Pennsylvania." This allusion to the boundary line makes it certain " the little box" was on the very place where the Presbyterian Church now stands.

In 1790 a call was made for the pastoral labors of Rev. John Brice. In April of that year he was ordained and installed over the church. Being unable to support a minister the entire time, it was connected with the church of the Forks of Wheeling, each having the services of the pastor half of the time. This connection continued until 1814, when, through the increase of numbers and means, it was able to support a minister the whole time. This the first pastorate continued till 1807, when Mr. Brice, through infirmities of age, resigned the charge. He died in 1811.

In 1809 the Rev. Joseph Stevenson became the pastor, and, like his predecessor, remained such seventeen years. On account of the spiritual destitution of the then " Far West,"—Western Ohio,—he resigned the charge and settled in Bellefontaine, Ohio. He there organized a church, and spent several years in successful pastoral work. He died in 1865.

The third pastor was the Rev. John McClusky, D.D. He was settled over the church in October, 1828, and remained until 1854. He removed to Philadelphia, and died in 1881. Through his efforts and under the care of this church the West Alexander Academy was founded. From this school nearly fifty ministers have gone out to preach the gospel. As preachers, lawyers, physicians, and teachers, its pupils may be found in almost every State.

The fourth pastor is the Rev. William H. Lester, who was ordained and installed here in 1854. Nearly twenty-eight years of pastoral service, and not unblessed, have been rounded out, and he still remains to "break to the people the bread of life." This has been a church of long pastorates. The modern custom of frequent ministerial changes has not as yet been imbibed by this congregation. Almost a hundred years have passed since its organization, and it has had only four ministers.

The first church building was a rude log house, the timber of which grew on the spot where the church stood. Its seats were slabs split from logs. It had no stoves for heating, and was destitute of every outward comfort. In the summer the preaching was in the woods. In rainy weather and winter it was in the church. Years afterwards the growing congregation required a larger building and increased accommodations. It stood on the site of the old house, and was also a log one. It was seated with pews. It also had a pulpit, a lofty one. This church is said to have been the admiration of the whole region of country. The present building is brick, large, plain, neat, and comfortable, with a sitting capacity for six hundred persons, and is usually well filled. " God's word amid its doctrines as formulated by the Westminster Assembly of divines" is the creed. It has been blessed with "revivals" all through its history. From thirty to a hundred persons have many times been received into membership at a single communion. Its most remarkable work of grace was at the great religious awakening in all this region of country about 1800, known as "The Falling Work." The preaching was of the kind called " the terrors of law," solemn and alarming. The hearers, becoming violently agitated in body and mind, would fall to the floor, and for a considerable time would remain unconscious. This state was followed after by an experience of peace and joy. The most wicked and hardened persons were those who would be the most affected. Without attempting to explain these bodily movements, it may be said the fruit of the work was a deep and abiding piety; the influence of which is felt even now. The old Scotch custom of communing (at the Lord's Supper) sitting at the tables was introduced here, and is still observed. This is almost the only church in the entire body which adheres to this form of communion.

This church has not always sailed on smooth seas and on peaceful waters. All the people here originally worshiped as one congregation. "Rouse's Version of the Psalms" was the medium of praise. On the occasion of Mr. Brice using " Watts' Psalms" the division came. The grandfathers and grandmothers of those who now compose the United Presbyterian Church of this place, true to their grit and conscientious convictions, would not endure " human composure," and so went out. An arbitration in regard to the church property followed. The whole matter was amicably arranged. The Presbyterians held the property on the payment of a sum of money, which was satisfactory to both parties.

The " Anti-Slavery" element in this part of the State has always been strong. This church is located on a line of a once slave and a free State. This no doubt increased the intensity of the feeling. Here the subject passed beyond the limits of a political question. It became a religious one. The storm which gathered and broke over the country in 1861 gathered and broke over the church nearly twenty years before. A paper passed by the General Assembly to the effect that slaveholders were not to be debarred from Christian fellowship and communion was regarded by many as an indorsement of the system. Sadly and conscientiously a very considerable number left in 1849 and formed the Free Presbyterian Church. It harmonized in doctrine and polity with the old church, and in the main differed only on the manner slavery was to be viewed and treated. It was ministered to by the Revs. J. S. Poage, Robert Burgess, — Dawson, and Samuel McLain. At the close of the civil war, slavery having been abolished, and the General Assembly having made deliverances on the subject, substantially agreeing with the views of the church, it was disbanded, and most of the members found a home in the church they left years before.

Emigration has drawn heavily upon the numbers and resources of this church, yet it is now perhaps as strong as at any previous time in its history. It has


a membership of fully three hundred, and its Sabbath-school is large and flourishing.

United Presbyterian Church of West Alexander.¹ -The precise date of the organization of the United Presbyterian Church of West Alexander is not definitely known. The earliest Presbyterian records to which the writer had access state that in the year 1793, "a supply of preaching was granted to the Associate Reformed Church of Three Ridges," the nape by which it was known at that time. But from other records it may safely be considered as having had an existence some years prior to that date.

Its first pastor was the Rev. Alexander McCoy, who afterwards became the leader of a party known as the " McCoyites."

Mr. McCoy was born in Ireland in 1754, came with his parents to the province of Pennsylvania in 1774. He had received a classical education in Ireland, and some time after his arrival in this country concluded to complete his studies, and entered Dickinson College in 1792. He studied theology under the Rev. John Jamison, and was licensed May 4, 1795, by the Second Associate Reformed Presbytery of Pennsylvania.

By the same Presbytery he was ordained and installed Oct. 29, 1795, over the united charges of Three Ridges at West Alexander, Pa., and Short Creek, Ohio Co., W. Va.

The Associate Reformed Synod at its meeting in May, 1799, in Greencastle, Pa., adopted its constitution and standards, and in doing so modified the doctrine of the Westminster Confession of Faith concerning the power of the civil magistrates in matters of religion. Against this change Mr. McCoy protested, and declined the further authority and jurisdiction of the Synod. His name was therefore stricken from the roll of Presbytery June 25, 1799.

On the 11th of November, 1800, Rev. Robert Warwick settled in the vicinity of Cincinnati, also declined the authority of the Associate Reformed Synod, and for the same reason as Mr. McCoy these two ministers, with two ruling elders, met in Washington, Pa., Jan. 27, 1801, and formed themselves into an independent Presbytery, naming it " The Reformed Dissenting Presbytery." This new organization seldom numbered more than three or four ministers, and often not more than two. Its weak condition impelled it at last to a union with the Associate Church, in the year 1851. Meanwhile Mr. McCoy's two congregations adhered to him, and for some years he gave part of his time to a third congregation in Belmont County, Ohio. On account of an infirmity which made it difficult for him to ride on horseback, he resigned his charge about 1815 and moved to Pittsburgh, Pa., and preached there until his successor, Rev. John Pattison, died (in 1825), at which time he returned and served his two original congregations for five or six years. The infirmities of age at length

¹ By Rev. W. M. Coleman.

compelled him to cease from his labors. He died of paralysis June 17, 1834.

His successor was the Rev. William Neil, who was born in Ireland about 1800 ; was educated at Franklin College, and studied theology with his predecessor, Mr. McCoy. He was licensed May, 1829, by the Reformed Dissenting Presbytery, and accepted a call Oct. 18, 1831, from the united charge of Three Ridges and Short Creek. He performed the duties of pastor for a number of years, after which he joined the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and then the Associate Presbytery of Chartiers, finally withdrawing altogether from the active duties of the ministry.

Rev. Joseph Shaw was the next pastor. He was educated at Franklin College, studied theology privately, was licensed May 29, 1839, by the Reformed Dissenting Presbytery, and ordained and installed in 1840. In April, 1843, he and a majority of the congregation withdrew from the communion of the Reformed Dissenting Presbytery and united with the Associate Church, which was the beginning of the Associate congregation of West Alexander.

When Mr. Shaw joined the Associate Church the validity of his ordination was called in question because the Presbytery which had ordained him was composed of only one minister and two ruling elders. The Associate Synod, however, decided that the ordination, although irregular, was valid. He remained pastor of the congregation until Oct. 5, 1852, when he resigned. In the spring of 1853 he moved to Bellefontaine, Ohio, where he united with the Presbyterian Church, and conducted a High School. He died in December, 1875.

A short time after the resignation of Mr. Shaw, the congregation called Rev. J. C. Murch, who was born March 20, 1820, at Sandgate, Vt. He was a graduate of Dennison University, Granville, Ohio ; studied theology at Canonsburg, Pa., and was licensed Oct. 29, 1850, by the Presbytery of Chartiers. He was installed pastor of the West Alexander congregation in September, 1853, and continued to labor there until the union of the two branches of the church in 1858. He took charge of the congregation of New Concord, Ohio, February, 1860, and continued there until February, 1876. On Jan. 15, 1879, he was installed over the congregation of Scotch Ridge, Wood Co., Ohio, where he remained until his death, May 27, 1879.

From 1799 the Associate Reformed congregation of Three Ridges lost its identity as such until the year 1838, when it was reorganized. After the reorganization in 1838, the congregation called the Rev. Joseph S. Buchanan, who was ordained and installed pastor Nov. 24, 1840, and who remained with it until 1854, when he resigned on account of ill health. He moved to Portersville, Pa., where he taught a classical school for some years, and eventually retired from active labors to Monmouth, Ill., where he now lives.

Rev. D. G. Bradford was the next pastor. He was ordained and installed April 8, 1856, and released


October, 1857, when he became pastor of the Second Associate Reformed congregation of Allegheny City, Pa., and was released April 14, 1863, to take charge of the First Church of Monmouth, Ill., where he continued until 1867. Subsequently he joined the Presbyterian Church, and has filled several pastorates in it.

After the union in 1858, the two congregations united their strength and called Rev. Josiah Stevenson to be their spiritual guide. He was ordained and installed December, 1859, and released November, 1870. From this he went to North Buffalo, Pa., where he remained until February, 1876, when he afterwards took charge of the congregations at Greensburg and Latrobe, Pa., where he at present labors.

In the fall of 1871, Rev. Marcus Ormond was chosen pastor, who entered upon his new field of labor on January 1st, was installed June 11, 1872, and was released Oct. 12, 1876. Some time after his resignation he was smitten with congestion of the brain, from the effects of which he never fully recovered. His memory failed him and he lost the power of speech. The ordinary transactions and acquirements of his past life he could recall, but the knowledge he had acquired in his college course became an entire blank, and did not return until the hour of his death.

On Wednesday morning, Nov. 28, 1881, he left his --home in Oxford, Ohio, to go to Indianapolis, Ind. On Friday evening, having reached Milroy, Ind., he stopped for the night with a family with whom he was acquainted. An hour after retiring the family heard him moaning, and on going into his room found him just expiring. A few moments later and before the physician arrived, his spirit had taken its flight.

Rev. W. M. Coleman, the present pastor, was installed Dec. 4, 1877. He found the congregation somewhat divided and depressed, but better days have come, and its members are united and earnestly at work.

On April 10, 1875, the congregation dedicated to the worship of God a beautiful and substantial structure, built of brick, roofed with slate, and furnished after the latest and most improved style.

Like an individual life, the congregation has had its ups and downs, and as it made its progress through the years it has rested sometimes in the sunlight and sometimes in the shade. Though its history has been a checkered one, the Lord has been always on its. side.

Methodist Episcopal Church of West Alexander.—A Methodist Episcopal Church was organized here before the year 1825. The first church was a log building on Main Street, occupied at that time by William Whitham. The early preachers were Rev. Hiram Gilmore, Rev. William Summers, Father Lock,-Rev. Mr. Brock, and others. In 1835 a good frame edifice was erected, where a small congregation continued to worship until recently. The pastor having it in charge is Rev. George Sheets, of Claysville Circuit. The class-leader is Mr. A. Daugherty.

West Alexander Cemetery.—The company by which this cemetery was laid out was organized early in 1871, and incorporated August 31st in that year. The board of directors was composed of Thomas Frazier (president), Samuel Kimmins, William Armstrong, E. Buchanan, William Reed, E. Brownlee. David Blaney, Joel Truesdell (secretary and treasurer), James Todd, and Alexander McCleary. A tract of ten acres was purchased from W. A. Hagerty at three hundred dollars per acre. This tract was handsomely laid out as a cemetery in the modern style, with walks and carriage-ways, and tastefully decorated by the planting of evergreen and other trees. The cemetery occupies a beautiful site on rising ground, from the higher parts of which the views are fine and extensive. The first interment in this ground was that of Thomas McConn, who died in the fall of 1871. On his tombstone is an inscription (made. in accordance with his wish, expressed a short time before his death) noting the fact that remains were the first deposited in the ground of the new cemetery.

I. O. O. F.—Lodge No. 966 was organized in West Alexander July 8, 1879. The charter members were Oliver Murray, William Frazier, John A. Luse, James Alexander, Duncan Blayney, John C. Porter, Rufus T. Slater, William H. Leyda, Andrew W. Tense, J. N. Donnely, D. R. Frazier, James Lidey, Felix Muldoon, Jacob Guess, A. Blayney, E. N. Dulap, William B. Gibson, David Sheller, C. M. Leggett, John Sheller.

Murray Brothers.—The young men composing the firm which conducts a general merchandising business in the building here represented were born and reared in West Virginia, near the boundary line between that State and Washington County. The business was begun in West Alexander in 1871, by J. W. and William M. Murray, under the firm-name of J. W. Murray & Brother, and was continued under that caption until 1878, when J. W. disposed of his interest to his brother, O. E. Murray. The firm name was then changed William M. Murray & Brother,

and so continued until 1882, when they enlarged their


store-room that they might accommodate their constantly increasing trade, and changed the firm-name to Murray Brothers.

West Alexander is located within the boundaries of Donegal township, in its southwestern part, and only a short distance from the line of West Virginia. The elevation of the place above tide-water is seventeen hundred and ninety-two feet, according to the survey made by David Shriver, Esq., for the route of the old National road, which passes through the town, forming its main street. Along the north line of the borough runs the track of the Hempfield Railroad, which at this point passes through a tunnel about six hundred feet in length. This railway connects the city of Wheeling with the borough of Washington, and was opened for travel in this part (from Wheeling through West Alexander to Claysville) in the fall of 1856.

The borough of West Alexander contains one hundred and ten dwelling-houses, many of them of modern style and fine architecture, three church edifices in use, and another not used as a place of worship, a fine school-house, an academy building (not now in use for educational purposes), post-office, railroad depot and telegraph station, two hotels, nine stores, two saddlery- and harness-shops, one carriage-and wagon-shop, two furniture- and cabinet-making shops, two shoe-shops, one cigar-factory, two grain-and feed-stores, three millinery-stores, five physicians, two pastors of churches, two justices of the peace, two blacksmiths, and several artisans of other trades. The population of the borough by the census of 1880 was four hundred and twenty-five.

Vienna is a station on the Hempfield Railroad in Donegal township, about midway between Claysville and West Alexander, and is also the name of a little village or hamlet clustered about it and on the National road, which at that point is near and parallel to the railroad. Locally this settlement was known, years ago, as " Coon Island." The railroad was opened at this point in the fall of 1856, and about the same time a post-office was established at Vienna, with George Chaney as postmaster. He was succeeded by John Lights, and he in turn by David Frazier, who has been the postmaster here since. 1874. Besides the post-office, Vienna has two stores, two blacksmith-shops, and seven dwelling-houses.

Just south of the railroad and west of the bridge at this place was the location of William Hawkins' house, which was attacked by Indians in the fall of 1781, on which occasion he and his daughter with others were taken prisoners, and Hawkins was butchered by the savages while on their retreat to their villages beyond the Ohio, the daughter being spared from the slaughter to become the wife of a chief.

The Borough of Claysville lies within the boundaries of Donegal, in the southeastern part of the township. Like the town of West Alexander, it is located on the line of the old National road, which forms its main street, and also on the line of the Hempfield Railroad, which was opened from Wheeling to this point in the fall of 1856. The line of the railroad lies through the south part of the borough, and the track passes through a tunnel a short distance east of Claysville. The borough contains ninety dwelling-houses, three churches, a good school-house, a steam grist-mill, a tannery, a saw- and planing-mill, two hotels, post-office, railway station and telegraph-office, five stores (including grocery and dry-goods), a drug-store, five physicians,—Drs. William Denny, J. N. Sprowls, George Inglas, George Calder, and S. C. McCracken,—one clothing-store, a hardware-store, a tin-shop and farm-implement store, four millinery establishments, a marble-factory, a wagon-shop, two saddlery- and harness-shops, one jewelry-store and watch-repairing shop, two livery stables, two blacksmith-shops, and the usual proportion of artisans of other trades. The population of Claysville by the census of 1880 was three hundred and twenty-six.

The site of Claysville is part of a tract of land taken up by Thomas Waller, on a Pennsylvania warrant to him dated Feb. 25, 1785, surveyed April 2d of the same year as "Superfine Bottom," containing four hundred acres, adjoining lands of Robert Walker, Robert Henry, and other lands of Thomas Waller. The Robert Walker tract referred to as adjoining was, a tract of four hundred and twenty acres, located on the waters of Buffalo Creek, taken up by Walker on a Virginia certificate dated in January, 1780, and filed for survey June 5th of the same year, with Robert Woods, surveyor for Ohio County, Va. (then claiming to cover the western part of the present county of 'Washington). A warrant for part of this tract (ninety-two acres) was issued to John Stacks May 30, 1785, and surveyed to him November 25th of that year.

The first-mentioned tract, "Superfine Bottom," or at least the part of it embracing the site of Clays-vile, passed by subsequent transfer from the original proprietor, Thomas Waller, and became the property of John Purviance. The old Wheeling road was laid out and opened through it, and on this road, not long after the year 1800, Purviance opened a tavern in a large two-story log house (having three rooms on the lower and four in the upper story), which stood on the lot now occupied by the hotel of David Bell, Esq., in Claysville. The old Purviance house was demolished when Mrs. Kelly was proprietor of the land on which it stood.

John Purviance had been keeping tavern in his large log house a number of years when the preliminary surveys were made for the great National road from Wheeling to Cumberland, and when it became certain by the final surveys for location, made under Col. Eli Williams, that the route of the road would pass his place, he promptly surveyed and laid out a prospective town upon his land, and inserted in the Washington Reporter (and no doubt also in other


newspapers) the following advertisement, which is found in that journal's issue of April 21, 1817, viz. :

" CLAYSVILLE.—The subscriber having laid off a number of building lots in the new town of Claysville, will offer the same at public sale, on the premises, on Thursday, the Eighth (lay of May next. Lots will be sold agreeably to a plan or plot exhibited on the day of sale.

"Claysville is distant ten miles from Washington westward, and about 18 east of Wheeling, and six from Alexandria.¹ The Great National Road from Cumberland to Wheeling, as located by Col. Williams, and confirmed by the President, and now rapidly progressing towards its completion, passes directly through the town. The lots contain a front of fifty feet on the road, and a depth back of two hundred feet, with suitable and convenient avenues to each block of lots. The mite of the town is beautiful, well watered, a fertile country around it, and a good population. To persons who may purchase and improve the present season, the subscriber will give timber for any frame building that may be put up without price. On the day of sale the terms of credit will be made known.

" WASHINGTON, April 21, 1817." 


The result of this advertised sale of lots in Claysville has not been ascertained, but it is known that soon afterwards a store was established in the new town by George Wilson, who had a thriving trade there during the construction of the National road, from 1817 to 1820, when it was completed. It appears that he was all enterprising man, and in addition to the business of the store he carried on that of tailor or manufacturer of clothing, and furnished cheap garments (principally of cotton and linen) to the laborers and others engaged in the construction of the road: Another merchant who established a store here very soon after Wilson was Alexander Chapman.

The first house built on the site of Claysville after its laying out by Mr. Purviance was one erected by Samuel Sherr. Whether it was a frame or a log building has not been discovered. Another early dwelling (and perhaps the next after Sherr's) was that built by Mr. Miller, and at about the same time a house was built here by William Brownlee. One of the earliest residents in Claysville was James Sawhill, who opened the first tailor-shop. Joseph Bryant was a blacksmith here, and perhaps the first in his business. The first resident physician in Claysville was Dr. James Kerr. It has already been mentioned that the first tavern here was that kept in the two-story log house by Purviance. How long he continued to keep' it is not known. On the 11th of June, 1821, James Sargent advertised that he had removed from Washington to Claysville, and opened a public-house "at the sign of the Black Horse, in the brick house formerly occupied by John Porter." Whether the brick house referred to was erected for a tavern or a dwelling, and for which of these purposes Porter had used it, does not appear from the advertisement, but it is evident that it had been built very soon after the laying out of the town.

¹ The town of West Alexander, which had been laid out by Robert Humphreys in 1796, was re-laid out (or added to) by Charles De Hass in the same year in which Claysville was platted (1817). And De Hass in this reviving or relaying out of his town changed the name from the original " West Alexander" to " Alexandria."

That Claysville was a place of some importance even at the time of its laying out is to be inferred from the number of signatures appended to a subscription agreement made for the purpose of establishing a school and building a school-house in the new town in the first year of its existence. It is not to be supposed, however, that the people whose names appear on the paper were all residents of Claysville. Many, and probably most of them, were inhabitants of the township, outside of but of course reasonably near to the town. The paper referred to is as follows:

"We, the undersigned subscribers, do agree to pay the several sums annexed to our names [the sums subscribed are omitted in the list] for the purpose of building a school-house in the town of Claysville, on a lot given by John Purviance, Esq., for the said use. Claysville, 1817. Simon Shurr, Solomon Cook, George Wilson, Patten Gawlel, Samuel Gilman, William Porter, John Brownlee, John Griffith, B. McGiffin, Esq., Alexander Buchanan, Thomas Stuart, Michael Curran, M. Martin, Rionben Graham, William Creswell, Samuel Porter, Robert Graham, John Mesruken, Curtis Meloney, John Stevenson, Leonard Carpenter, John Young, Edward McLaughlin, Jasper Campsey, James Brownlee, William Robinson, Thomas Gurley. George English, Mrs. Adams, John McMillin, Samuel Gumlel, Samuel McMillin, Ebenezer White, Michael O'Curran, Daniel Cray, Alexander Porter, John Stevenson (hauls the timber), James Chruthen (one shingle tree), Abraham Morris, John Knox, John Marshall, Michael McGlaughlin, William McCall, Hugh Crary, John Mulligan, Andrew Bell, Robert Mulligan, Daniel Mesaughan, Joseph Thompson, William Stevenson, William Marshall, William Haskins, James Mitchell, John Hains, Robert Caughan, Burnet McKeehan, John McMillan, Esq., Hugh Crary, James Chruthers, James McNinch, Thomas McGlanghlin, Jacob Ozenbaugh, Jacob Werick, Esq., George Knox, William McGuffin, Andrew Bell, Christian Werick, Mrs. Kurtz, Philip Keesler, Burnet Boner, David Alexander Lyel, Alexander Lyel, Peter Carpenter, James Nebel."

