sold them to John Sargent. Many other similar sales were made, and in the mean time something was done (though not as much nor as rapidly as Humphreys had anticipated)

towards the creation of a town. The first store in the place was opened in 1801 by John Craig, some of whose accounts are still in existence, kept in pounds, shillings, and pence. He received his goods from Philadelphia at a cost of about three pounds, Pennsylvania currency (eight dollars), per hundred-weight for transportation, and in about six weeks' time after they were purchased in the city.

A tavern was opened in the town in 1797 (the year following the laying out) by Duncan Morrison, who called his house the American Eagle," and had a picture of the national bird painted on his sign, which hung from a horizontal arm extending from a tall post planted in front of his door. The town had a resident physician, Dr. Potter, who came here about the year 1800. The post-office was established here in 1809, with James Stephenson as postmaster. He held the office for forty-two years, until his death, May 18, 1851. His successors have been John Baird, B. L. Craven, Joel Truesdell, and Lizzie A. Ray.

Most of the town lots sold by the original proprietor, Humphreys, were resold by the first purchasers to other parties, who in turn transferred them to others, and by these transfers, or otherwise, the greater part of the lots came into possession of Charles De Hass, who also became owner of other lands adjoining the town. Having thus become principal proprietor of the place, be made an effort to do that which the original proprietor, Humphreys, had failed to accomplish to any considerable extent, viz., to found a town or village of size and importance. On the 22d of May, 1817, De Hass advertised to be sold on the 10th of June following " a number of town lots adjoining the east end of the continued part of West Alexandria,"³ and adding, as an inducement to purchasers, that a " brewery and distillery are erecting, a brick-yard is established and another one progressing, and a nail-factory is in contemplation." This was at a time when the National road was in process of construction, and had been actually opened for travel from Cumberland west to the Youghiogheny River, and it was believed that all the towns upon its route must become places of prosperity and importance. West Alexander (or Alexandria) was one of these, and the result was that De Hass sold many of his lots, and a number of additional dwellings and places of business were built; but the town received

¹ The township of Donegal was a separate district from the time of its election till 1803, when

Finley was included with it in District No. 11. Donegal again became a separate and independent district, and has as so continued to the present time.

²Robert Humphreys, proprietor of West Alexander, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and served under Lafayette. When the marquis visited this section of country in 1825, Humphreys made himself known to his former general, and a published account of the meeting of the two veterans says " the scene was most affecting." Robert Humphreys died Aug. 19, 1831, at the age of eighty-two years, ten months, and ten days.

³ De Hass changed the original mime "Alexander" to " Alexandria" and the change was adopted

to a considerable extent. In the records and all public documents having reference to the construction of the National road, the place is almost invariably mentioned as West Alexandra, or still more frequently Alexandria.


a severe blow in the destructive fire which occurred on the 4th of May, 1831, destroying more than twenty of the best buildings in the place. It was a severe disaster, but the town slowly recovered, and in the succeeding twenty years—which was the period of the greatest prosperity for the National road—it became one of the important points on the great thoroughfare, having three or four good stores, several other places of business, and two principal public-houses, the latter patronized respectively by the rival stage-lines on the road.

The keepers of public-houses in West Alexander, successors of Duncan Morrison (proprietor of the "American Eagle" in 1797, as before mentioned), have been Charles Mayes, Zebulon Warner, John Cooding, John Woodburn, William McCall, Solomon Cook, James Sargent, Charles Hallam, Mary Warner, James Bell, Silver Gillfillin, Samuel Beymer, James Mathers, John Irons, Moses Thornbury, Samuel Doak, Joseph Lawson, Joseph Dondal, William F. Gordon, William McCutcheon, and perhaps some others whose names are not now remembered. There are at the present time in West Alexander two hotels, the Wheeling House and the Centre House, both of which are fairly patronized.

Since John Craig (the pioneer merchant before mentioned) opened his store in West Alexander in 1801, a multitude of mercantile firms and individual merchants have been established in the town, among whom have been James Stephenson, John Mayes, John Alexander, George Wilson, John Gallagher, G. W. and W. B. Hall, Hall a Waddell, James T. McVey & Co., A. R. Howe, Bryant & Craien, McVey & Ewing, Holmes & Frazier, B. L. Craien, Joel Truesdell, L. R. Gilfillan & Co., John Limback, Aaron Strouse, Eli & Pollock, Isaac Post & Co. There are now in the town ten stores (exclusive of two grain and feed dealers) besides other smaller places of business, stores and shops.

It has been mentioned that the first physician of the town was Dr. Potter, who commenced practice here about the year 1800. Among the medical practitioners in the place since that time have been Drs. Mott, E. Warring, J. F. Byers, William Gilfillan, Samuel McKeehan,¹ Cunningham, Joseph Davidson, Crawford, Marshman, Swartz, and Little. There are now here in active practice Drs. W. M. Gilfillan, D. S. Eagleson, and J. B. Reed. Dr. R. Davidson has now retired from practice.