The total amount subscribed by these persons for the building of the proposed school-house in Claysville was $255.50.

From the time of its laying out in 1817, Claysville remained an unincorporated town for fifteen years, and then, in 1832, it was erected a borough by act of Assembly, passed on the 2d of April in that year, by which it was provided and declared :

" That the town of Claysville, in the county of Washington, shall Is, and the same is hereby, erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Claysville, and shall be bounded and limited as follows, to wit : Beginning at a stake at the corner of land of Porter's and Dougherty's heirs; thence by lands of Porter's heirs north thirty-one and a quarter west, two hundred and fifty-three perches to a white oak; thence by lands of Charles Wilson north eighty-two and a quarter east, one hundred and sixty-three and three-tenths perches to a white oak ; thence by lands of James Worrel south one quarter east, one hundred and ninety-eight and seven-tenths perches to a white oak; thence by lands of Thomas Stewart and Dougherty's heirs south sixty-five and a quarter west, ninety-two perches to the place of beginning."

The time of the first borough election was fixed by the incorporating act on the second Friday of May, 1832. The result of that election cannot be ascertained, for the reason that the first six pages have been cut from the borough records. The first entry found having reference to officers of the borough is as follows : " May 28, 1833.—The Town Council met agreeably to adjournment. Members all present. Mr. Simon Shurr, the president, called the house to order, after which the following-named gentlemen were respectively elected to fill the several offices, viz.: Mr. Henry Jamison, treasurer; Mr. John Barr, street commis-


sioner; Mr. James Shannon, collector. . . ." In 1834 the Council was composed of Henry Jamison, Leeman McCarrell, James Noble, Robert McNeal, John Kelly. For succeeding years none but a very imperfect list of borough officers has been found, which, on account of its incompleteness and inaccuracy, is omitted here.

The first justice of the peace of the borough of Claysville was James Noble, who held the office by appointment until after it became elective under the Constitution of 1838, and was one of the first two elected under that constitution. The dates of his previous appointments and commissions have not been found. The list of justices of the peace chosen in the borough of Claysville since the office became elective is as follows

Nicholas Beat ly, April 14, 1840.

James Noble, April 14, 1840.

John Birch, April 15, 1843.

Nicholas Beady, April 15, 1845.

Nicholas Bearly, April 9, 1850.

Hugh McCaskey, April 9, 1850.

Alexander White, April 13,1853.

James Noble, April 11,1854.

Thomas S. Irwin, Juno 9, 1856.

James Noble, April 12, 1859.

G. W. Bodkin, April 9, 1861.

John Birch, April 12, 1866.

John Birch, April 12, 1871.

John Birch, Jan. 17, 1874.

A. J. Stillwagon, March 17, 1875.

James McKee, March 11,1876.

A. J. Stillwagon, March 30, 1880.

James McKee, April 9, 1881.

From the time of the building of the first schoolhouse in Claysville (1817-18), as before mentioned, it remained on the same footing with other districts of the township until 1858, when it became a separate and independent district. The present school-house seas erected in 1860-61. It is a fine and commodious building, in which the schools of the borough are taught in three departments.

Societies and Orders.—Hopewell Lodge, No. 504, I. O. O. F:, was organized at West Middletown, May 17, 1854; reorganized at Claysville in 1872.

Claysville Lodge, No. 447, A. Y. M., was organized Aug. 5, 1869. Officers : Isaac Teal, W. M. ; William Wilson, S. W. ; T. J. Bell, J. W..

The Claysville Sentinel, a newspaper "devoted to the interest of the Republican party politically and to the dissemination of useful knowledge," was established in 1878, the first number having been issued on the 21st of November in that year. Horace B. Durant, Esq., editor.

Hon. Daniel Rider, a former citizen of Claysville, was born in Masontown, Fayette Co., Nov. 28, 1808. He received his education at the old subscription schools taught by Clark Ely, James T. Redburn, and others. After leaving school Ile acquired an extensive library and pursued a systematic course of reading. His father died in 1826, and he came to Claysville, and engaged in the tanning business, afterwards having the Hon. John Birch for his partner for several years. Daniel Rider was a resident of Claysville for a period of twenty years. He emigrated to Fairfield, Jefferson Co., Iowa, in the year 1847, where he is engaged in the location and sale of government lands, in which business he has had great success. He participated in the centennial exercises at Washington, in September, 1881; and returned to his Western home, followed by the good wishes of the surviving friends of his earlier days in Washington County.

Hon. John Birch, another of Claysville's honored citizens, was born in Cumberland County, near Shippensburg, Aug. 5, 1810. He was educated in the old subscription schools, and came to Washington County in 1817, and settled on the waters of Buffalo Creek. He moved into Claysville in the year 1832, where he has since resided. He is a tanner by trade. He was elected justice of the peace in 1845, and has been reelected three times to the same office, but resigned before the completion of his last term. In 1848 he was elected county commissioner. He received the nomination for representative, and was elected, serving with Billingsley and Barnet during the sessions of 1875 and 1876.

Presbyterian Church of Claysville.—This church was formally organized on the 20th of September, 1820, while there were yet but a few scattering inhabitants in the town: An unpretentious frame building was erected as a house of worship, and was used by the congregation until 1830, in the fall of which year they occupied a new church edifice of brick, which had been erected at a cost of about $3000. The first minister in charge of this church was the Rev. Thomas Hoge, who continued in that relation till 1834, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Peter Has-singer, whose pastorate closed in 1838. Then for fourteen years the church was served by supples, among whom were the Revs. John Knox, — Whythe, and, after October, 1846, the Rev. Alexander McCarrell, who served in that capacity till December, 1852, when he was installed pastor.

The Rev. Alexander McCarrell was born in Hanover township, Washington County, Sept. 22, 1817. He was reared under the ministry of the Rev. John Stockton, graduated from Washington College in 1841, then followed a course of theological study, and was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Washington in April, 1845, after which for a time he served the churches of Wolf Run and Amity as stated supply. From October, 1846, as before mentioned, he suppled the church at Claysville for more than six years. On the 16th of December, 1852, he was installed, and commenced a pastorate which continued until his death, April 18, 1881. His wife was Martha, daughter of William McLean. They had four sons and a daughter. One of the sons is an attorney at Harrisburg, Pa., the others are Presbyterian ministers,—one at Shippensburg, Pa., one at Waynesboro', Greene Co., Pa., and one at Shelbyville, Ky.

The successor of the Rev. Alexander McCarrell, and present pastor of the church at Claysville, is the Rev. J. L. Leeper, a graduate of Princeton, who was licensed in the spring of 1881, and called by this church March 6, 1882. He assumed charge on the 1st of May following.     .

The present membership of the church is two hun-


dred and fourteen. Connected with the church is a Sabbath-school of two hundred pupils, under the superintendency of' T. C. Noble.

Methodist Episcopal Church.—The Methodist Church of Claysville dates back half a century, but the records have been so badly kept and are so defective that it is impossible to gain from them much information concerning the history of the church. Their first church edifice was a brick structure, which became insufficient for the requirements of the congregation, and the present commodious frame building was erected to take its place. The present membership of the church is forty-eight. It is one of several churches recently composing the charge of the Rev. George Sheets, and now under charge of the Rev. Thomas Patterson.

Roman Catholic Church.—For many years the Catholics of this vicinity worshiped in an old log church building that stood about three miles east of West Alexander. Scarcely a vestige of this old edifice now remains. In 1873 a brick church was erected for the use of the Catholics at the west end of Claysville. This congregation is more fully mentioned in the religious article of the general history of the county in this volume.

The Dutch Fork Christian Church.¹ —In giving a historical sketch of the Church of Christ, known as the Dutch Fork Church, it becomes necessary to refer to some facts which preceded its establishment, which facts will be found narrated in the account of the early labors of Thomas and Alexander Campbell, given in the Rev. W. L. Hayden's article on the Christian Church (page 416, et seq.) in this volume, to which article the reader is referred.

At a meeting held at Buffalo, Aug. 17, 1809, consisting of persons of different religious denominations, most of them in an unsettled state as to a fixed gospel ministry, it was unanimously agreed to form themselves into a society to be called "The Christian Association of Washington, Pa." The first article of the constitution which they adopted, after giving the name, declares the object of the organization to be " for the sole purpose of promoting simple evangelical Christianity, free from all mixture of human opinions and inventions of men." After the organization of the above-named association, Thomas Campbell labored under its auspices for a while. During this year his son Alexander and the rest of his family arrived in this country and joined Thomas Campbell in Washington County, Pa. In the spring of 1810, at the house of Jacob Donaldson, after his father had given a' discourse, Alexander Campbell, for the first time and at the request of his father, addressed the congregation briefly in a word of exhortation, and on the 15th of July of that year he gave his first regular discourse under a tree on the farm of Maj. Templeton, some eight miles from Washington.

¹ By Rev A. E. Myers.

This discourse was based on the closing verses of the Sermon on the Mount, and was very acceptable to those who heard it.

In the fall of that year the members of the Christian Association decided to build themselves a meeting-house, and they accordingly selected for the site a piece of ground on the farm of William Gilchrist, now the property of — Miller, in the valley of Brush Run, about two miles above its junction with Buffalo Creek. Early the following spring this house was erected, and the opening discourse was given by Alexander Campbell, on the 16th of June, 1811, from these words : " Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world,"—Gal. I. 4. On the 4th of May, a little over a month before the new house was thus opened, the members of the Association had met and organized a church. Thomas Campbell was appointed elder, and Alexander Campbell was licensed to preach the gospel. John Dawson, George Sharp, William Gilchrist, and James Foster were chosen deacons. The names of the members constituting this Brush Run Church were Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, Mrs. Jane Campbell and her daughter Dorothea, James Foster and wife, John Dawson and wife, Thomas Hodgens,, Sr., .and wife and his son James Hodgens, James Hanen and wife, William Gilchrist and .daughter, with his wife and her mother, George Sharp, Sr., and wife and son John, Thomas Sharp and Mrs. Sharp, wife of George Sharp, Jr., George Archer and wife, Abraham Altars, Margaret Fullerton, Joseph Bryant, and John Donaldson. These met and worshiped alternately here and at Cross-Roads. At Mount Pleasant, sometimes called Hickory, another church was organized about the same time as the one on Brush Run. The Campbells continued to minister to these and to preach and plant other churches in new fields. In 1813. James Foster was ordained an elder in the Brush Run congregation, and aided in the instruction of the church, and Alexander Campbell had been ordained " to the work of the holy ministry" on the 1st day of January, 1812.

By the year 1823 the number of members had increased considerably, and being very much scattered, they decided to form a church at Wellsburg, Brooke Co., Va. (now W. Va.). Accordingly the following persons, on the 31st of August, 1823, were dismissed by letter from the Brush Run Church for this purpose, viz.: Alexander Campbell, Margaret Campbell, John Brown, Ann Brown, Mary Sayers, Mary Marshall, Mary Little, Richard McConnel, Stephen Riest, Mr. Jones, John Chambers, Mary Chambers, Jacob Osborne, Susan Osborne, Mrs. Bakewell, Selina Bakewell, Mrs. Dicks, William Gilchrist, Jane Gilchrist, Mr. Brockaw, Nancy Brockaw, Alexander Holliday, Joseph Freeman, Margaret Parkison, Jane Parkison, Mrs. Talbort, George Young, Daniel Babbit, Catharine Harvey, Mrs. Braley, Solomon Salah, Delilah Salah. The remainder of the disciples at Brush Run


continued to meet regularly for worship, although considerably reduced in numbers. In 1826, James Foster, with several others, removed to Marshall County, Va., near to Beeler's Station, where they formed another church, and soon after, in the latter part of 1827 or the early part of 1828, those nearest to Bethany began to meet in that vicinity, and the Brush Run Church being thus weakened, they soon discontinued their meetings there. Very soon after this, however, we find a number of these members, with others, meeting in private houses on the Dutch Fork, some five or six miles south of the old Brush Run Church, and others meeting in a similar manner near West Middletown, on the north.

But before giving a specific account of either the Dutch Forks or West Middletown churches it is proper to remark, as a part of the true history of this movement and the chief actors in it, that after the Campbells withdrew from the Seceders and were thrown upon their own resources as independent religionists, they devoted themselves assiduously to the study of the Bible, and their minds and those associated with them underwent some important changes on the subject of church government, the mode or action of Christian baptism, its subject, design, etc. Hence, on the " mode" of baptism, becoming satisfied from the Scriptures that the immersion of a true believer is the apostolic action of baptism, on the 12th day of June, 1812, the Campbells, their wives, and three other persons were baptized in Buffalo Creek, on the farm of David Bryant, now the property of John Stewart, by Elder Matthias Luce, a Baptist minister, who had been sent for to administer the ordinance. From this time forward they and their brethren practiced immersion alone for baptism. We have thus given a few facts in connection with the early movements of the Campbells (Thomas and Alexander) in Washington County, because these facts and the efforts of these noted men have become a part of the religious history not of this county only, but of this age and of this country. The religious movement commenced by them in this county has assumed much larger proportions at this early date, we apprehend, than they or any of their friends at the time expected, the denomination now numbering over six hundred thousand communicants.

In the year 1828 a young man of the name of Absalom Titus, living with his widowed mother, Margaret Titus, on the Dutch Fork, about four miles above its junction with Buffalo Creek, becoming satisfied that it was his duty to become a Christian, went to Bethany, and on a profession of his faith in Christ was baptized by Alexander Campbell. Soon after this Campbell began occasionally to preach at Mrs. Titus', and in 1830 she was baptized near her own residence, now the property of Franklin Titus. The following year Alexander Campbell and Walter Scott held a meeting in a sugar-tree grove on the farm of Elizabeth Rodgers, now owned by her son, Patrick Rodgers, but occupied by his son Franklin, at which several persons were immersed. These persons, in connection with several of the former members of the old Brush Run Church who lived near enough, began to meet regularly for worship at Mrs. Titus' residence, and they were led and instructed in these meetings by the Campbells, James McElroy, James McVey, Robert Dawson, Walter 'Scott, and others. They first attended to the breaking of bread here under James McVey, in 1831. Soon after this they would, for the convenience of a portion of the members, meet occasionally at Jacob Deeds' house, now John Deeds', near the present church, known as the Dutch Fork Church. They afterwards met in a school-house near the same place, until 1834, when, on the 31st of May, the present church site was deeded to Samuel Cox, Jacob Deeds, Joseph McCoy, George Morrow, and Patrick Rodgers as trustees, and their successors, for the benefit of the church, by Jacob Deeds and wife and George Morrow and wife, The members immediately erected on this land a meetinghouse, which they continued to occupy until the present house was built in 1863, which was dedicated on the first Sunday of December of that year by President W. K. Pendleton, of Bethany College, assisted by A. E. Myers.

The original members of the Dutch Fork Church were the following, viz.: Absalom Titus, Margaret Titus, and her daughters Sarah and Margaret, Elizabeth Rodgers, Jacob Deeds, and Ann his wife, Jonathan, Elizabeth, Sarah, and Adam Simmons, George Morrow and Hester his wife, Jeremiah Linville, Elizabeth his wife, and Maria their daughter, George Guy, and Mary his wife, Joseph McCoy, and Mary his wife, Lydia and Mary Stoolfire, Fanny, Alexander, and Maria Martin, Andrew, Levi, Sarah, Ann, David, and Mary McKune, Mary McCreath, Henry Jameson, and Esther his wife, Joseph Kine and wife, Rosa Cox, and Lavenia Matthews. The following were from the old Brush Run Church : Andrew Chapman, and Nancy his wife, Joseph Bryant, and Dorothea his wife, William Matthews and wife, and Joseph Matthews. This church was organized about the year 1833 by Walter Scott and James McVey, but the records of the church here are somewhat defective; only relatively correct. In the regular weekly meetings of the church to break bread and for edification, William and Joseph Matthews, with others not mentioned above, contributed of their Bible knowledge in the instruction of the congregation for quite a number of years.

In 1844, Robert Graham, a student then of Bethany College, and now president of the Bible College of Kentucky University, was employed to preach regularly for the church, and did much towards bringing the congregation into scriptural order and correct discipline. In 1846-48, Moses E. Said, a man of very considerable power as a preacher and writer, minis-



tered to the congregation the word of life. Occasionally during all of these years evangelists from Ohio, Virginia, and this State visited this church, and held protracted meetings for days, and often added to their numbers many souls.

From 1849 to 1862, James Hough was the regular teaching elder of the church. During this period a number of protracted meetings were held by various ministers of the gospel, among whom were L. P. Streator, of this county ; T. V. Berry, now of Iowa ; W. T. Moore, now of London, England, and A. E. Myers, now of West Liberty, W. Va. The last of these held his first protracted meeting here in June, 1851, and often visited and. labored for the church up to 1862, when he became the evangelist of the church, and virtually took charge of it. He has remained in charge, except for a few short intervals, up to this date, having often young men from Bethany College as assistant preachers and teachers of the congregation. But being an evangelist, and laboring occasionally in an extended field in several of the States, he has not generally for long periods of time together devoted all his time to this church, but in connection with the regular elders and deacons of the church, and the aid of younger ministers from the college, has kept a general watch-care over the flock.

In 1878 the following persons, having been duly elected by the brethren, were formally ordained by fasting, prayer, and the imposition of hands, A. E. Myers and President Pendleton, of Bethany College, officiating; John Crow (now deceased), Abraham Morrow, and George Smith, elders ; Henry Chapman, David Winter, George Kernes, and William Shaler, deacons. The church now numbers two hundred and eight communicants; they are at peace among themselves, have no debt hanging over them, and their church property is worth about fifteen hundred dollars. They keep up a respectable Sunday-school all the year, and at present have for their ministers, each one-half of the time, A. E. Myers and King Pendleton, a son of President Pendleton, of Bethany College.

Zion Chapel of the United Brethren Church dates back to the year 1800, when the first organization was effected. The members at about that time (and who, as is believed, were the original ones) were Christopher Winter, Daniel Rice, George Crider, William Barnhart, George Framer, Capt. Jacob Miller, Andrew Deeds, David Simmons, William Sheller, George Kerns. Among the preachers to this church during its long period of existence were and have been — Flemmer, Jacob Winter, John Wallace, Jacob Ritter, John Fohl, — Holmes, William Beighell, J. L. Baker, Martin Spangler, Joseph Medsgar, M. O. Lane.

The first house of worship of this congregation was erected on Christopher Winter's land, at about the time of the organization. It was a log building, two stories high, with a gallery. The second meetinghouse was built in 1839, and after being in use for twenty years gave place, in 1859, to the edifice which has since been the place of worship of the congregation. The present membership of this church includes about fifty persons.

Pleasant Grove Regular Baptist Church.—This church was organized on the 14th of November,1840, with fifty-three members. The pastor was the Rev. Levi Griffith. Deacons, John Tilton and Samuel Kelly. Church clerk, Edward 0. Town. A house of worship was erected on land donated for the purpose by Deacon John Tilton. The church has now a membership of about one hundred and thirty, and connected with it is a Sabbath-school of about forty pupils.



Thaddeus Clark Noble, of Claysville, was born on Dec. 29, 1818, in Amwell township, Washington Co., Pa., on the farm now owned by Mr. Archibald McCracken. His grandfather was William Noble, who emigrated from near Glasgow, Scotland, and settled in Lancaster County, where he married Elizabeth Howe, a native of that county,.became a soldier, and was killed in battle in the Revolutionary war. The widow, with her son, James Noble, the father of the present Mr. Noble, and another son, subsequently removed to Washington County, while her sons were yet small. James Noble married Jane Boyd, who was born in the town of Dennaughey, County Tyrone, Ireland, and was the daughter of Robert Boyd and his wife, Margaret (Latimore) Boyd, a sister of Robert Latimore, late of Washington, Pa. Robert Boyd and his family, including Jane, removed to America and settled in Washington County when the latter was about eleven years of age. Jane (Boyd) Noble was a full cousin of Mrs. Martha McCook, the mother of the well-known " fighting" McCook family. James Noble settled in Claysville in the year 1821, where he continued to reside with his family, consisting of five sons and five daughters (of whom T. C. Noble was the eldest), until his death in 1873.

T. C. Noble attended the common schools of his neighborhood, living with his father, until he was eighteen years old, and worked occasionally at cabinet-making and undertaking, which was his father's business, until the age of twenty years. He then went to Illinois, stopping at Winchester, Scott Co., with twelve and a half cents in silver and a three-dollar note on the bank of Xenia, Ohio, the note not then known by him to be worthless. Unable to buy his breakfast with the bank-note, he went to work as a journeyman cabinet-maker, continuing in that employment for about six months, when he found he had earned one hundred and twenty-six dollars. He then started home, arriving in time to cast his first


vote in 1840 for Martin Van Buren. Thence until the spring of 1844 he was occupied alternately teaching school, selling merchandise, and working at his trade. In the spring of 1844 he went back to Illinois, taught school during the summer, returning again in the fall to his Washington County home, and from that time to 1849 was most generally engaged in selling goods for George A. Cracraft and Paden & Noble, during which time he also studied surveying, in theory and practice, with the Hon. E. G. Cracraft. In 1846 he was appointed by Governor F. R. Shunk to the office of deputy surveyor for Washington County and served three years, and was then reappointed for another term of like extent. The office then becoming elective, he was nominated by his party, but defeated by Hon. H. J. Vankirk by a majority of five votes. At the end of that term both gentlemen were again nominated by their respective parties, Mr. Noble this time being chosen by a majority of five hundred and five votes.

In 1849, Mr. Noble was married to Miss Sarah Mehetable Truesdell, daughter of Josiah and Mary Truesdell, who moved to Washington County from near Bristol, Conn., and settled near Claysville about THC time the town was laid out. By this marriage there have been ten children, three of whom, Lizzie M., Charlotte G., and Joel J., are dead, and seven of whom, Joseph T., James, T. Clark, Jr., Frances M., Harriet W., Ella I., and Katie M., are still living. J. T. Noble, the oldest son, is a graduate of Washington and Jefferson College, and a member of the Washington County bar. Frances M., Harriet W., and Ella I. are graduates of. Steubenville Seminary, and T. Clark, Jr., is at present a member of the sophomore Ass of Washington and Jefferson College.

Soon after his marriage Mr. Noble commenced merchandising in Claysville, keeping a general store, at which business he continued for a period of twenty-five years, at different times having for partners L. C. Truesdell (a brother-in-law), C. B. Abercrombie, and M. L. Stillwagen. During the thirty-three years which have elapsed since his marriage, Mr. Noble has surveyed more than a thousand farms in Washington County and Western Virginia, besides running many disputed lines, and serving under appointment as road- or bridge-viewer and in dividing townships for nearly every term of court for these thirty-three years, sometimes having filled as many as three appointments for one term. In 1855, Mr. Noble was the candidate of the Democratic party for prothonotary, and was defeated by twenty-five votes, while all but one on the same ticket were defeated by from seventy-five to two hundred and twenty-five votes. In 1857, under an appointment authorized by an act of the Legislature, he transcribed from the official records at Harrisburg, for the use of the county, all the drafts of the original surveys not found in the record books of the county. The surveys thus transcribed number about twelve hundred, and fill two large volumes. During these thirty-three years he has been extensively engaged in other business of various kinds,—the purchase and sale of land for himself and others, the buying of wool to the extent of from thirty thousand dollars to one hundred thousand dollars each year, the sale of harvesting machines and other farm implements, and during the war he dealt largely in grain, hay, and hogs. Besides his private business, Mr. Noble has also filled many appointments to offices of trust, such as executor, administrator, etc., and for fifteen years was a school director of his district, and was twice commissioned a justice of the peace, 1874, 1879.

In politics Mr. Noble has always been a Democrat, has been nominated without solicitation on his part five times for different county offices, and in 1880 was chairman of the County Vigilance Committee, in which campaign George Perritte, Esq., was elected sheriff, though that was the only important office to fill that year, and notwithstanding his party was largely in the minority. His standing in his party is such, that at different times he has been urged to become a candidate for the Legislature, and always declined, alleging his entire unfitness and his preference to be at home with his family. He has always been a strong advocate of temperance, never indulged in the use of liquors of any kind, and has even always abstained from the use of tobacco. For a number of years he was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but for the last eight years he has been a member of the Presbyterian Church. For ten years he has been a Sabbath-school superintendent, which honorable office he now fills. Though thus long engaged in active business, in employments of many kinds, as well as in managing the farm which he bought in 1854, and on which he now resides, he has never been a party to a suit in court, or even before a justice of the peace, and his own tastes have been such, and his character of that quiet and unobtrusive kind, that not only has his popularity been wide-spread, but his influence with both old and young has always been decided and effective.


Thomas Frazier's grandfather, Andrew Frazier, was a native of Dornoch, shire of Sutherland, Scotland. He married Christiana Ross, and in 1772 emigrated to America and settled in Maryland. In 1786 they removed to Washington County, Pa., and settled in Chartiers township, where they remained until the year 1800, when they moved into Finley township in the same county, where they lived until their deaths. Andrew died Dec. 11, 1838, aged eighty-six years. Christiana died Oct. 9, 1842, in the eighty-eighth year of her age. They had four children,—David, Alexander, Daniel, and Nancy.

David Frazier was born in Maryland in 1779. When seven years of age he went with his parents to Wash-


ington County, Pa., wherein his home was the remainder of his life, and his business, farming. He married Jane Ross, of Finley township. They had seven children,—Thomas, Margaret, Jane, Andrew B., Christiana, William, and Alfred. But one of these, Andrew B., is now living. He is a minister in the Presbyterian Church, and resides in Illinois. David Frazier died in 1839. His wife, Jane (Ross) Frazier, died June 20, 1868.

David Frazier was a very remarkable man, and it is to be regretted that so few details of his life and deeds can at this time be readily gathered. He was a man of fervid piety, one of the leading members of the Presbyterian Church of his neighborhood, and lived a life of noble Christian deeds. He was appointed justice of the peace in 1815, and held the office until 1834. He was a just man and a peace-maker, always urging upon those disposed to go to law an amicable settlement of their differences. In 1834 he was elected a member of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, and served one term. He discharged his duties honorably and creditably.

Thomas, eldest son of David and Jane (Ross) Frazier, was born in West Finley township, Washington County, Pa., in 1810. In his boyhood he attended the district schools and also for a time West Alexander Academy, and thereafter entered Jefferson College, from which he graduated about 1831. After leaving college he engaged in merchandising in West Alexander, where he remained for several years, when he removed to Concord, Ohio, and continued in business as a merchant. He remained there but two years, when he returned to the farm whereon he was born, and engaged in farming and general stock-raising. In 1869 he moved from the farm to the borough of West Alexander, which was his home until his death, Sept. 17, 1877. In business he exhibited good judgment, caution, perseverance, and watchfulness, combined with a good knowledge or market values. His long-time acquaintances speak of him as a man of high integrity, an obliging and liberal friend, one whose word was always as good as a bond for what he promised. He was a lifelong Democrat, and was elected to a number of important local offices, whose duties he discharged in a manner approved by his constituents. For the office of justice of the peace, to which he was twice elected, he showed a peculiar fitness.

He was twice married : first in 1839 to Nancy Hall, who died April 6, 1862. By this marriage there were four children,—William H., a farmer living in West Alexander; Agnes J., married to J. W. Blaney, a farmer of West Finley township; David R., a general business man of West Alexander, married to Mary Blaney; and a child which died in infancy. Thomas married his second wife, Barbara McDonald who is still living, in 1865.


William McLain, of Scotch-Irish stock, the descendant of a family which came to America and settled in Western Pennsylvania when it was an unbroken forest, was born near Canonsburg, Washington Co., June 23, 1779. His father died when he was very young, and the difficulties which he overcame in obtaining an education would have discouraged a boy of less resolute character. His thirst for knowledge led him to great application to study, and he was soon thoroughly equipped for teaching, which, although a farmer by occupation, he followed for more than thirty years of his life. He was a skillful teacher, a lover of learning, imbued with those virtues which make the character great, and many who hearkened unto his instruction and advice attribute much of their success in after-years to the lessons which he inculcated. He moved to the village If Claysville in 1830, and resided there until his death, March 2, 1872. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church for more than sixty years, and a ruling elder in the Presbyterian Church of Claysville for over forty years. He was a faithful, consistent, zealous Christian, always holding the interests of the church most dear, and ever ready to devote himself to her work. While a man of deep and abiding piety, he yet took an earnest interest in all that related to his citizenship. His life of ninety-three years was full of worthy, helpful deeds, and he was permitted to see all of his children, to whom his memory is a precious legacy, members of the church which he loved and served so well.

William McLain was twice married. His first wife, Agnes Fink, whom he married March 4, 1806, died Aug. 21, 1808, leaving two sons, John and Samuel A.

John McLain, who was born Dec. 21, 1806, never married. He lived with his father until 1846, when he settled upon a farm in East Finley township, Washington Co., Pa., where he still resides. He is an honored and respected citizen, an earnest Christian worker, always a leader in church enterprises. The Claysville Presbyterian Church, of which he has been a ruling elder for more than twenty years, has received much substantial support from him.

Samuel A. McLain was born July 23, 1808, and died in Jasper County, Iowa, April 26,1869. He graduated at Jefferson College, Washington County, Pa., and entered the ministry of the Presbyterian Church in 1835. He possessed many excellent traits of character. He was a firm adherent to the doctrines of his church, a lifelong foe of the system of human slavery, a thorough reformer, and an advocate of the cause of the oppressed. He was twice married. His first wife was Anna Hughes, and by her he had eight children, four sons and four daughters. Three of his sons, Thomas, William, and John, served in the Union army during the war of the Rebellion. John was killed at the battle of Cold Harbor. By his second wife, Kate Dawes, he had one child, a daughter.


Three of his sons and two daughters are now living, all in Iowa, except Thomas, who is chief clerk in the Cincinnati City Hospital, which position he has held for the last twenty years.

William McLain's second wife, whom he married Nov. 7, 1811, was Margaret McClelland. She survived her husband three years. By this marriage there were ten children, three sons and seven daughters; two of the sons, Thomas and William, died in childhood. The third son, Joseph R. McLain, was born Jan. 8, 1828, and resides in Claysville, Washington Co., Pa. He was married Nov. 27, 1849, to Susanna Ralston. By this marriage there were nine children, of whom, Lauretta M., the eldest daughter, died Dec. 28, 1879. Those living are William J. E., Maggie M., John A., Joseph M., David C., Susie S., Beckie E., and George W. Joseph R. McClain is an active member of the Republican party, and by it has been elected to important offices. He was the first Republican jury commissioner of Washington County, and has held the position of chairman of the Republican County Committee. He has been a member of the State House of Representatives, and served in the sessions of 1876 and 1877. He is now engaged in the wool and mercantile business in Claysville, Pa., and in the mercantile business in Dravosburg, Pa.

The daughters of William McLain were Agnes, Hannah, Mary, Martha, Margaret, Eliza J., and Sarah.

Agnes was born Aug. 8, 1812. She is the widow of James Sawhill, and lives in Washington, Pa.

Hannah, born Jan. 14, 1814, the widow of Ira Blanchard, died in Claysville, Pa., March 5, 1882.

Mary, born Dec. 1, 1816, lives in Washington, Pa.

Martha, born Sept. 21, 1818, died in June, 1880. She was the wife of Rev. Alexander McCarrell, D.D., who was pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Claysville, Pa., for thirty-five years previous to his death in 1881.

Margaret, born Feb. 15, 1822, is the wife of Robert McKahan, surveyor of Guernsey County, Ohio, where they reside.

Eliza J., born Feb. 11, 1826, died July 10, 1856. She As the wife of James Wright, deceased.

Sarah, born Dec. 7, 1830, is the wife of A. K. Craig, and lives near Claysville,


Dr. George B. Woods is of Irish descent, and was born in Centre township, Greene Co., Pa., Sept. 7, 1850. He obtained a good preparatory education in the common schools and Waynesburg College, in his native county, and studied medicine with Dr. J. H. Pipes, then of Cameron, now of Wheeling, W. Va. In 1872 he matriculated in the medical department of the University of Wooster, of Cleveland, Ohio, and was graduated M.D. in February, 1874. For one year after graduating he was associated in practice with his preceptor. He then established himself in Dallas, W. Va., and remained four years. In the summer of 1880 he settled in West Alexander, where he has a growing practice. Dr. Woods has made his own way in the world, earning by teaching and in other ways the money necessary to defray the expenses of his literary and medical education. He knows the value of time, and the probationary years so often spent by young physicians in bewailing their misfortunes were utilized by him and spent in making himself more conversant with the medical and surgical science, as found in text-books, special treatises, and periodicals of the day. He is wedded to his profession, and does not permit outside matters to engage his attention. He was married in 1875 to Lizzie M. Lucas, of Waynesburg. They have two children,-Lynn and Paul Woods.


Dr. D. S. Eagleson was born in Hopewell township, Washington Co., Nov. 19, 1837. Having received a good 'education in the common schools and academy, he engaged in teaching, which he followed for several years during the winter months. In 1859 he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Erastus Bemis, a native of Brattleboro', Vt., but at that time and for many years thereafter a resident of West Middletown, Washington Co., Pa. After reading a sufficient time, he attended lectures at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, where he graduated in 1863. He opened an office in Montgomery County, Ohio, and practiced in and near Dayton until the spring of 1867, when he removed to West Alexander, in his native county, where he opened an office and is now practicing. His time has been well employed, and he enjoys the confidence of the community. He clings to the Presbyterian faith, of which his father was a lifelong minister. He was married Nov. 4, 1863, to Annie J. Blaney, of Buffalo township, Washington Co., Pa. They have five living children,-Mary C., Laura I., Annie J., Nancy C., and Lizzie L. One of their children, Eva I., died Jan. 23, 1877, in her sixth year.

Dr. Eagleson's father, Rev. Dr. John Eagleson, was born near Cadiz, Ohio, Feb. 12, 1809; graduated at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, in 18.29; was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Steubenville at Beech Spring Jan. 8, 1833; commenced his ministry in Upper Buffalo Church Jan. 19, 1834; was ordained and installed pastor by the Presbytery of Washington Dec. 24, 1834; and died Jan. 23, 1873, having spent his life as a minister with the one charge. He was married in 1835 to Mary Stewart, who died in 1842, leaving three children,-Andrew S., David S., and William S. In 1843 he was married to his second wife, Mary Gordon, by whom he had five children, Alexander G., Henry G., Jane G., Hannah G., and George G.


Rev. Dr. John Eagleson was a man whose character was wonderfully symmetrical. He was unselfish, seeking not his own aggrandizement, but God's glory. He knew his duty and did it. Piety like a silver thread ran through his entire life. He behaved with all his heart in the scriptural character of the doctrines of his own branch of Christ's Church, yet always entertained a cordial feeling for those who differed from him. His readiness to maintain his own views of Christian doctrine with great firmness never impaired the fraternal and confidential relations existing between himself and his brethren in the ministry of other churches. As he expected to commune with God's people in heaven, he took great pleasure in affiliating with them here upon earth.


Dr. J. C. Brownlee is the third son of Ebenezer and Eliza (Davidson) Brownlee, of West Finley township, Washington County, where he was born Feb. 9, 1854. He was prepared for college in the common schools and in West Alexander Academy, under the tutorship of Rev. W. H. Lester. In 1873 he entered the freshman class of Amherst College, where he remained one year. He then entered Cornell University, and took a special course of two years, devoting his time mainly to the departments of natural history and chemistry, preparatory to entering upon the study of medicine. In the fall of 1876 he entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York City, and attended the course of lectures for that year. He returned home in the spring of 1877, and during the winter of that year taught school, his health not permitting him to return to lectures at that time. During the summer of 1878 he was principal of the West Alexander Academy, and illness after the close of his term prevented his attending lectures that year. After his recovery he practiced with Dr. Marshman, of Dallas, W. Va., where he remained until the fall of 1879, when he re-entered Bellevue Medical College, from which he was graduated M.D. in the spring of 1880. In addition to the regular course of the college, he took special courses on " diseases of the eye, physical diagnosis, and surgery." Soon after his return home he opened an office and began practice in West Alexander. He is well up in a knowledge of the most approved and latest methods of diagnosis and means of relieving human suffering. He is a member of the Washington County Medical Society, of the Presbyterian Church, and of the young Men's Christian Association, in which he takes the greatest interest, having filled the offices of president and secretary of the same, and having been a delegate to their international convention held in Cleveland in May, 1881.


Charles Mayes, grandfather of Joseph Finley Mayes, was of Scotch descent, and was born in Adams County, Pa. He married Margaret Finley, of the same county, about the year 1773, and in the year 1786 migrated to Washington County, Pa., and settled upon a farm near West Alexander, where he lived until his death, March 1, 1823, aged seventy-eight years. The children of Charles and Margaret (Finley) Mayes were Elizabeth, born March 26, 1774; James, born June 3, 1775; Isaac, born March 6,1777; Charles, born June 22, 1779; John, born May 12, 1781; Samuel R., born Aug. 23, 1783, he died in infancy, and the next son was Samuel R., born Aug, 12, 1785 ; Margaret, born Nov. 20, 1790; Mary Finley, born April 18, 1793 ; Jane, born Nov. 15,1795. The last named is the only one of the family now living.

Isaac Mayes, the third in the above list, spent his early life in farm labor, and while he superintended and directed the working of his farm during the last thirty-three years of his life, much of his time and attention of that period was given to the discharge of the duties of the office of justice of the peace, to which he was appointed Dec. 6, 1811, and which he held until his death July 16, 1844. He was a man of correct business habits, and left a systematic register of all his official transactions. Among the interesting items recorded is this, that during his terms of office he married nine hundred and thirty (930) couples. He was upright, kind, and faithful, a good man. He was married Nov. 25, 1813, to Elizabeth Alexander, who died April 16, 1816, leaving one child, Joseph Finley Mayes.

He married his second wife, Elizabeth King, Nov, 25, 1818. She died July 2, 1872, in her eighty-eighth year. By this marriage there were five children,—Margaret M., who died in 1830, aged eleven years; Sarah S., who is the wife of Dr. Edward P. Hale, of Wichita, Sedgwick Co., Kan.; Kate W., who is the wife of Joel Truesdell, of West Alexander, Washington Co., Pa.; Rebecca R., who died in 1825, aged six years ; and Samuel R., who died in infancy in 1827.

Joseph Finley Mayes was born in West Alexander, where he now resides, Aug. 25, 1814. He obtained his education in the district school and the academy of his native village. After leaving school he engaged in farming, which was his chief business until 1874. Since that date he has been busied with the duties of his office, that of justice of the peace, to which he was first elected in 1862, and in which he has been continued by successive elections ever since. He was elected to his fifth term in this office in February, 1882. In politics he is an ardent Republican, and earnest in his efforts to promote the principles of his party, but is esteemed by his political opponents, as is evidenced by the fact that he has at been elected to the position which be now fills by the com-


bined vote of all parties. He is a clever gentleman, with good natural and acquired business ability, and has the confidence and respect of a large acquaintance. His " book" shows at the present date, July 23, 1882, that he has performed the marriage ceremony for two thousand and thirty-nine (2039) couples, for which much-enjoyed and well-performed duty he has received in fees $6387.84. Twenty dollars ($20) is the largest fee he has ever received, ninety cents ($0.90) the smallest, and but five or six of this large number have failed to pay something. His marriage list includes representatives from various parts of the United States. The fact that his office is near the State of West Virginia, in which a marriage license is required before the important rite can legally be performed, doubtless brings to him many who desire to enter wedded life. Others go because of his reputation for knowing and doing his duty well.

Mr. Mayes is a member of the Presbyterian Church, as were also his father and grandfather. He was married Nov. 30, 1854, to Cassandra R. Jacob, of Ohio County, Va. She died Feb. 15, 1872, leaving one child, Lizzie A. Mayes, who died Dec. 24, 1879.

Joseph was married to his second wife, Carrie D. Agnew, of Wheeling, Dec. 18, 1874. She died Nov. 27, 1877.

He was married to his present wife, Rettie R. Bare, Nov. 22, 1881.


Thomas McQuown, a gentleman of Irish descent, married Mrs. Margaret Galloway, by whom he had two children, Margaret and James. Margaret married William Davidson.

James McQuown was born in Washington County, Sept. 24, 1784, and died in 1864. His father died when he was ten years of age, and he was thus early thrown upon his own resources. He learned the carpenter's and cabinet-maker's trades, which he followed for many years. He studied surveying, in which he became very proficient, and he at one time held the office of county surveyor. The latter years of his active life were spent in farming. The chief ambition or desire of his life was to accomplish whatever he undertook, and to excel in his work. His determination and native intellectual capacity, disciplined by reading and observation, were the mainsprings of his success. He was a member of the Associate Reformed Church in early life, and afterwards of the United Presbyterian Church. In politics he was a Whig, afterwards a Republican, advocating the principles of the latter long before the party was organized. He was married Sept. 29, 1805, to Sarah McGaw. They had ten children,—Isabella, Margaret, Delilah, Thomas, Sarah, James, Jane, Elizabeth, John, and Agnes. But two of the children, Sarah and James, are now living.


These three physicians are of Irish stock. Their grandfather, John Sprowls, came from County Tyrone, Ireland, to America' near the close of the last century. Their father, whose name was also John Sprowls, was born in East Finley township in 1818, and died Aug. 8, 1870. He learned the business of farming, and followed it successfully all of his life. He was a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church for many years, a charter member of the Windy Gap Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and an elder in that organization for a long time. He was married in 1850 to Mary A. McNay. Their children were J. M., J. N., I. N., Lee M., Annie M., Clara B., A. H., and Lucy E.

Dr. J. N. Sprowls was born in West Finley township, Washington County, Sept. 14, 1852. His literary education was received in the common schools and Oberlin College, Lorain County, Ohio. After leaving college he read medicine with Dr. Silas C. McCracken, of Claysville. In September, 1875, he entered Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, from which he graduated in March, 1877. After graduating he pursued the practice of his chosen profession with his preceptor for one year. He then established himself in his own office. He takes a great interest in everything that affects the efficiency and standing of himself and his profession before the public. In his youth he joined the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, and afterwards united with the Presbyterian Church, of which he is now a member. He was married March 6, 1878, to Maggie M. McLain, of Claysville. They have one child, Joseph William Sprowls, born May 6, 1882.

Dr. I. N. Sprowls was born in West Finley township, Washington County, in 1854, and died in February, 1882. In his youth he worked on the farm with his father, attending the common schools, from which he was advanced to Waynesburg and Mount Union Colleges, where he completed his literary education. His medical studies were under the direction of Dr. W. L. Grim. He attended the usual courses of lectures, and graduated M.D. from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia; in 1879. In the same year he opened an office in Burnsville, where he practiced until his death in 1882. He was thoroughly in love with his profession, and is gratefully remembered by his family and medical brethren.

Dr. Lee N. Sprowls was born in West Finley township, Washington County, Dec. 22, 1856. He received his education in the common schools and Mount Union College. He began his medical pupilage under his brother, Dr. I. N. Sprowls (deceased), of Burnsville, and graduated from Jefferson Medical College in March, 1882. Immediately after graduating he opened an office and began practicing in Burnsville.



Dr. William L. Grim, who is of Scotch descent, was born in Richhill township, Greene Co., Pa., Aug. 19, 1839, and is the son of Armstrong and Mary A. (Scott) Grim. His life until twenty years of age was spent upon his father's farm. He then taught school for two years. Aug. 20, 1862, he enlisted in Company K, Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, One Hundred and Sixtieth Regiment, and served until his discharge, July 1, 1865. Aug. 1, 1865, he entered the office of Dr. S. C. McCracken, of Burnsville, Washington Co., Pa., as a student of medicine. He, remained with him two years, and then attended a course of lectures in Cleveland Medical College. He returned to Burnsville, bought out his preceptor, and began practicing, which he continued until 1874, when he again went to Cleveland, attended another course of lectures, and graduated the following spring. He returned to Burnsville, where he has since been practicing with fair success. Like most rural practitioners, he engages in general practice. He is a member of the Baptist Church. He was married Feb. 11, 1869, to Lizzie A. Litman, of Fayette County, Pa. Their living children are John E., William E., Jesse E., Sturgis G. Outside matters do not attract him. He gives to those things only such time as becomes the good citizen. His father's family consists of nine children, all of whom are living. The doctor is the second son, and fourth in the order of birth.


Dr. James W. Teagarden, of German descent, was born in Greene County, Pa., Aug. 14, 1850, and is the second son of Hamilton and Sarah A. (Burns) Tea-garden. His literary education was obtained in the common schools and academies. When fifteen years of age he began teaching school, which he followed for eleven years. In 1876 he entered the office of Dr. W. L. Grim, of Burnsville, where he prosecuted the study of medicine for nearly two years. In 1877 he matriculated in Cleveland Medical College, from which he received his degree in 1879. For one year after graduating he practiced at Crane's Mills, in hip native county. He then settled in Burnsville, Wash. ington Co., as the partner of his preceptor. He enjoys a good general practice. He has been a member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church for fifteen years, and is a rigid temperance man. He was married, Oct. 26, 1881, to Hattie N. Crow, of Greene County, Pa., oldest daughter of Michael and Sarah J. Crow, of Richhill township.


Dr. William Denney, of Claysville, was born in Jefferson, Greene Co., Pa., Oct. 28, 1851. He received his primary education in and near his native village. In the autumn of 1864 he went to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, where he studied for four years in the Mount Pleasant Seminary, under the direction of his uncle, Rev. E. L. Belden, who was principal of that institution. He then entered the Wesleyan University of Iowa, where he studied for about two years. In 1870 he returned to his native town of Jefferson and engaged in school-teaching; which he followed in different parts of Greene County until 1876. He then entered regularly upon his medical studies, which he had been pursuing during his vacation in teaching, in the office of his uncle, Dr. B. W. Denney, of Garard's Fort, Greene Co., Pa. He afterwards entered the Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, in which he took the progressive course, and from which he graduated in the spring of 1879. In June of that year he established himself in Claysville, where he has since practiced. Professionally and socially he is esteemed by the community. He was married March 3, 1881, to Lucinda, third daughter of John and Sarah Bell, of Morgan township, Greene Co., Pa.