The borough of West Alexander was erected in 1873. At the May term of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Washington County in that year there was presented a petition of a number of persons " inhabitants of the village of West Alexander, in the said county of Washington," respectfully representing

¹ Dr. McKeehan was a surgeon in the war of 1812, in which service he was wounded and taken prisoner at Malden, Canada. He came to West Alexander in 18A and died Sept. 20, 1866, aged ninety-three years.

" that your petitioners reside within the limits thereof as hereinafter set forth and described; and that the same contains more than eighty freeholders; that they are desirous that the said village should be incorporated by the name, style, and title of the borough of West Alexander, according to the following boundaries," proceeding to describe the proposed boundary lines by a number of courses and distances. Upon the hearing of this petition the court ordered the same to be laid before the grand jury. That body made a favorable report, the action upon which by the court is shown by the record as follows:

"And now Aug. 18, 1873, the court confirms the judgment of the grand jury and decrees that the said town of West Alexander be incorporate into a borough in conformity with the prayer of the petitioners that the corporate style and title thereof shall be the borough of West Alexander; that the boundaries thereof shall be as follows, viz. [describing lig the boundary lines of the borough]; and that the annual borrough election shall be held at the public school-house in said borough third Friday in March, in accordance with, and subject to, all the provisions of the laws regulating township elections: and the court de. dare the said borough a separate election and school district ; the cos further decree and fix the first election in said borough for the election of the officers provided fur by law at the public school-house in said borough on the 23d day of September, A.D. 1873. . . ."

The first election was held at the time and place designated. The borough officers elected at that and succeeding annual elections were and have been follows, viz.:

1873.—Burgess, Samuel Nimmons; Council, Christopher Sheller, Thomas Frazier, William C. Anderson, Samuel Noble, Michael Daugherty.

1874.—Burgess, Christopher Sheller; Council, Robert Davidson, Samuel Kimmens, J. B. Reed, Joel Truesdell, W. C. Anderson.

1875.—Burgess, Christopher Sheller; Council, Benjamin L. Craven, Joel Truesdell, William C. Anderson, John R. Anderson, Dr. J. It. Reed.

1876. -Burgess, James Ely; Council, Robert Sutherland, John Reed, Samuel Kimmens, James S. Waltz, William E. Spriggs, Michael Daugherty.

1877.—Burgess, Joel Truesdell ; Council, Joseph F. Mayes, Robert Sutherland, George C. Stoolfire, M. Daugherty, Dr. S. A. Craig, William M. Murray.

1878.—Burgess, Mites Leyda.; Council, Samuel Kimmens, William A. Barry, James Alexander, John R. Anderson, George C. Stoolfire, Joseph S. Mayes.

1879.—Burgess, Michael Daugherty; Council, Isaac Post, William L. Porter, James Leyda, Dr. S. A. Craig, John R. Anderson, William Frazier.

1880.—Burgess, Isaac Post; Council, Joel Truesdell, Samuel Kimmens, William E. Spriggs, Oliver E. Murray, Robert Sutherland, John McKenzie.

1881.—Burgess, Robert Sutherland; Council, William C. Spriggs, William Guess, David Holmes, Samuel Bushfield, Michael Daugherty, Joseph S. Mayes.

The justices of the peace of West Alexander since the town became a borough have been the following named : Joseph F. Mayes, September, 1873 ; J. S. Waltz, March, 1874 ; Joseph F. Mayes, March,1877; J. S. Waltz, March, 1879. Of those named in the list (given in another place) of justices appointed and elected for the township of Donegal, the following named were residents in West Alexander, viz.: Joseph Alexander (commissioned Feb. 9, 1799), died Oct. 1, 1834; Isaac Mayes (first commissioned July 13, 1811), died July 16, 1844 ; John Sutherland (commissioned April 11, 1843), died Dec. 12, 1856; William S. Alexander (commissioned May 19,1857), died


January, 1874; John C. Henry (April, 1860) ; and Joseph F. Mayes, who was elected in 1862, re-elected in 1867 and in 1872 in the township, and in 1873 and 1877 in the borough, as before stated. West Alexander, being located within a very short distance of the State line, has for at least three fourths of a century been regarded as a sort of Pennsylvania Gretna Green, whither an immense number of couples have come from across the State line and elsewhere to have the marriage ceremony performed by the justices and clergymen of West Alexander. Up to the 4th of July, 1876, the Rev. William H. Lester had married more than five hundred couples. Joseph Alexander, Esq., married four hundred couples during the long time he held the office of justice of the peace. Justices Isaac Mayes and John Sutherland married, respectively, nine hundred and thirty and nine hundred and seven couples, and William S. Alexander, Esq., performed the marriage ceremony two hundred times. But all these figures are belittled by comparison with the record of Justice Joseph F. Mayes, who during his official career down to the 19th of September, 1881, had joined one thousand nine hundred and eighteen couples in wedlock. The total number of couples married by the justices and clergymen of West Alexander considerably exceeds five thousand, of which number a large proportion came from West Virginia.