Of the thirteen original townships into which Washington County was divided immediately after its erection in 1781, the second on the list was the township of Bethlehem, which embraced the present territory of East and West Bethlehem and a part of that of East Pike Run township. The old township. of Bethlehem continued, with its original boundaries, for nine years from the time of its erection.

In 1788 a petition, dated August 29th of that year, and numerously signed by inhabitants of Bethlehem and Fallowfield, was presented to the court praying that a new township be formed from parts of the two townships named. The court took no immediate action on this petition, and it was finally rejected.

At the September term of the court in 1788 there was presented "A Petition of a number of the Inhabitants of Bethlehem township, in the County of Washington." praying the court to "Cause our



Township to be Divided Centerably and laid out in two distinct townships, which we would recommend as follows (to wit): Beginning at Petter Drake's, and thence a straight line to Wise's Mill, which has been ever accounted Centerable."

At the same term of court another and more numerously-signed petition was presented of inhabitants of Bethlehem township, praying the court " to lay us off into two Distinct Townships, as nigh of an equal size as possible," and recommending a division line, "Beginning at the mouth of Daniels' Run, thence with a straight course to Adam Weaver's, which has always been allowed to be the Central house, thence with a straight course to Thomas Hill's, tavern-keeper."

Both petitions had the same object, the division of Bethlehem into two townships, and differed only as to the division line asked for. But the first-mentioned petition secured the favorable action of the court; the division was ordered in accordance with the line indicated in it, and on the 18th of January, 1790, the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania confirmed the decree of the court, erecting from the territory of old Bethlehem township two townships, "the easterly part to be called East Bethlehem." 'It appears that for more than a half-century thereafter the status of the townships was satisfactory to the inhabitants; but ut the November term of the Court of Quarter Sessions in 1842 a petition was presented "of sundry Inhabitants of East Bethlehem" for a new township to be formed from off the southern side of said township to be called" Plum Run," and to Bc bounded by a line "commencing near the mouth of Fish Pot Run, to intersect the West Pike Run township line near the Toll-Gate on the National road, east of Bealsville." On this petition the commissioners reported adversely May 27, 1843, and their report was confirmed by the court. In the same year the boundary line between East Bethlehem and East Pike Run was changed by an order of court, giving to the last-named township a small part of the territory of East Bethlehem. Again, in August, 1861, the line between East and West Bethlehem was slightly changed, leaving East Bethlehem with its present area and boundary lines. The township's boundaries are as follows : On the north, against East Pike Run and West Pike Run townships ; on the east and southeast by the Monongahela River, separating it from Fayette County; on the south by the Monongahela and by Ten-Mile Creek (which last-named stream separates it from Greene County) ; and on the west by the township of West Bethlehem. All the streams of the township of any importance are mentioned in the preceding description of its boundaries.

Early Settlements.—The first white settlers within the territory of Washington County were Everhart Hupp, George Bumgarner, and Abraham Teagarden, and all these located in the vicinity of the mouth of Ten-Mile Creek. Everhart Hupp and George Bum-

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garner came together in the year 1766 from Culpeper County, Va., and each made a settlement, as stated, in the southern part of the present township of East Bethlehem. Hupp's land was about two miles from the mouth of Ten-Mile Creek, on the north side. He took up several large tracts,—one known as " Hupp's Regard," containing three hundred and eighty-seven acres, which was granted him June 3, 1769, on warrant No. 3318, and surveyed April 7, 1784 ; another tract, called " Hupp's Bottom," having two hundred and ninety-five acres, was given him on a Virginia certificate, and described "as including his actual settlement made in the year 1769." Everhart Hupp's wife was Margaret Hupp, and their children were George, Philip, Michael, Frank, Rezin, John, Henry, David, and Margaret. The sons Philip and Michael were in the war of 1812, being members of the company of Adam Wise, which went out from Frederick-town the latter part of that year. Philip Hupp afterwards married Phebe Johnson, and emigrated to the West. Rezin married Mahala Harris, and lived on Fish Creek. John's wife was Hannah Homer, and their home was near Clarksville. David followed the trade of stone-mason for several years. Both he and his brother Henry died of fever. The sons Michael and Frank married, and lived in Washington County. George Hupp was the oldest son and child of Everhart Hupp. He died in 1854, leaving a family of seven children, six daughters and one son. The son, George Hupp, Jr., now lives on a part of the original tract. Hiram Homer also owns a portion of the early homestead. The land of Everhart Hupp was near the present village of Millsborough, and he lived upon it until his death, which occurred in 1824. Some of the stones which formed the chimney of his early cabin home are yet to be seen upon the part of the farm now in the possession of Mr. Homer.

George Bumgarner, who came to this section with Mr. Hupp, located upon land adjoining that of his fellow-pioneer. He had but one child, his son Jesse, who was born in what is now Washington County, June 6, 1768. Jesse Bumgarner married Elizabeth Dolby, and at his father's death inherited all his estate. His children were Joseph, Jesse, Abraham, George, Elizabeth, Rachel, Delilah, Susan, and Hannah Bum-garner. Very many of the descendants of George Bumgarner still reside in this county. Mrs. Elizabeth Phillips is a grandchild, and Jesse Phillips and Jesse Bumgarner are great-grandsons. Mrs. O'Brian, Mrs. Dolby, and Mrs. Coon, who all live in or near the village of Millsborough, and Rev. Jacob B. McCormick, of Grafton, W. Va., are lineal descendants of the Bumgarner family.

Abraham Teagarden, whose advent into this section was contemporary with that of Hupp and Bum-garner, also took up large tracts of land that now he within the boundaries of East Bethlehem township between the villages of Millsboro' and Clarksville. He .was the father of William Teagarden, and no


doubt George Teagarden was also his son. George Teagarden's name appears as grantee in a deed from Richard Ashcraft, dated April 20, 1769, conveying all Ashcraft's right and title to "a pearsell or peace of Land lying and being on the westward of Monongahela River, bounded on the North by ____ Creek, . . ." and also transferring the order of survey for the same land. It is without doubt the oldest deed of lands lying within the present boundaries of Washington County.

In the year 1770 three brothers named Oliver, James, and Josiah Crawford settled in Fayette County, Pa., and each opened a ferry across the Monongahela River. James Crawford located at the mouth of Fish Pot Run, on the Fayette County side of the river, but he owned the land on the Washington County side, to which his ferry ran, and he also lived on this side a part of the time. He had three daughters and four sons. The daughter Margaret married Zephaniah Beall ; Ruth married William Campbell, and resided near Beallsville, in West Pike Run township, and Mary, who became the wife of William Hargrove, also lived near that town. The Hargrove and Beall families both lived and died in this county, but Mr. Campbell, who was a speculator, sold his property here and removed to Ohio. The sons of James Crawford were Ephraim, John, William, and Joseph, all of whom lived upon adjoining farms in Luzerne township, Fayette Co. At the death of James Crawford the ferry property on the Fayette County side of the river was inherited by his son John, and the salt-works on the Washington County side came into possession of the son Joseph. Of the property of Josiah Crawford, one of the early settlers, the ferry-site is owned by his nephew, Josiah Crawford, Jr., and the land in Washington County is owned by the heirs of Richard Thistlewait.

Thomas Hawkins was an Englishman by birth, who emigrated from his native land to America at a very early date. His first settlement was made in the State of Maryland, but he soon removed from there to a point near Beallsville, locating upon the property now occupied by Mrs. Sarah Hawkins. Mr. Hawkins married a daughter of James Crawford, who owned and operated the ferry at the mouth of Fish Pot Run. They had a family of eight children. Absalom Hawkins was the oldest son. He owned a number of slaves, and from 1803 to 1820, or later, kept a tavern upon the property now owned by Edward Taylor. He owned the Stephen Hill and the Gen. Crooks farms, and also owned six or seven hundred acres of land in West Bethlehem township, on the National road between Hillsborough and Beansville. The road runs through the farm he then possessed. Absalom Hawkins died on the old Pusey farm, in this township.

Richard Hawkins, the second son of Thomas Hawkins, settled on that part of his father's tract that is now in the possession of Col. Alexander Hawkins. In 1813 . he purchased four hundred and fifteen acres of land of Thomas Hill, which was located in Greene County, upon which he lived the remainder of his days. That property is now owned by his sons, William and John Hawkins. Another of his 'sons, James C. Hawkins, has a farm of three hundred and forty-five acres, called "Sycamore Grove." It is situated in East Bethlehem township, on Ten-Mile Creek, about two and one-half miles from the river, and was first owned by William Montgomery, who warranted it. Mr. Montgomery became involved and sold the place to Evan McCullough, of Greene County, of whom Mr. Hawkins obtained it, making the purchase in. the year 1833. There was a mill built upon the run, which was first operated by Mr. Montgomery, and also by each successive owner of the property, Mr. Hawkins continuing it until 1875. In 1843, at the time he bought it, he put in three carding-machines, a picker, and a fulling-mill, and these controlled a large custom for twelve miles in each direction. In 1870 the carding- and fulling-mill was discontinued, the machinery being sold to Morgan Wise, and taken by him to Waynesburg, to use in the establishment known as the Hook Mill. A saw-mill has been put in operation where the fulling-mill was run, a new dam having been built to supply the water-power. Of the three dams that have been built at this place, two have been the work of Mr. Hawkins. Besides the other investments and business interests of the Hawkins family, they have nearly all been extensively engaged in wool-growing and sheep-raising.

William Hawkins was the third son of Thomas Hawkins, the early settler. He lived and died upon a farm adjoining that of his father, and Mr. Patterson, a grandson of his, now owns and occupies the property. Thomas Hawkins, Jr., was the youngest son of Thomas Hawkins, Sr. He owned and lived upon a part of the homestead for a while, but in 1850 removed to Stark County, Ohio, where he resided the rest of his life.

John Welch came into possession of his land in this township through purchase from Christian Hames, who took it up on a Virginia certificate, and settled on it in 1774. It was assigned to John Welch, and was surveyed to him March 29, 1785. It was given the title of " Enniskillen," and was located next the lands of Zephaniah Beall, James McMullen, and Isaac Peyton. At the death of John Welch this property was inherited by his son, J. B. Welch, who was born on the place. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature from this district for a few years. At his death he left a widow and four daughters, who still reside on the homestead.

John and Jacob Hormel were among the earliest settlers of East Bethlehem township. John warranted a tract of land Feb. 16, 1786, which contained three hundred and ninety-three acres, and was surveyed June 1, 1786, and given the name of "Garland." Jacob Hormel resided upon the tract." Garland" until


his death in 1821, and left it to his sons, William and John Hormel, Jr. William Hormel died in 1827, and John Hormel then purchased his share and still owns the whole property. Thus it has been in the possession of the Hormel family nearly one hundred years. John Hormel, Jr., was born in 1801, and is now past eighty years of age. Two younger members of the Hormel family, Robert and Nathan, served in the war of the Rebellion. Both enlisted Sept. 5, 1861, in Company H, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, Robert serving until September; 1865, and Nathan receiving his discharge April 30, 1862.

Joseph Dorsey came from Ellicott's Mills, Md., to this section, and took up fifteen hundred acres of land, lying partly in East .Bethlehem and partly in East Pike township. The portion of his land called the homestead was a body of one thousand acres situated in this township, about two and one-half miles up the river from West Brownsville. Joseph Dorsey built a log cabin, in which himself and family lived a few years, but between the years 1790 and 1800 he built the stone house that at present stands upon the farm. Mr. Dorsey had several sons and daughters. One daughter was Mrs. Dr. .Wilson, of Steubenville ; Nancy became Mrs. Debois, and removed to Ohio with her husband; Clarissa and Betsey both went to Ohio and died there; and Matilda went to reside in Kentucky. Edward Dorsey died in Ohio, and John died in the city of Cincinnati while traveling. James Dorsey was born in 1790, and was the youngest of the family. He remained in this township, and his share of the property was five hundred acres of the homestead tract. He died in 1852, and left his estate to his two sons, George and James V. Dorsey. George had three hundred and eighteen acres, and the portion which James V. Dorsey possesses includes the old stone house in which they lived so many years.

Benjamin Kenney settled in East Bethlehem township in the year 1800, upon a portion of the land called the "Acklin Patent." Mr. Kenney had two sons, James and Wesley Kenney, both of whom were eminent Methodist clergymen. Rev. Wesley Kenney died in or near Philadelphia, where he was in charge of a church. Rev. James Kenney is still living. He is not only a minister, but also an excellent farmer. He has reared a large family; has a son in California, two in Illinois, and one living at home with him. He has also two daughters who live in Illinois, and four who still remain at home.

Solomon Smith was a mere boy when his father came from the East into this part of Pennsylvania, which was then termed "emigrating West." They stopped at Redstone Old Fort for several years, and removed to Washington County in 1786. Solomon Smith's sons were Reuben, Samuel, and John Smith, and Mrs. Chatham Jennings is his daughter. John Smith died in Ohio, whither he had removed. Reuben and Samuel lived and died in Washington County, and their children are now residents of East Bethlehem township.

The Lintons (Joshua and his son Mahlon) came from Bucks County, Pa., to this township, and about the year 1800 the father purchased the land upon which Barney McNamee had settled. Joshua Linton had three sons,—Mahlon, Benjamin, and Joshua, Jr. Benjamin never married ; Mahlon married Ann Hillis, and their children were Joseph, Isaiah, Mary Ann, and Margaret Linton. Mary Ann married Jesse Richards and lives in Ohio; Margaret, who married Thomas Packard, resides in Iowa. Joshua, Jr., also married. His son Nathan lives in Iowa, and Henry Linton is a citizen of East Bethlehem township.

John Bower, the ancestor of the families of that name, was son of Andrew Bower, of York County, Pa., who was a son of Michael Bower, a German immigrant. He was born April 23, 1772, and on July 15, 1794, married Elizabeth, daughter of Geo. Rex Worthy, who 'moved westward in 1795 and settled near Jefferson, Greene Co. John Bower, with his wife, followed in March and April, 1796, and settled at Fredericktown, then lately laid out, on the Monongahela River. On Aug. 18, 1801, he received a deed from David Blair for a tract of fifty-two and one-half acres, patented to Blair May 13, 1789, and called "Apple Bottom." This tract formed part of the homestead of Mr. Bower, and upon it he erected the large stone residence at the lower end of Main Street, in Fredericktown, in which he lived till his death, July 29, 1836. His widow survived him, and died Sept. 30, 1852.

Mr. Bower was commissioned a justice of the peace under the constitution of 1790 on the 10th of December, 1813, which office he held until at or near his death. He was the father of thirteen children : George, Philip, Jona Rex, Hannah, Andrew (who, as his father before him, was a man of more than ordinary intelligence, and after his father's death, in 1836, was elected to succeed him as a justice of the peace, holding that office till the time of his own death), Hiram Rex, Charles Worthy, John Kepner, Margaret, Elizabeth, Benjamin F. (who, following his father and brother, has been a justice of the peace for his township one or more times, and resides at Fredericktown), and Mary, the thirteenth child, born Jan. 3, 1821, having been bitten by a dog in her infancy, was affected all her life, and died single and an invalid about 1845.

George Crumrine came from Maryland in 1801. He was the son of Abraham Krumrein, who was the son of George Krumrein who died in Maryland in 1779. The latter was a son of George Lenhart Krumrein, who landed at Philadelphia from the Palatinate in 1749. Three sons of Abraham came over the mountains about the same time; George, above named, settled in East Bethlehem township ; John in West Bethlehem township, on Daniel's Run, where he


lived and died at an advanced age, leaving sixteen children ; Peter remained with George for a short time, when he married a daughter of - Wise and removed to Knox County, Ohio.

George Crumrine, who came to this township, purchased of Adam Hartman March 14, 1801, for eight hundred dollars, a tract called " Darby," containing one hundred and twenty-six acres. He also purchased seventy-three and three-quarter acres adjoining the foregoing on Jan. 2, 1810, for six hundred dollars (a part of the tract called "Greenland"), from Michael Rupp, who had purchased the land from Jacob Crotinger Oct. 1, 1806. These two tracts made a farm of two hundred acres, on which he lived until his death Sept. 27, 1832, at the age of fifty-six years. His wife was Elizabeth Garrett, sister of Nicholas and Henry Garret, who came from the same section of Maryland at about the same time. He was overseer of the poor of the township for many years. His children were George, Jacob, Peter, Daniel, John, William, and Abraham, and one daughter, Margaret. Of these, all remained in the county except Abraham, who emigrated to Illinois.

George settled about two and a half miles northeast of Millsboro', on the farm now occupied by his son Demas. Jacob was a miller, and owned the mill erected by his father on Plum Run, now owned by his son George. Peter was a cooper when in active life. He remained a bachelor, and died in February, 1882, at an advanced age, occupying a property immediately adjoining the homestead. Daniel was awarded by partition proceedings to June Orphans' Court, 1833, the homestead farm (excepting the mill seat), containing one hundred and ninety-three acres. He was born April 25, 1805. By trade he was a millwright, and in 1831, in partnership with Ephraim L. Blaine (the father of James G. Blaine) erected the saw-mill now occupied by John S. Pringle, in West Brownsville. He married Margaret, daughter of John Bower, Esq., of Fredericktown, Dec. 26, 1830. His wife died October, 1849. Their children are all living (except two who died in infancy), viz.: Boyd Crumrine, of Washington ; Bishop Crumrine, attorney-at-law at Topeka, Kan. ; Lesage and Alonzo are farmers, and occupy the homestead with their father, who is still living. Elizabeth, a daughter, is at home with her father unmarried.

John, son of George Crumrine, was a cooper by trade, and lived the greater part of his life at Fredericktown, and died in 1880. William was also a cooper by trade, but has long been a farmer, and resides in West Pike Run. Margaret, the only daughter of George, remained unmarried, and is still living on the property owned by her brother Peter, having lived with him for many years.

The name of James Regester appears among the names of the pioneers of East Bethlehem township. He lived and died upon his farm here, and many of his descendants, all good citizens, still reside here. A grandson, James Regester, Jr., owns and lives upon the old homestead.

Zephaniah Beall was one of the earliest settlers of East Bethlehem township, one of its most energetic and influential residents of the pioneer days, and a remarkable man in many respects. He was twice married, the first wife being a daughter of James Crawford, of Fayette County, and was the father of twenty-four children, twelve being the result of each marriage. Mr. Beall was the founder of Beallsville, and in the history of that town will be found more particulars of his life.

The Bane and Morgan families came from Jefferson and Berkeley Counties in Virginia, and located in East Bethlehem township, upon land they purchased of Joseph Avescat. Henry and William Bane, descendants of the early settlers, still own and occupy the Bane portion of the tract. A few representatives of the Morgan family still live in this section, owning property along the Monongahela River. Joseph Avescat, after selling his land, removed to Frederick-town, where he kept a public-house. The only descendant of his now residing in this vicinity is Joseph Avescat, Jr., of Rice's Landing.

Thomas Bishop raised a family in East Bethlehem township, of which Thornton and Hiram Bishop are lineal descendants. The farm of Nehemiah Jester is a part of the old Bishop homestead.

Joseph Alexander at one time owned a tract of land in East Bethlehem township. He married Jeanette Montgomery, by whom he had several children, Andrew Alexander was the oldest, and his wife was Harriet Lawrence. Henry Alexander married Mary Lawrence, and his widow still resides in Millsborough. Sarah Alexander became the wife of Harry Newkirk. Harriet Alexander became the wife of Solomon Wise, who, after her death, married another daughter of Joseph Alexander. .

The property upon which Eli Farquhar now lives was the tract upon which his grandfather, Thomas Farquhar, settled at an early day. Thomas Farquhar, Jr., is another grandson of this early settler, and his descendants have become very numerous.

Thomas Hughes located in this vicinity at a very early day, and remained in this township until he had passed the age of eighty years, when he removed to the State of Ohio, dying there when nearly a hundred years old.

The Enochs family was largely represented in East Bethlehem township, and its members were interested in the manufacturing industries. The tract of three hundred acres, known as " Hupp's Bottom," was transferred to David Epochs, to whom the warrant for it was issued Nov. 26, 1787. David Enochs also owned other lands in this township. On April 5, 1797, he deeded to his son, David Enochs, Jr., the two hundred and twelve acres which belonged to the tract "Righteous," warranted by James Foster, Sept. 4, 1786. It was situated on the water's of Ten-Mile


Creek, was sold to David Enochs, March 27, 1787, and patented to him March 3, 1789. The land of Isaac Enochs was the tract " Essen," containing fifty-five acres. adjoining the lands of William and Henry Enochs, John Hull, and .Samuel Bell. William Enochs had thirty-three acres, which were warranted and surveyed to him in 1793, and next the lands of George Teagarden, Everhart Hupp, and Isabella Perry, and was given the name of " Hazard." Henry Enochs' land, which was located on the north bank of Ten-Mile Creek, was obtained by him upon a Virginia certificate. and surveyed May 13, 1786. Henry Enochs had two sons, Isaac and William Enochs, but whether they were the persons of those names already mentioned is not definitely known.

Fredericktown, the oldest village in the township of East Bethlehem, is located on the west bank of the Monongahela River, one mile northeast of Millsborough, and eight miles southwest of West Brownsville. The village was patented and laid out by Frederick Wise, was built upon land owned by him, and was named for him as its founder. The survey and plot were' made by Isaac Jenkinson, and dated March 8, 1790. Jenkinson put up a house on the lot he had purchased directly after the town was laid out.

In the midst of the work Frederick Wise died, but instead of the project being abandoned all his plans and ideas were carried out by his widow, Catharine Wise, and the other administrators of the estate, Isaac Jenkinson and Peter Nossinger. In the charter of the town, or article of agreement made by Wise with purchasers of lots, it was specified that

"The said Frederick Wise for himself, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, doth hereby agree that all streets, alleys, and public ground, described in said plann, be given, clear of all charge and expense, for public uses; also all springs of water on the premises of said Wise, and all stone-quarries on his premises as long as the land is in his possession, but not otherwise, and all timber (except boat and shingle timber) given free for the use and benefit of Improving in said town for the space of one year & six months, to commence from the date hereof, to be cut on the said Wise's land whilst in his possession, but not otherwise."

In the contracts with purchasers, the latter were required to pay half a dollar per annum quit-rent on each lot, and " with all convenient speed to erect thereon a stone, brick, frame, or hewed logg house at least twenty feet square (or equal thereto) with shingled roof, stone or brick chimney, and enclose the said lot or lotts within post and rail fence or good railing within four years from the purchase," on penalty of forfeiture of lots ; " and no Distillery for the destruction of grain or fruit shall be at any time erected on the premises, either by or under the said Frederick Wise or any purchaser, in pursuance of his, her, or their purchase." The article was signed by Frederick Wise and the following-named purchasers, viz.: Isaac Jenkinson, John Baker, Francis Townsend, Joseph Green, Andrew Nossinger, John Richardson, Solomon Shepherd, John Shepherd, Solomon Shepherd, Jr., Peter Nossinger, and Edward Moran, " for himself and Blain Moran, two Lotts."

The house which Frederick Wise and his family occupied when they lived upon their farm was a simple log cabin, which stood on the lot where H. H. Weaver now has a store. The growth of the town has been slow, but even at an early date quite a show of business was made by the different trades pursued at this point. In the issue of the Western Telegraphe, Sept. 22, 1795, appeared the following advertisement of a manufacturing establishment in Fredericktown

"The Subscriber, Living in Fredericktown on the Monongahela River, Washington County, takes this method to inform the public in general that he continues carrying on the SCREW MAKING Business in it various branches, where he will make and repair screws for raising mill stones, packing flour, tobacco, for timber-wheels and fullers and printers presses. He also makes fullers shears, oil mill rollers, millers brands, &c., and as he has the advantage of his works going by water, flatters himself, that from the expedition and accuracy, not only in the above line of business but in all kinds of mill and other heavy work, he will be enabled to give general satisfaction, both to Emigrants and the Inhabitants of the Western Country, 9th month, 10th day, 1795, David Townsend."

David Blair, a gunsmith, had a shop near where the mill now stands. To supply his forge he brought coal in sacks on horseback from Fishpot Run, never imagining that the hills adjacent to the town were full of it. This fact was first discovered by John Bower while he was digging a mill-race; but Nathan Pusey was the first who opened a coal bank in this vicinity.

On Dec. 7, 1795, Isaac Jenkinson announced in the newspapers "that be has lately received from Philadelphia a fresh assortment of dry goods, groceries, iron mongery, and a valuable collection of books." Nov. 28, 1796, Archibald Hood advertised "that be intends commencing the tannery business in Fredericktown." The firm of Samms & Dilhorn was in business in Fredericktown prior to the year 1797, but a dissolution of the partnership took place and the business was continued in the name of Nathaniel Samms. As early as March 7, 1796, the village of Fredericktown had started a library, with David Townsend as treasurer of the society, and Isaac Jenkinson acting as secretary.

Fredericktown now contains twenty-three dwelling houses, two stores having stocks of general merchandise, two shoe-stores; one blacksmith-shop, a hotel, the post-office, and a handsome brick school-house. The steam-mill built in 1826 by Isaac Thompson is now in the hands of John Bower, Esq. In April, 1881, a factory was started in Fredericktown by Leonard Leitz, in which are manufactured handles and other articles of that class. The distillery at this point, which was formerly under the control of a man named Busson, has fallen into disuse.

The manufacture of pottery has been more or less a part of the business of Fredericktown in years past. The first attempt was by John Bower, who made red ware. He was succeeded by Jacob Wise, John Row followed next, and the last to engage in this branch was Eli Gapen. Stoneware was made here as early as


1843 by Polk Donahoo. Both of these specialties have been abandoned.

Powelltown is situated on Two-Mile Run, a little distance from the Westland meeting-house. It took its name from that of James Powell, upon whose land it was built. Powelltown formerly contained ten dwelling-houses. Mr. Powell had' a country store at this point. There was a blacksmith-shop here, and several other industries were carried on. Mr. Powell was a justice of the peace at that time. The sons of Mr. Powell were two,—Jeptha and Josiah. Jeptha lived single for many years, and then married a Miss Mitchell. They had no children. Josiah Powell married, and lived on the National road.. He sold his farm (which is now owned by Mrs. Deems), and removed to the West. Since the beginning of Centreville, Powelltown has been on the decline. There are but two families now living there,—one of these being the family of Mr. Peter Cleaver, who is an octogenarian.

Centreville is located on the line separating the townships of East Bethlehem and West Pike Run, lying partly in each, and equidistant from Washington and Uniontown. The village was laid out upon the land of John Cleaver; who built the first house in it. The recorded plat of the place shows it to have been laid out in 1821. It contains fifty-three building lots and a brick-yard lot. Prior to this, however, Robert Vale had purchased some land of Mr. Cleaver, and• divided it into building lots. Lot No. 17, .on the corner. of Main Street and Pine Alley, upon which is located the hotel of Joseph B. Jeffreys, is the first lot that appears as having been sold, and is one of those purchased by Robert Vale, April 7, 1819. Centreville has a number of fine buildings, the Methodist Episcopal Church being the most conspicuous. There are thirty-eight dwelling-houses, and the business part of the village is well built up. The hotel is at present under the management of Joseph B. Jeffreys. John R. Van Gilder, Lewis N. Cleaver, John Dabinett, Emmer Griffith, and Abraham Deems are engaged in the dry-goods and grocery trade, and Lewis N. Cleaver deals in drugs and hardware. William Wolf, Sr., is proprietor of the wagon shop; James Floyd has a boot and shoe store; William Wolf, Jr., has a blacksmith shop, and Jonathan K. Teale carries on the cabinet-making business. The physicians residing and practicing in Centreville are Dr. William Colton and Dr. I. C. Farquhar. Rev. Charles McCaslin is the resident pastor in charge of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Cedar Lodge, No. 633, I. O. O. F., was instituted May 20, 1868. The charter was granted at that time, and the charter members were Barnet Johnson, Thomas B. Theakston, Samuel M. Geho, Joshua N. Grimes, Thomas West, Joseph Farquhar, Joseph S. Gray, Ross McMillen, John R. Dunlap, Joseph Wilkes, Alexander McKee, S. B. Paxton, Joshua B. Deems. The first officers of this lodge were W. N. Harkins, N. G. ; E. S. Geho, V. G. ; L. M. Cleaver, Sec.; E. H. Griffith, Asst. Sec. ; William Fisher, Treas. The members of Cedar Lodge in 1881 numbered forty.

Centreville Encampment, No. 224, was instituted ten years ago, and the charter was granted Feb.17, 1882. The lodge has a membership of fifteen persons. The following are the present officers : Ahira Jones, H. P. ; E. H. Griffith, C. P. ; Thomas West, S. W. ; Eli Farquhar, J. W. ; T. B. Theakston, Scribe; Lewis M. Cleaver, Treas.

Bethesda Church.—The first society of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Centreville was organized in the year 1828. The following are the names of the pastors from the first to the present time : S. R. Brockman, William Tipton, John Spencer, David Cross, David Sharp, Abner Jackson, Jeremiah Knox, George McCaskey, John White, Richard Armstrong, Stinchcomb, Josiah Adams, — Dorsey, John L. Irwin, James G. Sanson, Warner Long, J. D. Turner, George B. Hudson, John S. Wakefield, Matthias M. Eaton, John Brown, Josiah Manses, T. C. McClure, D. B. Campbell, John McIntire, J. L. Stiffey, J. H. Henry, Josiah 'Mansell, W. A. Stuart, and Charles McCaslin, the present pastor.

In 1834 a lot was purchased of Daniel McJunkin by Battey White, Samuel Dotson, John Stuthers, John Iliff, and Hugh Hetherington, trustees. This was in the village of Centreville. A church was erected on it, and was occupied. until 1874.

In the year 1872 the handsome church edifice in Centreville was begun, but the building was not completed until 1874, and the dedication took place in September of that year. At the time of the dedication the membership was one hundred and nineteen persons. The society was divided into two classes, the first having sixty-four members under the leadership of L. F. Baker. Class No. 2, with A. H. Deaves as leader, had fifty-five members. The present church edifice is located in the. town of Centreville, on the south side of the National road. The society is included in the Beallsville District, which is composed of four appointments, Bethesda or Centreville, Taylor's, Beallsville, and Fairview. The entire membership of these different societies is three hundred and thirty-seven. The land on which the Methodist Episcopal Church has been built was first donated by Dr. Cotton, but as he afterwards exchanged the site with Joseph Jones for some ground in another location, to the latter gentleman belongs the honor of having presented the ground upon which the edifice stands.

The Village of Millsborough is situated in the extreme southern part of East Bethlehem township, and was founded about the year 1817. The first house built in the place was erected by Robert White, and the second (a brick building on what is now Water Street) by Henry Wise, both of which were put up sixty-five years ago. Both White and


Wise were inn-keepers. In the year 1840 the citizens of Millsborough applied to the Legislature to have their village created a borough, which was granted by an act approved June 12, 1840, which provided and declared

"That the town of Millsborough, in the county of Washington and territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at low-water mark in the Monongahela River; thence south seventy-eight and a half degrees west forty-two perches; thence south fourteen awl three-fourth degrees east five perches and two-elevenths; thence south seventy-three degrees west seventy-one and seven-tenth perches; thence south eleven degrees west one hundred and thirty-nine perches; thence south twenty-one degrees east forty-three and five-eleventh perches to low-water mark in Ten-Mile Creek; thence following low-water mark in Ten-Mile Creek to the Monongahela River three hundred and fifty-one and two-eleventh perches unto the place of beginning, are hereby erected into a borough, which shall be called and styled the 'Borough of Millsborough.' "

The first borough election in Millsborough was held July 6, 1840, when the following-named officers were elected, viz.: Burgess, John H. Bowel] ; Council, Weaver Heaton, David Spindler, P. F. Vernon, Paul Rankin.

The last officers of the borough of Millsborough (for the year 1878) were: Burgess, Thomas H. Carter; Council, Isaac Bell, Joseph Dunn, Jesse Virgin, George W. Horner.

The following-named persons were elected justices of the peace for Millsborough during its existence as a borough, viz. :

Remembrance Hughes, July 31, 1840. 

Wm. W. Hawthorn, April 13, 1841.

Persifer F. Vernon, April 15,1845.

Thomas Dalby, April 11, 1848.

William Bromley; April 10, 1849.

David Bumgarner, April 15, 1851.

WM. W. Hawthorn, April 13, 1853.

Isaac Sharp, April 11, 1854. 

Wm. W. Hawthorn, May 18, 1858.

Wm. W. Hawthorn, May 5, 1863.

Joshua M. Ammons, April 12,1859.

Jacob Conn, April 20, 1864.

Wm. W. Hawthorn, May 30, 1868.

Jacob Conn, April 21, 1869.

John H. Bowel, April 19, 1872.

John H. Bowel, Jan. 31, 1874.

Jacob Conn, May 24, 1874.

Josh. M. Ammons, March 17,1875.

John H. Bowell, March 21, 1877.

In 1847 an addition was made to Millsborough on the north side, the survey being-made January 26th of that year by Samuel Linton for Jesse Bumgarner. In 1878 Millsborough ceased its existence as a borough and passed again into the township organization of East Bethlehem.

In the sixty or seventy years of the existence of. Millsborough as a town, various industries have been carried on with greater or less success. One of the earliest was tile old Bumgarner mill, built by Jesse Bumgarner, which is still standing, and is located on the river, opposite the mill or factory built by Henry Heaton, Jesse Bumgarner, and others, in Fayette County. At this point the river was dammed. The power to run the mills was obtained from a waterwheel, which was so constructed and placed as to have the water strike the paddles as it passed through a lock. 

The Millsborough foundry, established many years ago by Baen, Eaton & Co., was situated on the bank of the river, on Water Street. To some of the company it was a financial success. In 1881 the buildings were burned, and have not yet been rebuilt.

The distillery of James Emery, situated on the Monongahela River, in Millsborough, was erected in 1867, at a cost of $2000. It has a capacity for manufacturing twenty bushels of grain into liquor daily. This distillery is next the old Franklin factory building, a stone structure three and one-half stories in height, which is used by Mr. Emery in connection with his distillery.

The Southwest Normal Schott Was established in Millsborough by that pioneer educator, Thomas Horner, who is mentioned at length in the educational article of the general history of the county in this volume.

The Millsborough Fair Grounds are a portion of the land called Sandy Plains, located midway between Millsborough and Clarksville, and are owned by James Emery & Co. The grounds were purchased in 1873, and the first fair was held Nov. 4 and 5, 1874. Millsborough has now two hotels, two dry-goods stores, two shoe-stores, two gun-shops, a millinery-store, a cabinet-shop, a tannery, a foundry, and a distillery, beside the churches, schools, and other social institutions. The only secret organization is Invincible Lodge, No. 741, I. 0. 0. F., which was organized Nov. 15, 1870. The officers are James Adamson, N. G. ; Harry H. Weaver, V. G. ; William F. Orr, Sec. ; William A. Hoge, Asst. Sec. ; John S. Gibson, Treas.

Churches.—In the early days of Millsborough the believers in the different Methodist faiths joined in the erection of a public house of worship. The house, a log building, was built in 1830 and 1831, upon ground donated by Jesse Bumgarner for that purpose, and the Methodist Episcopal people were to have the preference of occupancy, the Methodist Protestant Society to come next in the order of privilege. The persons who organized and became members of the Methodist Episcopal Church were Jesse Bumgarner, Elizabeth Bumgarner, Israel Dolby, Polly Dolby, Martha, Susan, Rachel, and Elizabeth Phillips, Jemima Herbert, Susan Bumgarner, Hannah Dille, Mary and William Barker, Jacob Spindler and his wife, Elizabeth Spindler, Emily Schoohe, Salome O'Brian, and Sarah Totten. The following-named ministers have been in charge over this religious organization : Revs. S. Brocooner, Spencer, Lemon, Coil, Samuel Lock, L. P. Saddler, Garrett, Jordan, Reuter, Wakefield, and the present preacher, Rev. D. Gogley. There was a Sabbath-school in connection, which was first superintended by Samuel Pedan, of Washington, who married Miss Rachel Carroll, of Millsborough. His memory is honored by the grateful remembrance of all who knew and profited by his good works.

The Methodist Protestant Society was regularly organized in 1834 by Rev. Thomas Flower, the original members being. Rachel Emmons, Rachel Sharp, John Rigy, Caleb Harford, Paul and Margaret


Rankin, William Rigy, and Nancy Rankin. A great many persons joined this church from time to time, until a large congregation was in regular attendance and the society was in a flourishing condition. After a few years the members to a great extent emigrated to the West and other parts, and the membership gradually diminished until finally the society was disbanded, the four remaining members going to the Mount Zion, the Old Side Methodists, and the Cumberland Presbyterian Churches. Among the ministers who presided over this charge were Revs. William Dunleavy, R. J. Simonton, Nelson Watson, and Mr. Browning. In 1855 the handsome brick edifice known as the " Methodist Church" was erected on the site of the log house built in 1830 and 1831. It is the property of the Methodist Episcopal Society, which has grown strong in numbers and influence in its existence of a full half-century.

The records of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church show that on June 17, 1838, a few people of that faith formed themselves into a society. They were George W. Bumgarner, Henry Alexander, Mary Alexander, Lebeus Clark, Mary Clark, Rebecca N. Eaton, Matilda Van Birk, Nimrod Grabill, Zeniah Grabill, Mary Ann Johnson, Tirzah Bowers, Harriet Clark, Nancy Rush, Mary N. Beatty, Elizabeth Wilson, Matilda Jennings, Samuel Beatty, Caleb Harford, Jane Gibbons, Jane Harris, Eliza Gibbons, Jeremiah Evans, Jane Jennings, Catharine Bumgarner, Jane Wilson, Milton Michener, and Abraham Black.

In 1840 this congregation built a handsome and commodious brick church, which is located on the road from Millsborough to Fredericktown. In the same year it was dedicated, Rev. Mr. Bryan, their first clergyman, officiating. Among the ministers upon this charge succeeding Rev. Mr. Bryan have been Rev. John Cary, who remained until 1844 (except the year 1843, when Rev. I. Adams suppled the place) ; Rev. I. N. Cary held the place in 1847, 1848, 1849, and 1850; Rev. Williams was the minister in 1855 ; Rev. Jacob Mornyer in 1858 ; Rev. John S. Gibson in 1870; Rev. A. W. White preached for the society in' 1877 ; he was followed by Rev. R. J. P. Lemon, and in 1881 Rev. I. N. Cary was the presiding minister.

Outside the towns and villages of East Bethlehem township are three other churches to be mentioned in this history. The Westland meeting-house, the place of worship of the Society of Friends, was built seven-eighths of a century ago. On April 12, 1792, James Townsend and his wife sold ten acres of the " Fecund Valley" tract to the trustees of this society upon which to build a meeting-house. This land is situated at the head-waters of Two-Mile Run, in East Bethlehem township, and was purchased for twenty pounds by Nathan Heald, James Crawford, Abraham Smith, John Townsend, John Heald, and Isaac Jenkinson. The deed given for the land described it as "containing ten acres, be the same more or less, it being a part of tract `Fecund Valley,' for £20; and whereas, the society of the people called Quakers, of Westland Meeting, did nominate and appoint the said Nathan Heald, James Crawford, Abraham Smith, John Townsend, John Heald, and Isaac Jenkinson trustees for the purpose of securing a certain lot of ground included in said survey for the purpose of a meeting-house, burying-ground, and other necessary purposes for the only particular use and school of said Society," etc.

Upon this land the Quakers built a stone church forty-eight by fifty-two feet in size and eleven feet high. It had twelve windows and four doors, with chimneys at the corners, which were evidently built with the church. The house is still standing, and appears to have been remodeled and enlarged at some time, but is now in a very dilapidated condition. The following, copied from the books of the society, gives the dates and reasons for discontinuing the meetings and selling their property, which they did some fifteen years ago :

" Last meeting of the Westland Friends, held the twenty-first day of fourth month, A.D.1864. Members transferred to Salem Monthly Meeting, Ohio (being the nearest meeting we have), namely: Samuel Endland and family, Elizabeth Taylor, Ellis Phillips, Mary Harry, Ellis Lilly, Susanna S. Cleaver, Homer C. Lilley, Hannah Ann Farquahar, Isaac Cleaver, John Cleaver; Ann Cleaver, Peter Cleaver, Jane Cleaver, Nathan Cleaver, Sarah L. Cleaver, Martha N. Cleaver, William McGuier, Rebecca McGuier, Lewis Harry, Sarah Harry, Josiah John, Joseph S. Crossdale, Morris Truman, Ann Crawford, Ann McGuier, Facy Endland, Ruth Jackman, Elisha Bennett. Thomas W. Lilly, Hittis Linton, Comely Harry, John Harry, Olive M. Linton, Jesse Harry, Isaac A. Cleaver, Mary A. Phillips, Letitia Griffith, Esther Pyle and children, Isaac McGirr, Joseph M. Pursey and family, Eliza Jane Griffith, Samuel Griffith, Amos G. Cleaver and family, Eli R. Griffith, Philena G. Barker, Own J. Griffith, John E. Cleaver, Benjamin Cleaver, Elizabeth Cleaver, Mary Eliza Cleaver, Ellis N. Lilly, Phebe Ann Lilly, Mariah Jordan, Matilda Linton, Benjamin L. Linton, Caroline Maxwell, Mary Ann Taylor, David John, Asenath John, Taylor John, Emma John, Joseph John, Oliver R. Griffith, Milton Marsh, Eliza G. Marsh, Israel L. Griffith, Hannah G. Marsh, Ruth Ann Phillips, Elizabeth Bennett, William Phillips, Ruth Swan. Solomon Phillips, Thomas Phillips, Elizabeth Philips, James Phillips, Ellis Phillips, Martha Jane Phillips, Hiram Cleaver, Isaac N. Cleaver, Eli V. Cleaver, Seth B. Cleaver, Philena Cleaver, Jefferson Cleaver, Joseph Lewis, Mary S. Lewis, William H. Shriver, John F. Lewis, Rachel O. Lewis, John F. Lewis, Mary L. Lewis, and Helen M. Lewis.

"The business requested to be attended to by the Quarterly Meeting having been transacted, finally concludes and is now laid down.


" WHEREAS, The Quakers of Westland Meeting aforesaid were a branch of the Redstone Quarterly Meeting, and having decreased in numbers by death and removals so much as to be unable to maintain a meeting, the Redstone Meeting aforesaid, in accordance with the discipline of the Society of Friends, took charge of the real estate, and appointed Amos Griffith and Lewis Campbell to sell the property."

They sold it April 16, 1866, to William Fisher, Amos G. Cleaver, and Joseph Farquhar for three hundred dollars.

The regular organization of a Baptist Church took place in East .Bethlehem township in 1849. It was under the care of the Ten-Mile Baptist Association. The constituent members were William Wood, James C. Hawkins and wife, Mary A. Hawkins, Nathan Ullery and wife, Jacob. Zollara and wife, Thomas


Hawkins and wife, Susan Zollars, James Greenfield and wife, and George Zollers and wife. Rev. William Wolf was the first pastor, and he was succeeded by Revs. Samuel Kendall, Job Rowell, Charles Tilton, James Miller, and W. W. Hickman, the latter at present established over this charge. The society has a membership of one hundred and sixty. They still occupy the frame church which they built soon after their organization. It was built on land donated to the society by James C. Hawkins for that purpose.

In 1853 the Methodist Protestant people who belong to the Mount Zion society built a neat frame church, which is beautifully situated midway between Fredericktown and Beallsville. The land upon which the church was erected was purchased of Reuben Smith. The house was dedicated by Rev. George Brown. The members were Reuben Smith, Amos Bentley, Abraham Keys, John Baker, Nathaniel Smawley, John Register, John C. Smith, and their wives, and Mary, Rebecca, and Stephen Hill. Many ministers have presided over this society,—Rev. Mr. Laton, who died of cholera in Pittsburgh, Revs. Joel Woods, Jacob French, William Betts, Davis Jones, Mr. Simonton, Henry Lucas, Isaac Francis, Jesse Hall, Valentine Lucas, Milton Stillwell, Harry Stillwagon, Mr. Wallace, Mr. Goodridge, G. I. Crowder, Henry Stone, Mr. Jordan, Mark Taylor, Mr. Colheur, Jeremiah Simpson, and the present pastor, Rev. Henry Lucas. An excellent Sabbath-school is connected with this church. Some of the history of this church is embraced in that of the church of the same denomination in Greenfield, to which the reader is referred.

The Plum Run Baptist Church edifice is located on the head-waters of Plum Run, a short distance west of Beallsville and south of the National road. The deed for the land on which it stands was made by Joseph Hill, Sr., to Hugh Jennings, and dated Feb. 18,1804. The first pastor of the Plum Run Church of whom any recollection is now had was Henry Speers, but the duration of his pastorate is not known. He was succeeded by Francis Downey, who was in turn succeeded by Cephas McClelland. The next pastor was the Rev. Adah Winnett, who continued in charge till about 1862, after which for a number of years the church was without a pastor. The pastor at the present time and for the past eight years is Elder McInturff. The church has now no trustees, and but seven members, of whom six are females. There has never been any Sabbath-school connected with the church.