Joseph Finley Mayes, the veteran justice above mentioned, who has now filled the office with honor for twenty years, is a native of West Alexander, . . . and a grandson of Charles Mayes, who came to Washington County with his family in 1786' from his previous home near Gettysburg, Pa., where he had lived on the " Carroll Tract," owned by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Soon after his arrival in Washington County he purchased from Henry McDonough, of Somerset township, a tract of two hundred and forty-three acres of land in Donegal township, about one and a half miles east of West Alexander, paying therefor (whether in part or in full is not known) a rifle and a yoke of oxen. On this tract of land he settled and made his home. Charles Mayes' son, Isaac Mayes (the father of Joseph F. Mayes, Esq.), was a blacksmith, and worked at his trade in West Alexander, which was his home for many years. He served as justice of the peace for the long period of twenty-nine years (1811 to 1840), and died in July, 1844.

The first school in West Alexander was taught by — Robinson, commencing about two years after tho town was laid out by Robert Humphreys. How long the first teacher continued in charge of it is not known. Samuel R. Mayes taught the school some time prior to 1810. The immediate successors of these early teachers are not now remembered. Of the great number who taught in the town since that time the names of a few are here given (though the dates of their teaching have not been ascertained), viz.:

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Gilbert Marshall, Thomas J. Holliday, John Gordon, William Dickey, George McDonald, Miss Jane Pollock, Miss A. C. Bell, James McElroy.

The West Alexander Academy was established in 1828, with the Rev. John McClusky as principal. It became a chartered institution in 1840. In 1853, Mr. McClusky was succeeded by the Rev. William H. Lester, and in the next year the present fine academy building was erected. For twenty-four years the school remained in charge of the Rev. Mr. Lester. In 1877 it was in charge of Miss May Pollock. It is not now in operation. Fifty-nine students of this academy became ministers of the gospel.

Upon the erection of the borough it was made a separate and independent school district. It has now a good and commodious school building, of capacity to accommodate one hundred and twenty pupils. Two schools are taught in it. During the time that West Alexander has existed as a borough and an independent school district its school board has been composed as follows :

1873.—Rev. M. Ormund, James Ely, Rev. W. H. Lester, Samuel Noble, John R. Anderson, James S. Waltz.

1874.—Samuel Kimmins, Dr. R. Davidson, William C. Anderson, James Ely, B. F. Craven, James S. Waltz.

1875.—Dr. R . Davidson, J. R. Anderson, J. S. Waltz, Samuel Kimmins, David Howell, W. C. Anderson.

1876.—J. R. Anderson, Dr. R. Davidson, Samuel Kimmins, W. C. Anderson, David Howell, J. S. Waltz.

1877.—W. C. Anderson, David Howell, J.S. Waltz, William Barry, R. B. Daugherty, Joel Truesdell.

1878.—W. A. Barry, J. R. Anderson, W. H. Nease, Dr. J. B. Reed, J. S. Waltz, R. B. Daugherty.

1879.—W. A. Barry, J. It. Anderson, W. H. Nease, R. B. Daugherty, Samuel Kimmins, J. S. Waltz.

1880.—Samuel Kimmins, J. R. Anderson, R. B. Daugherty, W. H. Nease, O. E. Murray, James S. Waltz.

1881.—Samuel Kimmins, R. B. Daugherty, S. A. Craig, O. E. Murray, J. S. Waltz, W. H. Neuse.

Presbyterian Church of West Alexander.¹ —The first Presbytery west of the Allegheny Mountains was Redstone. From its minutes Nov. 19, 1785, it is learned that "supplication was made for supples from Three Ridges," now West Alexander. " Mr. Frisby was appointed to supply Three Ridges the last Sabbath in November." This is the earliest recorded mention of the church. After this its name is frequently found in the records of that body. In the published journal of Col. John May, who traveled through this part of the State in August, 1788, is found the following : " In the course of the day's ride I saw a little box, something like a sentry-box, near the side of the road, but several miles from any house I could see, and standing on four posts. I was told on inquiry that it was a pulpit, and to that spot people went to worship the God of Jacob. As all the earth is His temple, I think this is not an improper place for worship. Near this place was cut the section of a vista through the forest making the boundary line up to Lake Erie between Virginia and

¹ By Rev. William H. Lester.