Schools.—The first record from which any positive and reliable information is obtained concerning schools in East Bethlehem township is in an assessment-roll of the year 1800, wherein are contained the names of John Donaghoo and Peter R. Hopkins, schoolmasters. Of the latter nothing snore is known except the fact that he taught in that year. His name is not mentioned in the assessment-roll of 1801. John Donaghoo taught in the township many years. For several years he taught in a log house on the farm of William Welch, Esq., and later at Beallsville and at Hillsborough, at which last-named place he taught his last term, and entered into the mercantile business there. In 1826 he removed his stock to Fredericktown, where he remained until his death, in 1864. While teaching at the Welch school-house, he was in the habit of walking to Brownsville (seven miles) to take lessons in grammar, algebra, and geometry, which he afterwards taught successfully. He was one of the first to introduce the " word method" of teaching the pupils words and sentences. He was a good scholar, an able debater, and was an ardent supporter of the free-school system.

The old school-house in the woods, on the hill northeast of the residence of Daniel Crumrine, was built about 1815, at the corner of four farms,—those of George Crumrine .(now Daniel), of Adam Hewitt (now William Buckingham), of Daniel Zollers (now Neal), and of George Pricker (now Richard Crawford). The teachers were George Dobbs (who lived on the farm adjoining and south of Daniel Crumrine), Hiram Baker, a Mr. Boyd, father of the late William P. Boyd, of Fredericktown, then living at Frederick-town, and walking each day to his school, a distance of nearly four miles. Jeff. McClelland taught there in the winter of 1818-19. Peter Crumrine, lately deceased at the age of seventy-nine years, also taught there. The old road to Fredericktown passed within a few rods of the school-house. At a later date the road was changed to its present location. The schoolhouse above mentioned continued in use for only ten years, and was then abandoned for the Buckingham, or Grove school-house, built on the Buckingham farm in 1825. In 1848 John Reed, an excellent teacher and fine scholar, was discharged from this school for the reason that he taught his pupils words before they knew the alphabet. On this site in 1854 was erected a good brick school-house, which was then considered the best in the county outside the borough of Washington. Joseph B. Wise and — Buffington were among the earlier teachers in this house.

A log school-house was erected at Fredericktown about 1810.. The most noted of the early teachers in this house was Jonathan Knight, afterwards chief engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In 1816 a school was taught in a log house at Millsborough by George Dobbs, before mentioned as one of the teachers in the Hill school-house, at the corner of the Crumrine, Hewitts Zollars, and Pricker farms. Another very old log school-house was located at the Sandy Plain Fair Grounds, and there were several other primitive school-houses of the same kind in different parts of the township.

In 1835, under the operation of the free school law of the preceding year, the sum of $439.19 was assessed


and collected in the township for school purposes. The first school directors under the law (elected in March, 1835) were John Bower and J. Cleaver, by whom the township was divided into districts. In 1836 the report for the township was "non-accepting, nothing raised, but $171.50 received from the State." In 1838 the amounts from all sources for schools in the township was $574.74.

For the year ending June 2, 1863, the school report showed as follows : Number of schools in township, 9; number of teachers, 9; number of pupils enrolled, 464; amount of school fund, $1601.77.

For the year ending June, 1873, there was shown : Number of schools, 9; number of teachers, 10; number of pupils enrolled, 404; amount of receipts forming school fund, $2585.27.

The report of 1880 gives the following: Number of schools in the township, 10; number of teachers, 10; number of pupils enrolled, 413; amount of receipts for school purposes, $3211.58.

Justices of the Peace.¹ —Following is a list of justices of the peace of Bethlehem and East Bethlehem from the erection of the former, viz.:

¹ The original township of Bethlehem was divided into East and West Bethlehem in 1790. In 1803 they were erected into one district, and so remained till 1838, when they were separated. This list embraces the justices for the old township of Bethlehem, with those for the district composed of the two townships, and those for East Bethlehem during the period of its separate existence as a district.

Thomas Crooks, Nov. 21, 1781.

Eleazer Jenkins, March :3, 1789.

Zephaniah Beall, Sept. 20, 1790.

Joseph Hill, Aug. 29, 1795.

Isaac Jenkinson, June 3, 1795.

Henry Alexander, April 5, 1799.

Zephaniah Beall, May 2, 1802.

Jesse Morris, July 21, 1809.

John Bower, Dec. 10, 1813.

Jesse Bumgarten, Jan. 23, 1816.

William Welsh, Doc. 10, 1816.

John White, July 1, 1817.

Henry Alexander, Dec. 10, 1817.

Robert Quail, March 6, 1823.

Ephraim L. Blaine, April 12, 1827.

John W. Davis, April 23, 1828.

Jesse Cooper, April 20, 1829.

John Freeman, Jan. 24, 1833.

William Hopkins, Jan. 24, 1834.

John Grable, April 24, 1834.

Andrew Bower, Aug. 10, 1836.

Andrew Cox, Jan. 18, 1838.

Obadiah B. McFadden, June 21, 1839.

Ephraim L. Blaine, April 14,1840.

John Freeman, April 14,1840.

James Moffitt, Jr., April 11,1843.

Andrew Bower, April 9,1844.

Samuel G. Hart, April 15,1845.

Wm. W. Hawthorn, April 14,1846.

James Moffitt, April 11,1848.

Isaac N. Cleaver, April 9,1850.

Neall G. Beall, April 19,1852.

John Hormell, April 10, 1855.

Isaac N. Cleaver, April 16, 1856.

Benjamin F. Bower, April 10,1860.

Isaac N. Cleaver, May 10,1861.

Stephen H. Morton, July 12,1865.

J. W. Quail, July 12, 1865.

Matthew Blaine, Nov.30,1870.

Matthew Blaine, Jan. 26, 1874.

P. F. Wolfe, May 24, 1874.

James Morton, March 21,1877.

Ahirah Jones, March 27,1879.

Salt-Works.—About the year 1822, Henry Wise sunk a well for salt water upon the river bluff, about two miles below Millsborough, on the Monongahela River, near the mouth of Fish Pot Run. For many years water was evaporated in kettles. The works are at present owned and worked by Regester & Bair. The well is sunk to the depth of five hundred and eight feet. Six hundred bushels of salt are produced per month.


This township, as also the present township of West Finley, was embraced in the old township of Finley, the territory of which formed a part of the original township of Donegal for nearly seven years from the time of its formation by the trustees. The first movement towards the erection of Finley township was made in 1788, in which year a petition of certain inhabitants of Donegal township was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions of Washington County at the January term, setting forth :

"That the said Township is very extensive, being in length more than Twenty and in breadth more than Ten Miles, and of increasing population; that such an extent renders the publick business of that Township very burdensome to its officers and highly inconvenient to all its inhabitants. That your petitioners conceive it is their privilege as members of a Free State to have the administration of Government and Justice among them, with as much ease to themselves as is consistent with the public advantage. They therefore most humbly pray your Worships that a division of the said Township of Donegal may be appointed and a new township erected in the South Division as your Worships may judge proper."

The prayer of this petition was granted, and Finley township erected by the court May 6, 1788. The original township of Donegal embraced territory extending south about half-way into what is now Greene County, and upon the erection of Finley township all this southern part was embraced in its limits. Three years later, at the April term of the Court of Quarter Sessions, in the year 1792, a petition of inhabitants of Finley township was presented, representing "that your petitioner's are subject to many inconveniences, arising from the great extent of said township, and their remote situation from the body of the inhabitants therein, it being thirty miles from the north to the south bounds of the same. That they cannot conveniently, and seldom do, partake in the choice of town officers from that cause, and are often obliged to go a great way on business with them, sometimes too on the most trifling occasions, which we consider as a grievance. Besides being called to work on public roads at a great distance from home, which is also a great burden." For which reasons they asked the court to cause a division of the township by certain boundary lines suggested in the petition. This peti-


tion (which was signed by Thomas Ryerson, Ellis Bane, and twenty-three others) Was read at the April term and continued through the June and September terms, and at the December term, 1792, it was granted, with boundary lines as follows :

"Beginning at the State line where it crosses the Pack Horse Fork of Wheeling Creek ; thence up said creek, including Robert Wharton's, to the mouth of Robison's Fork; thence up said fork to the first main forks; thence up the Right hand Fork to the head thence straight to the mouth of Templeton's Fork of said creek ; thence up Hunter's Fork to Doctor Moore's plantation, including said plantation to the month of Hunter's Run; thence up the straight right hand fork of said run to the head of the Brushy fork of Ten-Mile Creek; thence along the Dividing Ridge between the brushy fork and the south fork of said creek to the head of English's Run ; thence down the Ridge on the east side of said Run, including the waters of said run, to tho South fork of Ten-Mile Creek aforesaid; thence across said creek and along the Ridge, including the waiters of Perkensons Fork to the head of the Duncard Fork of Weling; thence along said Dividing Ridge between the watters of the Monongahela and the Ohio Rivers to the State line; thence along said line to the place of Beginen."

The township thus taken from Finley was named Rich Hill, and in 1796 became a part of Greene County. By an act of the Legislature passed Jan. 22, 1802, an alteration was made in the line between Washington and Greene County, in which that portion of Greene County that became by the act annexed to Washington was made a part of Finley township.

On the fourth Monday of June, 1828, a petition from certain inhabitants of Finley township was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions of Washington County, praying for a division of the township, on account of " the disadvantages they labour under in consequence of their Township being large, that a great number of the inhabitants have to go from eight to ten miles to an election. Also there is so many roads that two supervisors cannot attend .to them in good time." The court upon consideration appointed David Frazer, Abraham Van Voorhis, and Jacob McVey commissioners to divide 'the township if thought to be necessary. The commissioners reported Oct. 6, 1828, that they had divided the township "by a line commencing on the Greene County line, bank of Hunter's Fork of Wheeling, and opposite to the mouth of Shoup's Run, bearing north five degrees west, seven miles and two hundred and eighty perches to a stone pile in the Donegal township line on lands of the heirs of Thomas Stokely near the head of a small ravine north 66½ Degrees East 145 perches from the house whereon James Simmons formerly lived now the property of Elizabeth Roney." The report was confirmed Dec. 24, 1828, and the two divisions thus made of the territory of old Finley township were named, respectively, East Finley and West Finley townships. Since that time no material :change has been made in the boundaries of East Finley, which are : On the northwest, Donegal township ; on the northeast, Buffalo ; on the east, Franklin and Morris; on the west, West Finley township ; .and on the south, Greene County. The streams of the township are Hunter's Fork of Wheeling Creek (which fork marks the south boundary of the township), Templeton's Fork and Gordy's Fork of the same creek, both of which pass through the township in a southwesterly course, and a small tributary of Buffalo Creek, which rises in the northeastern part of the township, and flows in a northerly course into the township of Buffalo.

Early Settlements.—Abraham Enlow was among the first of the settlers in what is now East Finley township. There is little doubt that he was here as early as 1775. He settled on Wheeling Creek, where he built a block-house for the protection of himself and family from the Indians. His first land purchase was of a tract containing four hundred acres, called "Big Flat," situated on the waters of Big Wheeling Creek, which was -granted to him Feb. 21, 1788, and surveyed 'March 30th following. On March 26, 1788, "Sugar Stick Run," a tract of three hundred and ninety-one acres, was warranted to him, and surveyed April 26th of the same year. Again, in 1790, he received a warrant for one hundred acres of land, which was not surveyed until June 9, 1799. Abraham En-low's sons were five,—Elliott, Luke, Henry, William, and Michael. His daughters, four in number, were Mrs. Thomas Hill, Mrs. James St. Clair, Mrs. Wolf, and Mrs. Jeremiah Post. Michael Enlow married and emigrated to Monroe County, Ohio; Elliott En-low married a Miss Atchison, and they had a large family of children. Their sons were three,—Henry, John, and Gideon..

Luke, second son of Abraham Enlow, married and died near where he was born, leaving a large family, six sons and three daughters. All except Ruth, who married John Montgomery, emigrated to Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. William Enlow, another of Abraham's sons, married a Miss Wolf, who died in this township a quarter of a century ago. They had four children,—Abraham, Elliott, Luke, and. Peter. Abraham, Jr., and Peter emigrated to Ohio, and Luke Enlow, Jr., died in Washington County. Of this branch of the Enlow family, Elliott, Jr., is the only one now living. He still owns a part of the old homestead, and another portion is the property of William McCleary.

Henry Enlow was one of Abraham Enlow's sons, and may be termed one of the original settlers, as he was one of the oldest children. He married a Miss Atchison. Of his numerous family the sons all emigrated to Ohio, and the daughters married and died in Washington County. From Ruth Enlow, daughter of Luke, and granddaughter of old Abraham Enlow, have sprung a numerous family. She married Hugh Montgomery, son of James Montgomery, who, Oct. 21, 1784, warranted the tract of land called "Tragical," containing four hundred acres, situated on the Robinson Fork of Wheeling Creek, and which was surveyed to him Dec. 30, 1784. Hugh and Ruth Montgomery had eleven children. James, the eldest, went to Ohio; John settled in East Finley township


and died here; William resides in Washington borough, where he has for several years been a justice of the peace, and is at present proprietor of a hardware-store ; Jesse died in this county ; Alexander resides in this township on the old Montgomery homestead ; and Cyrus lives on an adjoining farm. The daughter, Susan Montgomery, married John Thornberry ; Annie was the wife of William A. Sprowls ; Rebecca became Mrs. Martin Post; Mary married Simeon Sprowls; and Phebe, who married Henry Martin, resides in Ohio.

Benjamin and Isaac Elliott were brothers and Quakers, who came from the eastern part of Pennsylvania, and settled in East Finley township some time after 1780. In 1812 all the families of Elliott relatives emigrated in a body to "Slippery Rock," in Ohio, where there was a Quaker settlement and a church of the Society of Friends.

Charles Cracraft was of Irish extraction, and originally a resident of Virginia. In 1781 he was the owner of a farm located on the waters of Ten-Mile Creek, and Feb. 11, 1792, he purchased the tract of land called "Content" of William Atchison, located in the .vicinity of his other property. Charles Cracraft married Miss Atchison, and their children were three sons,—Joseph, Charles, and William. Joseph married and removed to " Owl Creek ;" Charles went to Virginia, where he was a miller, and married there; William married Miss Lackey, living and dying upon the old farm, which is now owned by his son Archibald. Charles Cracraft, Sr., becoming a widower, married the widow Ruple, but they had no children.

Andrew Kerr emigrated from Ireland in 1781, and bought a farm of Mr. Leeper, located on Buffalo Creek, in this township, containing one hundred and eighty-five acres. He married Esther Stephenson, a daughter of Squire Stephenson, their family numbering six, three sons and three daughters. Robert Kerr married Nancy Vanderhuff; James married Harriet Vansyck ; and William married Cynthia Pedan, and lives in East Finley township. The daughter Jane became the wife of Jesse Bane, and Eliza and Esther died single.

Charles, William, and Barnet Boner came into this section and warranted the tracts " Peace," "Plenty," and "Quarrel," containing respectively three hundred and seventy-five, three hundred and eighty-five, and three hundred and seventy-eight acres. These bodies of land were situated on Lick Run of Buffalo Creek, the run passing through the tract " Peace." The adjoining lands were then the property of Thomas Stokely, William Hawkins, James Stephenson, and Widow Hutchins. At the time of the survey, Aug. 11, 1785, the land was in Donegal township, but came within the limits of Finley upon its erection.

The Sprowls family of five brothers came from England to Pennsylvania, remaining for a time near Shippensburg. Eventually two or three of the brothers came to Washington County, and John Sprowls settled in what is now East Finley township. These brothers must have located in this county early, as an account of Hugh Sprowls, dated April 19, 1786, is found in the controller-general's report for a horse lost in the Sandusky expedition of 1782.

The children of John Sprowls were five sons and four daughters. One of the daughters married Mr. Kerr and emigrated to Ohio. James Sprowls married Eleanor Enlow. They had seven children,—Melinda, Cyrus, Jesse, Elliott, John, Simeon, and James. Melinda married Joseph Martin, and both are still living in West Finley township. Jesse lived and died single, and Elliott, who is also unmarried, resides in Washington borough, where he is engaged in the boot and shoe trade. Cyrus Sprowls was married first to Miss Post, second to Miss Melinda Elliott, and the third time to Miss Mary A. Ashbrook. He died in East Finley township, leaving three children, Jesse P., Mary A., and Milton R. Sprowls. The daughter married J. L. Rockafellow, and resides in Burnsville, West Finley township, and Milton R., who married Miss Hannah Cook, resides in this township on the old home place. Jesse P. graduated from Amherst Theological Seminary, and is now a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Ohio.

John Sprowls, another son of James and brother of Cyrus Sprowls, married Miss Hannah Reed, and spent most of his life in East and 'West Finley townships. His trade was that of a tinner, at which he worked for a time in Claysville and Washington. Abandoning it he bought a small farm in East Finley, but eventually sold it and purchased a larger one in West Finley township, upon which he died. His seven children were James, Luther, Winfield, Alfred, Jesse, John, and Elizabeth Sprowls. All of these except James and Luther are single, and still living with their mother upon the home farm. James married Jane Lively, who, with their two children; reside on a part of the homestead. Luther married Armice Fields, and lives in West Finley. Simeon, a third son of James and brother of Cyrus and John Sprowls, married Mary Montgomery, and seven of their eight children are still living. Oliver M., one of the sons, married Charity Cooper, and they with their three children are living on one of his father's farms in East Finley township. Albert S., another son, is an attorney of the Washington County bar, to which he was admitted Sept. 15, 1879. The other children live with their mother on the home farm, which is the old McCreary tract.

James Sprowls, Jr., the fourth son of James and grandson of John Sprowls, married Mary A. Sampson, by whom he had four children, three of whom are living. He is a farmer, and resides in West Finley township. William Sprowls, one of the five brothers who came to this county, married Dorcas Lowne, and they had five sons and two daughters. The daughters both reside in Washington. The son


Eli, unmarried, resides upon the farm of his father. William W. Sprowls, another son, married Miss Stockdale, and they with their large family live upon the original Sprowls tract. Henry married Miss McClellan, and is a farmer in West Finley township, where he has reared a large family. Cyrus entered the Union army in the beginning of the Rebellion, and died in the service. John, who married Miss McCrary, was also a soldier, entering the army from Illinois, whither he removed soon after his marriage.

Enoch Vansyock ¹ and Isaac Elliott, brothers-in-law, came into this township and settled on land near where the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church now stands. Enoch Vansyock's property was purchased by him of Thomas Atchison Oct. 9, 1795. It was the tract "Great Snake," containing three hundred and ninety-eight acres, situated on the waters of Wheeling Creek. His children numbered ten,—Abraham, Enoch, Moses, Aaron, Ann, Rebecca, Mary, Lydia, Hannah, and Rachel. Moses, Hannah, and Rachel all married members of the Shederick family, two brothers and a sister, of Dauphin County, in this State; Abraham married a daughter of Samuel England ; Enoch married a daughter of Rev. John Patterson, of Ohio ; Aaron's wife was Miss Cope, of Fayette County; Ann became the wife of Mr. Blackburn, of Ohio ; Rebecca married Timothy Patterson, and Mary and Lydia married two brothers named Newburn. Some of these families removed to the West, and the others remained in this section.

Joseph Ayers was a native of Eastern Pennsylvania. In 1802 he purchased one hundred and fifty acres of land of Francis Stone, Jr., a part of the tract " Stone Hill," situated on the waters of Buffalo Creek. The original tract was warranted to Isaac Phillips, April 3, 1786, and by him sold to Francis Stone, Sr., April 10, 1787. By the will of Francis Stone, Sr., dated Nov. 8, 1788, the property descended to his heirs, Francis, James, and Thomas Stone. On Oct. 17, 1801, Thomas deeded his share to his two brothers, and Francis sold a part of his share to Ayers, as stated. Joseph Ayers had a son and daughter. The son married a Miss Tilton. She died in a short time, when he married again and went West. The Ayers homestead is now the property of Mr. Grummond.

William Noble married Miss Harriet Spencer in Winchester, Va., and came to East Finley township to make his home. They had eleven children, five dying in infancy, and six reaching maturity. Sarah's first husband was Samuel Hornish, who was accidentally shot in Claysville. Her second marriage was to George Miller, and they now reside in Donegal township. James Noble has been married twice._ His first wife was Maria Maley, and his second Rebecca J. Richey. They are now living in Buffalo township. Robert, who also married twice, had for

¹ Elsewhere also found spelled Vunscoyve.

his first wife Rachel McKean, and for his last Mary Graham. They reside in Buffalo township. Nancy Noble and her husband, Daniel McPherson, live in Donegal township, as do Samuel Noble and his wife, Catharine Shaler. Henry C. Noble married Rachel Carson, and they live in Buffalo township.

The Knox post-office was established in 1856, Mr. Knox being appointed postmaster, and keeping the office in his store. There was one also at the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church, called "Pleasant Grove" post-office. The office known as the Simpson post-office was so named from the fact that the Rev. Mr. Simpson was the postmaster for many years. It has been removed to near the Greene County line. The list of 'postmasters of the Simpson post-office is Rev. Mr. Simpson, Israel Wood, John Fitzpatrick, and the present incumbent, Milner Hays, who has a general store in connection with the office.

The medical men practicing in the township in the early days were Dr. Hatcher, Dr. Joseph Pedan, and Dr. Jonathan Simpson.

Churches.—The first building known to have been used in East Finley township for religious worship was the Quaker meeting-house, built in 1797. It was a simple log house, which also did duty as a school-house. In the year 1800, during the term of school taught by Mr. Heaton, this building was burned, and the society was without a regular place for services until 1803, when a house of hewed logs was erected. The most prominent members in this Friends' meeting were Robert, Joseph, and Samuel England, Enoch Vansyock, Isaac Elliott, and their families. The organization was never a strong one, and when many of the members removed to Ohio and other Western States it gradually died out. Samuel England, an old gentleman of more than eighty years, is the only Friend remaining in this part of Washington County. Their last meeting in this vicinity was held more than forty years ago, July 14, 1841.

In 1824 some of the people known as United Brethren in Christ organized a church in this township, which was called "Mount Hope." The leading one in the work was George Ealy, and among the earliest members were Andrew Stellar, Samuel Featherly, Isaac Earnest, Henry Sherrick, and Christian Earnest. There is no account given of their place for holding services until 1850, when a meeting-house was built upon land given by George Plants for that purpose. Again in 1874 a new church was erected, this time a handsome frame edifice. The pastors who have ministered to these people have been Rev. Jacob Ritter, under whose preaching the society was organized ; Revs. Winter, Adolph Harndon, and C. Wortman. The last named is the present pastor, who has a church numbering one hundred members. Connected with this church is a burial-ground, wherein some of the burials date back more than half a century.


Stony Point Methodist Church was organized as early as 1826. For want of a place of worship preaching was first held at the house of Luke Enlow full sixty years ago, and afterwards at the house of Elliott Enlow. The first church building owned by this society was built in 1830 on the old Enlow farm, and its frame was the same as that of the present building. The first members were Sabina, Henry, Ellen, Elliott, Martha, Luke, and Susannah Enlow, Warren and Elizabeth Thornberry, Larry and Elizabeth Coffield, James, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Joseph Pedan, and Jemima Patterson. This church is often called the Enlow Church. The present pastor is Rev. Thomas Patterson, and the society, which is not strong, is under the Claysville Conference. A burial-ground is connected with this church, in which is a handsome monument bearing inscriptions to the memory of George Sprowls, Company K, One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, aged twenty-seven years, supposed to have died at Andersonville ; Jesse M. Sprowls, of same company, aged twenty-four years, killed at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863.

The United Presbyterian congregation of Wheeling¹ dates back forty-six years. In May, 1836, a number of members of the congregation of South Buffalo living in East and West Finley townships, together with a few families from the congregation of Mount Hope, petitioned the Presbytery of Chartiers to be formed into a congregation to be known as the congregation of Wheeling. The name of the congregation was taken from Wheeling Creek, the branches of which drain the section of country in which the petitioners lived. In answer to this petition, on July 5th the Presbytery appointed Rev. David French to preach in the new congregation on the second Sabbath of August, and to hold an election for elders on Monday following. There is a record in the oldest minute-book of the session as a kind of preface stating that "The Rev. David French preaches and holds an election for elders, where and when Thomas Hutcheson and William McClellan were elected, and James Hutcheson and John Scott, formerly elders, the first in South Buffalo and the latter in Mount Hope, were installed as ruling elders in Wheeling congregation."

The number of persons and the names of those uniting in the organization we have no means of ascertaining, as the minutes of the session for the first seven years were either not recorded at all or that record has been lost. During these years the congregation enjoyed the services of various ministers and licentiates sent to them as supples from the Presbytery. We know but little of their efforts and struggles during this time. Their number must have been few, for they were not able to procure more than the

¹ The history of this church is furnished by the pastor, the Rev. James A. McKee.

half time of a minister's-labors in those days of low salaries. Their place of meeting for public worship for a time was in private houses and at a tent erected on the side of a hill, a romantic spot, still adorned by its native forests. This little assembly, which for a few years was migratory according to the convenience of those who entertained it, or the character of the weather, at length found a sanctuary house in a little frame church building erected on the crest of the hill, on the site of which had stood the tent around which the people had often gathered to worship God.

The first pastor was Rev. Joseph Shaw, who accepted a call from this congregation in connection with West Alexander on Sept. 5, 1843. The session at this time had but two members, Thomas Hutcheson and John Scott, the two others elected at the organization having been removed by death. An addition was soon made to the session in the election of John Johnston, James Holmes, and James Hunter, who were ordained and installed on Sabbath following the 3d of August, 1844 Mr. Shaw continued in the pastorate till Oct. 5, 1852. His labors appear to have been blessed, and thus made effectual in the upbuilding of the congregation. At every communion season some were added to the church. At one time eighteen were received. Near the end of this pastorate a spirit of emigration took possession of many in this part of Washington County, and from it the congregation suffered a severe loss in the depletion of its roll. But while Washington County lost some good citizens, and Wheeling congregation some good members by this emigration, it is a pleasing reflection that the Brownlees, the McClellans, the Richmonds, the Holmes, and many others who left this part of the country carried with them the savor .of that piety which had shed its benign influence around them whilst they had their homes in the Scotch-Irish region of Pennsylvania.

The Rev. James C. Murch was ordained and installed pastor of West Alexander and Wheeling congregations on Sept. 8, 1853, giving half of his time to each place. Mr. Murch entered upon this his first pastorate with a vigorous constitution, and with real devotion to the distinctive principles of the church of his choice. He was a fearless defender of the anti-slavery position of the church. Though there was not a formal organization of a Sabbath-school during his ministry, yet the instruction of the youth was not neglected. He met with the young people of the congregation on Sabbath morning before public worship commenced, and spent one hour in the study of a portion of the scripture which had been assigned as the lesson for the day, and in addition to this held "diets of catechising" frequently in different parts of the congregation. The congregation was not largely increased in numbers, but by the fruits of this faithful labor it made some advance. The session, which had again been reduced by death and removal, was strengthened by the addition of Ebenezer Brownlee


and James R. Donaldson some time in the month of June, 1867.

Mr. Murch was released from this charge in June, 1859. This release was caused by changes taking place in the West Alexander part of his charge, by which that congregation wished to secure the services of a pastor for the whole of his time. Mr. Murch left Wheeling congregation with the kindliest of feelings existing between him and the people. Some time in 1859 this church united with a little congregation known as the Heads of Wheeling, the place of worship in which was six miles southeast, and early in 1860 these two congregations, with a few people living in and around Burnstown, united in calling the Rev. James A. McKee to become their pastor. Mr. McKee entered upon his labors on the first Sabbath of Jane, and was installed pastor of this united charge on Aug. 9, 1860, and still continues. in the Wheeling branch of this charge.

In 1860 but thirty-eight members are reported as belonging to the Wheeling congregation. There was an organization of a Sabbath-school effected in June, 1860, and a semi-monthly prayer-meeting started, both of which have been kept up with varying degrees of interest and success till the present time. The Sabbath-school has had an enrollment of from fifty to ninety-five scholars, and under the care of from eight to ten devoted teachers has been doing a good work.

Three times has the session felt the need of adding to its membership. On Jan. 7, 1864, Mr. William Sutherland was ordained and installed, and Mr. Franklin Bell installed as ruling elders, and on April 23, 1868, Messrs. James Howe and James Reaney were ordained and installed ruling elders, and on April 22, 1881, Henry P. Danley was added to the session.

The old house in which the congregation had met for twenty-five years or more began to show the effects of the storms to which it had been exposed on the high hill where it stood, and during 1866 arrangements were made for the erection of a new one. The congregation selected a site about fifty rods north of where the old church stood, and contracted for a new building to be completed in the fall of 1867. It was first occupied on the first Sabbath of December, 1867. This house is thirty-two by fifty-five feet, designed to seat about two hundred and seventy-five persons. The Mite Society of the congregation repainted, carpeted, and partly refurnished the church during the summer of 1880.

The record of the congregation at this time (March, 1882) may be briefly stated stated as follows : Pastor, Rev. James A. McKee ; number of members, ninety-two ; Sabbath-school officers. and teachers, ten; scholars, seventy-five ; session, James Howe, James Reaney, H. P. Danley.

Pleasant Grove Baptist Church. was organized Nov. 14, 1840. Letters of dismissal were asked for. from the Ten-Mile Baptist Church, and granted to Messrs. Tilton, Vansyock, and Griffith, and fifty others, representatives of the Pleasant Grove Society,. on Saturday before the fourth Lord's day in October, 1840. The members of the newly-organized society were Levi Griffith, Ann Griffith, John Tilton, Elizabeth Tilton, Enoch Vansyock, Catharine Vansyock, Robert Patterson, Nancy Patterson, Edward O. Towne, John Pedan, Hannah Pedan, Rebecca Pedan, Enoch Tilton, Elizabeth Tilton, Charles Tilton, William Pratt, Joseph Bierr, Isabella Bierr, Martha McNeal, Easter Kerr, Eva Towne, Ann Towne, Mary Kelly, Eliza J. Jobs, Thomas Smith, Elizabeth Smith, Ellen McPeak, Elizabeth Towne, Nancy Dixon, Adam Reid, Daniel Tilton, Abagail Tilton, John Horn, William McPeak, Samuel Kelley, Nancy Tilton, Margaret McCracken, Letitia Patterson, Sarah Williams, Rachel Vansyock, Mary A. Towne, Nancy Kerr, Mary Horn, Sarah Carter, Mary M. Horn, Morrison Jones, Rebecca Jones, Elliott Patterson, Sarah Patterson, Oma Jobs, Catharine Brown, and William Patterson.

On Nov. 14, 1840, services were held, conducted by Simon Sigfried, John Thomas, and others. The first pastor who labored with this people came to them Dec. 17, 1840.

The following named have been pastors of this church : Revs. Levi Griffith, Dec. 17, 1840 ; Eli C. Town, March, 1848; John Scott, May 17, 1851; Job Russell, March 20, 1858; John B. Lineka, April 1, 1861; G. W. Wharton, May 5, 1866; Morgan Linton, April, 1874; J. A. Snodgrass, July 1, 1873; J. A. Simpson, Dec. 12, 1874; L. R. Steele, May 10, 1877; J. A. Simpson, July 14, 1879; J. R. Foulks, July 10, 1880.

The following persons have been chosen deacons since the organization : John Tilton, Samuel Kelly, Elliot Patterson, Daniel Tilton, Thomas McKehan, J. Y. Holmes, Josiah Patterson, William McCreery, Joseph Ryan, Munson Trussell.

From this church have gone out members to assist in the establishment of the churches of Buffalo, North Wheeling, and West Finley. Four young men from this church have been licensed to preach : Eli C. Town (in 1847, who soon after became its pastor), Hugh R. Craig, William Scott (in 1854), and J. G. Holmes. The present membership of the church is one hundred and twenty-three.

The Enon Baptist Church was organized many years ago, including members in East Finley and in Rich Hill township, Greene County. The records having been kept in Greene County, no facts have been gained from them in reference to the organization and first members of this church. The church edifice (located in Rich Hill) in which this congregation worshiped has given place to a new frame church, which has recently been built on a site some distance above the little village of Enon, on the Washington County side of Wheeling Creek. It was formally


dedicated on Sunday, Jan. 29, 1882, the dedication sermon being preached by the Rev. Mr. Miller. The following is an extract from a published report of the dedication :

" After the preaching of the sermon it was announced that a debt of some four hundred dollars stood against the building, and it was necessary that this should be removed. Little by little this amount was cut down until it was reduced to about one hundred, when Rev. Miller related an incident of a boat which was being assisted through a lock, and was thrown out of the current by means of a rope which was used to ease it on its passage through, when the captain called out ' cut her loose and let her float.' The application was that now the church must be cut loose from this debt and left to float free. At this Deacon James Allum arose and said he would `cut her loose,' and assumed the payment of the remainder of the debt, this in addition to his already magnificent subscription of $500.

" The Baptists here now have an excellent, fine, large frame church building, being thirty-eight feet in width and sixty in length. The ceiling is eighteen feet in the clear. Outside the building is white and mounted with a fine belfry, which the lady members will soon provide with a bell. Two ante-rooms are cut off in front, leaving a vestibule between. The main room is fifty feet in length, while back of the pulpit is a fine recess which adds much to the appearance of the room. . . . And taken all in all it is said to be the finest and best building in the Ten-Mile Association. This edifice was erected at a cost of twenty-seven hundred dollars, and the people of the vicinity justly feel proud of it as their work, nearly all the money having been subscribed and paid by them.

"The members and community at large feel under many obligations to their pastor for the interest and active part he has taken in this work from the start. With the exception of very little help, he did all the work towards raising the money, attended all the meetings of the committees, and kept things on the Move; also gave largely of his own means, and no one could have raised this last four hundred dollars with more ease than he."

The Fairview Cumberland Presbyterian Church was recently organized in the township with forty members, mostly from Old Concord Church. The pastor is the Rev. James S. Keener, a licentiate.

Schools.—Subscription schools were taught in early years in what is now East Finley township in the old Quaker meeting-house, and in school-houses in what is known as the Jordan and Ely Districts. Among the teachers who taught in these early schools were James Hunter, George Plants, Samuel England, and John Adams. The last named was in all points a specimen of the old-fashioned " schoolmaster."

The township of East Finley accepted the provisions of the common school law in 1835. At that' time there were two hundred and thirty-three persons in the township liable to school tax. The amount of money raised by tax in 1835 was $191.99, and in 1836 $235.46. The names of the school directors of 1835 are not reported. In 1836 David Pedan and Samuel, England were elected. The township was districted in that year, and school-houses were erected. The school report for the year 1863 showed in East Finley nine districts, nine schools, and three hundred and fifty-one scholars enrolled. Amount of money levied for school purposes, $1660; amount expended, $1738. In 1873 the report gave nine districts, nine schools, and four hundred and nineteen scholars enrolled. Amount of money raised for school purposes, $2298.33; amount expended, $1952.32. In 1880 there were eight districts, eight schools, and three hundred and thirteen scholars enrolled. Amount of money levied for school purposes, $2428.66; amount expended for schools, $1862.63.

Justices of the Peace.—Finley township was erected in 1788, and forty years afterwards was divided into East and West Finley. Finley remained separate and independent as a district from the time of its erection till 1803, when it was united with Donegal to form District No. 11, which from that time continued to embrace the territory of Finley (which became East and West Finley in 1828) with Donegal until the adoption of the Constitution of 1838. Since that time East and West Finley have each been separate and independent. The following list of justices embraces the one appointed in Finley township prior to the operation of the Constitution of 1838, with those elected in East Finley since that time, viz.:

William Smith, Dec. 21. 1789. 

David Pedan, April 14, 1840. 

James Nichols, April 14, 1840.

Hugh McClelland, April 15, 1845.

James Nichols, April 15, 1845.

James Nichols, April 9, 1850.

John W. Howell, April 9, 1850.

William Montgomery, April 11, 1854.

Israel L. Wood, April 10, 1855.

William Montgomery, April 12, 1859.

James Howe, April 10, 1860.

William Montgomery, April 20, 1864

Matthew McKeen, June 3,1865.

James L. Wood, May 5,1866.

Matthew McKeen, Nov. 24,1869,

George H. Wright, April 19,1872. 

Matthew McKeen, Jan. 15, 1874.

J. B. McGuire, Jan. 28, 1874.

George H. Wright, Feb.14, 1874.

Matthew McKeon, March 17,1875.

Nicholas Pease, March 14, 1877.

Matthew McKeen, March 30,1880.



William McCleary was one of eleven children of Thomas and Mary (Lynn) McCleary, who emigrated from Ireland after their marriage and settled in Virginia, where William was born, Feb. 10, 1805, and where he spent his infancy, childhood, and early manhood years. In 1830 he came to Washington County, Pa., and engaged in stage-driving on the National pike, which he followed for eighteen years from Wheeling to Uniontown and intermediate points.


His next business was as constable of Donegal township. This position he held for five years. He was then toll collector near West Alexander, on the National road, for two years. He then purchased and moved to the farm in East Finley township, which was his home until his death, April 3,1882, and which is now in possession of his descendants. He also held the position of superintendent of the Cumberland road for three years. He was an exemplary member of the Baptist Church for many years, and in politics a decided Democrat, always attending elections and voting as a matter of duty. He was a lover of his home, with its quiet cares and enjoyments, and was never ambitious for office. He was a man of perfect and unquestioned integrity and truth, and of generous impulses, who did his duty as he understood it, and was content. He was married Jan. 17, 1836, to Susan G. Wilkinson, daughter of Thomas and Prudence (Lewis) Wilkinson, of Fayette County, Pa. Their children are as follows :

Thomas J., born Feb. 20, 1837, married Martha Rossel. He is a farmer, and resides in East Finley township, Washington Co., Pa.

James C., born Jan. 3, 1839, married Maggie Hair. He is a farmer, and resides in West Finley township, Washington Co., Pa.

John E., born June 24, 1841, married Cornelia Carter. He is a farmer, and resides in Marshall County, Va.

Mary J., born Dec. 17, 1843, married Robert Bell, a farmer of Franklin township, Washington Co., Pa., where they reside.

Sarah E., born Jan. 16, 1846, married Porter McCarrell, a farmer of Morris township, Washington Co., Pa. She died Aug. 6, 1876.

William L., born May 23, 1848, married Lizzie Brinton. He is a dentist, and resides in Washington, Pa.

Martha L., born Aug. 16, 1850, married John Danley, a farmer of East Finley township, Washington Co., Pa.

Francis M., born July 18, 1853, married Adelphia Mitchell. He is a farmer in East Finley township, Washington Co., Pa.

Lewis C., born June 6, 1855, married Violet Porter. He is a farmer in East Finley township, Washington Co., Pa.

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Martin L., born Aug. 13, 1857, married Laura Stoy. He is a dentist, at present not permanently located.

Caroline A., born Dec. 6, 1860, resides with her mother.


Leonard Plants, Sr., probably the oldest man living in East Finley township, and certainly one of the most vigorous in mind and body for one of his years in any community, is of German descent, and was born at the foot of Gallows Hill, Washington Co., Pa., March 22, 1797. His father, Christian Plants, who was a native of Eastern Pennsylvania, married Catharine Haines, and settled in Washington County about the year 1796. Their living children are Leonard, Solomon, George, Christian, Catharine, and Maxwell. Those dead are Elizabeth, Hannah, Jacob, Mary, Daniel, John, and an infant unnamed. About the year 1806, Christian Plants moved to Finley (now East Finley township), and settled upon the farm now owned and occupied by his son Leonard, who assisted his father in tilling the farm until 1815, what he indentured with Jesse St. Clair, with whom he learned the mason trade. After serving an apprenticeship of two years he began work for " wages" upon the National pike, then building, and followed his trade from that date until 1880. For the last two years he has superintended the improvements of the lands in which he has invested most of the surplus earnings of his labor. He says "he began life one of the poorest boys imaginable." His strong body, strong common sense, great energy and business tact have secured for him the considerable possession's which he now enjoys. He has been a member of the United Brethren Church since 1840.

Mr. Plants married for his first wife Elizabeth Barney, May 6, 1819. She died in 1826, leaving four children,—Elizabeth, Christian, George, and an infant which died unnamed.

He married for his second wife Fanny Barney, sister of his first wife. She died in January, 1874. Their living children are Jesse, Leonard, Mary J., Hannah, John B., Margaret, Martha, and Daniel. Those dead are Catharine,. Fanny, Nancy, Adolphus H., and Christina.

He married his present wife, Nancy L. Miller, July 23; 1874. They have one child, Catharine L.


THE township of East Pike Run lies in the eastern part of Washington County, on the Monongahela River, which forms its eastern boundary, except for a short distance on the northern part of that boundary, where it is joined by Allen township. The other boundaries of East Pike Run are : on the north, Fallowfield and a small part of Allen ; on the west, West Pike Run township ; and on the south, the township of East Bethlehem.

The territory of the townships of East and West Pike Run were for almost half a century included in the old township of Pike Run, which was formed in 1792 in accordance with the prayer of a petition signed by Daniel Depue, Vincent Colvin, Joseph Parkison, John Read, Robert Scott, Benjamin Parkison, Isaac Laider, George Ringul, and Joseph Hall, inhabitants of the township of Fallowfield, setting forth :

"That the said Township is too large for the convenience and ease of the inhabitants, they therefore pray the Court to erect a Township to be called Pike Run Township by u division in manner following to wit: where the line between Somerset Township and Fallowfield Township crosses Van Swearingen road, beginning at Col. Parker's old plantation, thence by Vans Road to the Widow Crow's lane and thence to Cheaters Ferry, by his Ferry Road, thence up Monongahela River to Neal Gillespies, thence by the Washington Road to Summerset township and with said Township line to the place of beginning, which said division is agreeable to the people of said township."

This petition was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions at the January term of 1792. Thereupon commissioners were appointed, who made a favorable report at the April term of the same year, which report was accepted and confirmed by the court, and a decree issued on the 23d of that month ordering the erection of Pike Run township. In 1839, at the January term of court, a petition was presented asking for the division of Pike Run township, which was granted March 9th in the same year, and the territory of the old township erected into the new townships of East and West Pike Run.

Early Settlements.—In 1769, Thomas Swearingen, Jr., a son of 'Thomas Swearingen, of Montgomery County, Md., entered application for a certain tract of land lying along the Monongahela River, in what is now East Pike Run township. A warrant for the tract was issued April 5, 1769, and *it was surveyed under the name of " Turkey Bottom." The land which adjoined this tract on the north was' that warranted to William Peters, who was familiarly known to the early settlers as " Indian

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Peter." This land of Indian Peter was afterwards purchased by Neal Gillespie, and is the site of the village of West Brownsville. Thomas Swearingen, Jr., had a family of twenty-four children; but there is no information to be obtained concerning the greater number of them. One daughter, after her marriage, settled in Beaver County, in this State, and two other daughters and two sons settled in Brooke County, Va. It is not known to whom the land located by Mr. Swearingen more than one hundred years ago was sold. The property passed to John Pottinger, Zachariah Brown, and David Peters in 1792, and in 1802 to John Krepps.

On June 13, 1769,Adam Young was granted a warrant for a tract of land in East Pike Run town-hip. It afterwards came into the possession of John R. Sowers, and Oct. 11, 1819, was sold at sheriff's sale to Alexander C. Donaldson.

Neal Gillespie, a native of Ireland, emigrated to this country, and after a short time in the eastern part of the State came to Washington County with his family. In 1784 he purchased a tract of land known as " Indian Hill" of the widow and son of William Peters, better known as Indian Peter. This tract embraced what is now West Brownsville and a part of East Pike Run township adjoining. His large estate was partially divided before his death, which occurred in 1815.. A ferry, which had been established in 1775, was continued by him until his death, and by others until the completion of the Monongahela bridge in 1833, when it was abandoned. His children were two sons—Neal and James—and four daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, Susanna, and Nelly. Neal Gillespie, Jr., came into possession of a portion of the Indian Hill tract, on which he settled .and died. His daughter Maria became the wife of Ephraim L. Blaine, and the mother of the Hon. James G. Blaine.

James lived in the stone house on the old homestead place, now owned by Samuel W. Krepps. Mary, the eldest daughter, became the wife of John Krepps; they settled on a portion of the original farm, where they lived and died. Elizabeth became the wife of Irwin. Susanna married — Beecher, and. Nelly married a Mr. Boyle. Maria, one of their daughters, became the wife of Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, and the mother of Mrs. Gen. William T. Sherman.

John Krepps was a native of Philadelphia, and emigrated to Washington County about 1790. He married


Mary, a daughter of Neal Gillespie, by whom he received a portion of the Indian Hill tract, which her father had given her. Later he purchased other lands adjoining. The hill known as Krepps' Knob was a part of his farm. About the year 1794 he established a ferry across the Monongahela River, as the court records of Fayette County show that in that year a petition was presented for "a road from Krepps' ferry to the bridge at the mouth of Dunlap's Creek." The ferry landing on the Bridgeport side of the river was near the foot of Spring Street, and at the present residence of Solomon a Krepps, his grandson. John Krepps lived and died upon the farm which is now owned by Joseph T. Rodgers and James Slocum. His children were Samuel J., Solomon G., John, Christian, and one daughter, Helen.

Samuel settled on the east side of the river in Bridgeport in 1823, where Eli Leonard now lives, and carried on the saw-mill at the Jonah Cadwallader dam on Dunlap's Creek, also operating the coal banks on that property.

In 1832 he built a residence in Brownsville (the same which is now kept as the "Monongahela House" by the widow of his son, John B. Krepps) and removed to it. In 1834 he built the Valley Mills in Bridgeport. He was a prominent and public-spirited Citizen, and identified with the business interests of both boroughs. About 1846 he removed to the old Krepps homestead in East Pike Run township, and soon afterwards to the Neal Gillespie farm, where he died, March 6, 1866. In 1854 he was elected to the Legislature from this county. His children were John B., Mrs. M. A. Cox, Clement D., Dr. Charles W., Ann Eliza, Samuel W., C. C., and Solomon G. Samuel W. resides on the farm where his father died, and which is the old Gillespie homestead. John B. was an attorney, lived at Brownsville, and died in January, 1881. He was an' officer in the Union army in the late Rebellion. Solomon G., the youngest son, lives at Bridgeport.

Solomon G., the second son of John and Mary Krepps, settled on the east side of the river at Bridgeport, as early as 1813, where he built the brick house at the old Krepps' ferry landing, which is now the residence of his nephew, Solomon G. Krepps. He (Solomon G., the elder) was a merchant in Bridgeport in 1816, and for many years was one of the prominent citizens of the borough. In 1832 he, with Zephaniah Carter, built the " Friendship Paper-Mill" at Bridgeport, but died soon after, and before the mill was in successful operation. He served one term in the State Legislature, and was several times elected burgess of Bridgeport, also served as a member of the borough council. He had two sons—Bolivar and John S.—and four daughters—Mary, Nancy, Rebecca, and Ellen. Bolivar went to California in 1849 and died there; John S. lived on a farm adjoining Bridgeport, went out in the last war as major in the First Virginia Cavalry, and rose to the rank of colonel ; Mary (Mrs. Bailey) died on the homestead ; Nancy (Mrs. John Walker) is living at Elizabethtown, Allegheny Co.; Rebecca (Mrs. Strouse) is now living at Cincinnati ; Ellen became the wife of William H. Playford, of Uniontown.

John, also a son of John Krepps, kept tavern in the upper end of West Brownsville many years, and died there. Christian, the youngest son, emigrated to the West, and his subsequent history is not known. Helen, the only daughter of John Krepps, became the. wife of Judge Eli Miller, of Mount Vernon, Ohio, where she died. Their son, John Krepps Miller, represented that district in Congress in 1857-58, and died in 1860.

Conrad Weaver warranted a tract of land on Pike Run, in Pike Run township, on May 14, 1785, the survey being made to him May 21, 1786. The tract contained two hundred and sixty-nine acres, was given the name of " Weaver's Purchase," and was adjacent to the lands of Herbert Wallace, Andrew Swearingen, Beatty, and Biggert. In 1792, Conrad Weaver sold a portion 'of his land to Herbert Wallace, and another to Mark Deems in 1811. The remainder he left in 1816, by will, to his sons, Leonard and Conrad Weaver, Jr. Descendants of the Weaver family still own and occupy the land.

Nathan Heald was one of the earliest settlers who made their way to the Monongahela valley, he having removed here with his family from Loudoun County, Va., in 1771. The property which Nathan Heald owned in Pike Run township was a tract of four hundred .and twenty-eight acres called "Mill Place," which was warranted to Thomas Miller on Feb. 18, 1785, and assigned to Heald, to whom it was surveyed June 12, 1786. On April 12, 1792, Nathan Heald bought of John Townsend the tract of land called "Spicewood Valley," and Sept. 24, 1796, he purchased of Benjamin Townsend the property known as " Mason's Bower." Nathan Heald was the father of William Heald, who celebrated his one hundredth birthday in 1866. Mr. Heald lived five years after his one hundredth birthday. At that time his living descendants numbered one hundred and sixty persons. Of that number the only one now living in Washington County is Mrs. Emmer H. Griffith, whose home is at Centreville.

Henry, William, and John Gregg were three members of a family who came from Ireland to this country, and settled in East Pike Run township, where they were among the earliest settlers. Henry Gregg took up a tract of land containing three hundred and forty-nine acres called " Burning Mine" tract. It was sold by Henry Gregg to Joshua Gregg, July 31, 1817, and is now the property of Mr. Duvall. In the year 1796, Henry Gregg was elected to the office of justice of the peace. He was married and had several children, all of whom are dead, most of them dying while very young. John Gregg, one of them, left two sons, William H. and Thomas M. Gregg. The former is a merchant in Greenfield, in this county, and the latter resides in


"West Virginia, near Morgantown. Henry Gregg, Jr., was another son of Henry Gregg, the early settler. Several of his children are at present residing in East and West Pike Run townships, two of them, William and John, being farmers. Thomas, third son of Henry Gregg, Sr., left three daughters, Nancy, Emily, and Almy, all of whom are single. Edward Gregg, a fourth son of Henry Gregg, left two daughters, both of whom are widows,—Mrs. Malinda West. and Mrs. Mary J. Baker. John Gregg, one of the three early settlers, was married twice. His sons John and Henry, by the first wife, both died of consumption. He also had quite a large family of children by his second marriage, all of whom eventually went to the West.

William Gregg, one of the three who came from Ireland, married and had a family of four sons and one daughter, the latter being Mrs. Margaret Crow. The son Henry married Jane Dowler; John married Nancy Gregg, Robert married Ann Robinson, and Andrew married Dorcas Nichols. They all left families. An old-time advertisement is found which shows that Daniel Gregg, probably a member of one of the three original families, was engaged in the raising of fruit-trees. Under date of March 20, 1809, he advertised " that he has at his nursery in Washington County, adjoining the Monongahela River, three and one-half miles below Brownsville, a variety of the best and most approved kinds of fruit-trees, the grafts being selected from some of the best nurseries in Chester and Bucks Counties. . . . Among them are Romanite, Red Vanderveers, Green Vanderveers, Winesops, Pennock Apples, Newtown Pippins, Green Pippins, Hughes' Crab, Queen Apples, June Apples, Ashmore's Early Red Streak, and sundry other kinds of summer fruits."

The tract of one hundred and thirty-three acres of land in East Pike Run township owned at an early day by John Almond or Allman is situated on the waters of East Pike Run, and is now the property of John White, Esq. There are still many descendants and relatives of the .Allman family living in this vicinity.

Jacob Springer, a pioneer of this township, took for his wife Miss Peggy Gregg, a native of Ireland, and a sister of the early residents, John, William, and Henry Gregg. They owned the farm now belonging to Mr. Snyder. Their children were seven,—three sons and four daughters. The daughter Peggy became the Wife of John Neblick, Betsey married. John Carson, Nancy was the wife of John Carroll, and Polly died unmarried. The son, John Springer, married Jane Newkirk, James married Polly Carroll, and William married Susan Johnson.

Like many others of the early settlers of the territory along the Monongahela River, Amos Ayles came from Chester County, Pa. Soon after coming here he was so unfortunate as to lose an arm. His family was quite large, and four of his sons, Stephen, Isaac, John, and another one, were engaged in boating and trading upon the river. •Stephen married Miry Nixon, and they lived and died in Washington County. Isaac's wife was Mary Coleman, and their son still owns the homestead. James Ayles married Betsey Nixon. He formerly owned the mill near Greenfield now owned by the Greggs.

John and Seth Buffington were both brothers, who came into this section With the first settlers. Seth Buffington married Sarah Millison. In his day he was a prominent man, greatly esteemed by his neighbors. His family was three sons and one daughter,—John, Seth, Joseph, and Orphie Buffington. The daughter became the wife of Robert Lilley. The son John married Paulina Reynolds, and resides in Brownsville. Joseph married a daughter of John Thompson, and resides in East Bethlehem. Seth Buffington, Sr., became involved in financial difficulties and emigrated West, where he died soon after. The son Seth, Jr., also went West, where he followed his trade, blacksmithing.

James Dorsey emigrated from the vicinity of Baltimore, Md., and was one of those settlers who came very early into East Pike Run township. He took up a large body of land, brought it to a fruitful state, lived upon it until his death, and a portion of it is now occupied by his grandson and namesake, James Dorsey. James Dorsey, Sr., had ten children, three sons and seven daughters, two of whom died in infancy. The son Edward married Matilda Brashears; John remained single, and James, Jr., married Elizabeth Elder, of Maryland. The three sons are dead, but the widow of James Dorsey is still living and past eighty-two years of age. The sons of James, Jr., and Elizabeth Dorsey are James and George. James married Grace Devenning, of Ohio, and George married Martha Phillips, of Fayette County. These sons of James Dorsey, Jr., jointly own the old Dorsey homestead.

Samuel Bailey was a Quaker, and one of the founders of the Quaker Church in this vicinity. His property was a large tract of land adjoining the Robert Jackman lands. A daughter of Samuel Bailey became the wife of John Murphy, and his sons, Thomas and Isaac Bailey, reside on the home farm in this township.

Greenfield Borough.—As early as the year 1784, Robert Jackman came into possession of a body of land in this county to the amount of several hundred acres. This land was comprised in two tracts, located along the Monongahela River, on opposite sides of Pike Run, and at the mouth of the last named stream. The tract "Ararat," containing two hundred and twenty-two acres, was granted. to Nathan Lynn on order No. 1939, and surveyed Dec. 16, 1784. The other tract, directly across the stream Pike Run, had an area of three hundred and twenty-two acres, and was warranted by Adam Youngs, the survey of it being made Dec. 15, 1784, under the title of "Mill Place." At the dates mentioned all right and title


to this land was made over to Robert Jackman, and it included the sites of California and Greenfield, the present Gregg mill property and homestead, and the estates of James and John McCrary as well. The Gregg mill was formerly known as the Jackman mill, but having passed through many hands, has come into the possession of A. J. Gregg. Mr. Jackman was a native of Ireland. He married a Miss Dixon, and they had quite a large family of children. The daughter Ruth became the wife of William Gregg, and lived near Greenfield, and a son, Dixon Jackman, married Ruth Phillips. The sons James and William were fond of horse-racing, and had a racecourse fitted up near Greenfield. These two sons inherited from their father the greater part Of the land which is now the site of the borough of California. Robert Jackman inherited the lands on which was laid out the village of Greenfield. He died leaving no children. There were two other sons of Robert Jackman, Sr., viz., John and Henry.

In 1814, Robert Jackman laid out the town of Greenfield on land inherited from his father. An article of agreement made June 11th in that year between the proprietor, Robert Jackman, and the purchasers of certain lots in the new town, specifying conditions on which they were sold, privileges of streets, alleys, timber, quarries of freestone and limestone, coal in the vein, etc., and reservations of growing crops, ferry and other rights, shows the names of purchasers, and the prices paid by them for lots,¹ as follows :

"Elizabeth How, No. 11, southwest side of Water Street, $71; Remain Smith, No. 12, southwest side of Water Street, $52; Henry Smith, Nos. I and 2, northwest side of Spring Street, and No. 20, southwest side of Water Street, and one half of No. 3, northeast side of Third Street, $219; Jacob Resinger, Esq., Nos. 3 and 4, northwest side of Spring Street, and No. 6, northeast side of Water Street, and No. 3, northeast side of Third Street, $257; John Mitchell, No. 5, northwest side of Spring Street, $44.50; Isaac Powell, No. 6 Spring Street, $50; Lewis Merchant, Nos. 1, 2 and 5 Spring Street, $182; John Kerr, Nos. 3 and 4 Spring Street, $111; William Huggens, No: 8 Water Street, $34; John Hurry, No. 7 Water Street, $52; Robert Greggs, No. 6 Water Street, and one-half of No. 3 Federal Street, $84; Amos Ayles, Nos. 3 and 4 Water Street, $123; William Jackman, No. 1 Water Street, $44; William Steel, No. 4 Water Street, $67; Jacob Duvall, No. 13 Water Street, and one-half of No. 3 Federal Street, $86.50; James. Springer, No. 14 Water Street, $65; John Peterman, No. 2 Green Street, and No. 9 Federal Street, $125; Joseph Robeson, No. 4 Short Street, judgment, $73; Mary Wilkins, No. 3 Water Street, $78; Samuel Smith, No. 17 Water Street, $66; James Moffet, No. 18 Water Street, $70; William Cady, No. 19 Water Street, $52 ; Henry Peterman, No. 1 Green Street, anal No. 3 Short Street, $117; Andrew Kerr, Nos. 7 and 8 Federal Street, $95; John Gregg, No. 6 Federal Street, $41; William Thatcher, No. 6 Spring Street, $66; John Springer, No. 7 Spring Street, $61; Henry Reisinger, No. 3 Short Street, and No. 1 Third Street, $118; Patrick Coil, No. 2 Third Street, $10; Jacob Bennet, No. 3 Federal Street, $48; Robert Relitie, No. 5 Water Street, $61 ; Ely Devue, No. 2 Federal Street, $50; Silvester Smith, No. 16 Water Street, $57.50; James Lilley, No. 2 Federal Street, $42; John Jackman, No. 2 Water Street, $12.50; total, $2915."

On July 18, 1814, before Greenfield had become a town, except on paper, a co-operative association was organized in the place, called the " Farmers' and Mechanics' Commercial Store," having a nominal

1 The numbering of the lots is difficult to understand, but it is given as found, without attempt at explanation.

capital stock of twenty thousand dollars, divided into shares of ten dollars each. The association was under the control and management of a president and nine directors, who were authorized to erect a storehouse, and to purchase keel-boats to convey their produce to Pittsburgh ; the principal object for which the association was formed being to afford an easy and cheap means of transporting the agricultural products of members and others in the vicinity to a market where good prices could be realized and goods purchased on favorable terms, and delivered to consumers without the addition of intermediate commissions and profits. This association, however, like most others of its kind, failed to accomplish in any considerable degree the results for which, ostensibly, it was organized.

The first general store was started in the place by John Carr, who also built the first house. It was a log cabin, and was built at the south end of Water Street, near the saw-mill on the river. Mr. John Buffington remembers when this house stood entirely alone upon the site of Greenfield. Van Reeves was another of the pioneer merchants, and there was also a resident named Miller who manufactured beaver caps. Henry Smith was the first hotel-keeper, and he was succeeded by Bolen Taylor, Joseph Lutz, Hiram Holmes, Jacob Qualk, Mrs. Newkirk, and others. Henry Smith was also a school-teacher in the township. One of the earliest physicians was Dr. Mollison. Those who have followed him in the practice of medicine in Greenfield are Drs. Eagan, Scott, Isaac Jackson, H. S. Chalfant, and Jacob Shelper. The present resident physician is Dr. Robert Miller. Very early in the history of this place two distilleries were in operation here, and a considerable amount of coopering business was carried on.

The incorporation of Greenfield as a borough was effected by act of the Legislature, passed April 9, 1834. The first burgess elected was Andrew Gregg. No complete list of seceding borough officers can be given, for the reason that the records covering the period of a quarter of a century from the incorporation were destroyed by fire in 1875. The list of justices of the peace elected for Greenfield since the office became elective have been gleaned, and is given below, viz.:

James Donaldson, April 14, 1840.

William Wells, April 13, 1841.

Francis Reader, June 11, 1844.

Robert T. McIlvaine, April 15,1845.

Francis Reader, April 10, 1849.

Lewis E. Smith, April 9, 1850.

Francis Reader, April 11, 1854.

Lewis E. Smith, April 10, 1855.

Francis Reader, April 10, 1860.

Mark Winnett, April 20, 1861.

Augustus Wells, June 3, 1865.

L. J. Baker, April 17, 1866.

Francis Reader, April 9, 1867.

Francis Reader, April 2, 1872.

John Wilkins, April 28,1873.

Francis Reader, Jan. 19, 1874.

D. O. Lambert, March 11,1875.

Lewis E. Smith, Marcia 16, 1875.

Albert Wilson, March 25, 1878.

D. O. Lambert, March 30, 1880.

At a meeting of the Council, held March 21, 1874, the borough limits of Greenfield were, by an ordinance of that body, extended so as to include a considerable additional area on the north and on the


southwest sides, according to a plat made by Francis Reader, Esq., which was adopted by the board.

By a decree of court granted Jan. 19, 1881, the borough of Greenfield was made subject to the provisions of the act of Assembly regulating boroughs, which was passed April 3, 1851.

The borough now contains one hundred and twelve private dwelling-houses, two hotels, and three churches. The hotels are at present conducted by W. C. Smith and Jacob Qualk. The other business interests of the place are represented by two drugstores, three stores carrying stocks of dry-goods and groceries, three stores dealing especially in groceries and provisions, two bakeries, one confectionery-store, several restaurants, two blacksmith-shops, saw- and planing-mills, two shoe-stores, one clothing-store, two millinery and dress-making establishments, and a cabinet and undertaker's establishment. All the churches are of brick, the graded school occupies a frame building having three rooms, and the town ball, which is also a frame structure, has rooms where the Odd-Fellows, Masons, Knights of Pythias, and Knights of Labor all hold the regular meetings of their orders. The lodge of Odd-Fellows is apparently the strongest of the several secret orders represented in Greenfield. In the original plat of the village they owned a lot, and the large town hall is their property. The Benevolent Association of Greenfield is also an institution of this order, and is exclusively under its supervision. Pike Run Lodge, No. 491, I. O. O. F., was in existence here in 1866, and on July 28th of that year the trustees of the order purchased of Jesse Bailey lot No. 10 in the borough. This lodge continued to meet in Greenfield for some time, but eventually removed to the borough of California.

Vesta Lodge, No. 696, I. O. O. F., was chartered Jan. 3, 1870. The first officers of the organization were Thomas Young, N. G. ; .T. E. Wilkins, V. G. ; John Baker, Sec.; Oliver Hornbake, Asst. Sec. ; Thomas D. Moffitt, Treas. The lodge has now seventy-two members.

Monongahela Valley Lodge, No. 361, F. A. M., was organized some twelve years ago, the date of the charter being Feb. 4, 1870. The charter officers were Nicholas S. Veatch, W. M.; Thomas S. Daly, S. W. ; James S. Newkirk, J. W.

A charter for Pike Run Lodge, No. 1687, Knights of Pythias, was granted Sept. 8, 1881, at which time the members of the order numbered twenty persons, —John S. Dales, Daniel J. Frantz, Louis M. Sibbet, John Hupp, Isaac B. Frantz, Henry C. Shaffer, Joseph W. Kellions, Frederick Kellions, Thomas J. Reece, Albert E. Freeman, James Gainer, James Summerville, John W. Moore, James Jobes, John Moore, Robert Woods, and George H. Griffin.

Methodist Episcopal Church.¹ —Greenfield Cir-

¹ By S. S. Rothwell.

cuit was in the Baltimore Conference, and was traveled by Rev. James Quinn as early as 1799. The circuit covered a large territory, and embraced parts of Greene, Fayette, and Washington Counties. There were perhaps no Methodists in Greenfield at this early day. There were some two or three Methodist families a few miles distant, among them the Hows and Riggs. William Riggs (father of Mahlon Riggs, now living, but a very old man) was a local preacher. Preaching was established at his house. In those days there were no church buildings in this end of the county. Some time afterwards, early in the present century, a log meeting-house was built, called How's Church, and it became one of the regular appointments or preaching-places on Greenfield Circuit. In 1824 the Pittsburgh Conference was formed, and Greenfield Circuit was in the Monongahela District, and contained one colored and six hundred and sixty-two white members. This year (1826) the Monongahela District was presided over by Rev. George Brown. Greenfield Circuit was traveled by P. G. Buckingham and Richard Armstrong. Buckingham was a very able and popular preacher for many years, but unfortunately fell from his high position and was expelled from the church. He afterwards manifested deep repentance and humiliation, and was restored to the church. But his influence as a minister was gone. He moved West and died there many years' ago.

In 1827, Monongahela District had for presiding elder Rev. William Stephens; and P. G. Buckingham and John Tackaberry were the traveling preachers. In 1828, William Stephens, presiding elder, and Furlong and J. E. Maffit, preachers. In 1829 the district was changed and called Pittsburgh District, with David Sharp presiding elder (a very able and acceptable preacher). On Greenfield Circuit were Simon Lauck and Thomas Taylor. In 1830, D. Sharp, presiding elder, and on the circuit were Simon Lauck and Thomas Jameson. In 1831, D. Sharp, presiding elder, and John White on circuit. In 1832, D. Sharp, presiding elder, and John White on circuit. In 1833, Charles Elliot was presiding elder (a mighty man), and Samuel E. Babcock and S. Worthington on the circuit. Babcock was .a very able minister, a workman that had no need to be ashamed. In the year 1834 the district was changed and called Uniontown District. Greenfield Circuit was also changed and called Beallsville Circuit. William Stephens was presiding elder, and on the circuit was S. R. Brockunier. During the years 1834 and '35 the first Methodist church building was erected in the town of Greenfield. It was built on lot No. 7 according to plan of town, and was a rather small and unpretentious brick building, and cost something like one thousand dollars. Previous to this time, however, there had been a society formed into a class, according to Methodist usage, and Fisher White was leader. There had been preaching in the town (but in private


houscs) prior to the erection of the church building. The trustees were Van Reeves, Fisher White, Nathan Jackman, Allen Stockdale, and W. D. Veatch. The members were __ Van Reeves, and wife, Nathan Jackman and wife, A.. Stockdale and wife, Fisher White and family, Mrs. How, Elizabeth How, Ellen Wells, Elizabeth Furlong, Mary Fenton, S. S. Roth-well and wife, Elizabeth Beazell, L. G. Beazell, Henry Jameson, William D. Veatch and wife, Elizabeth Jackman, William Veatch and wife, and Sheba Wilkins. These are all that are now remembered as members in 1834,-some twenty-five or thirty in all.

In the year 1835, Robert Boyd was presiding elder and S. E. Babcock on the circuit. It is due to Robert Boyd to say in this connection that he was one of God's chosen men, mighty in word and doctrine, an example to the flock or church over whom God had made him overseer. " He rests from his labors and his works follow him." In 1836, Robert Hopkins was presiding elder, and William Tipton on circuit. In the year 1837, T. M. Hudson was presiding elder, and William Tipton was on the circuit. Rev. T. M. Hudson was among the ablest preachers in the Pittsburgh Conference. He commenced preaching when quite young. He was a member of the Baltimore Conference, and continued his effective labors till within a few years. He lived to a good old age (eighty-three), and died in December, 1881.

In 1838, T. M. Hudson was presiding elder, and John Spencer and B. F. Sawhill on circuit. During this year a most remarkable revival of religion spread all over the circuit. Hundreds were converted, mostly middle-aged and heads of families. Many have passed away, but many are still living and laboring to build up the cause of God in the earth.

In 1839, Samuel Wakefield was presiding elder, and Thomas Stinchcomb and Isaac McClosky on the circuit. In 1840, S. Wakefield, presiding elder, and on the circuit were D. Sharp and Richard Armstrong. In 1841 the district was changed and called Wheeling District, T. M. Hudson, presiding elder, and Abner Jackson and Jerry Knox on the circuit. In 1842 the same as 1841. In 1843, S. E. Babcock was presiding elder, and John White and George McCaskey traveled the circuit. In 1844, S. E. Babcock presiding elder, and on the circuit were George McCaskey and Heaton Hill. In 1845, S. E. Babcock presiding elder, and Heaton Hill and Josiah Adams on circuit.

During the years 1843, '44, and '45 the subject of slavery was agitated in the church, the anti-slavery men in the church maintaining that slaveholding was incompatible with Christianity, and the other party assuming that it was a political institution, and the church had no right to interfere. The controversy was carried on for a long time, with a great deal of. bitterness on both sides, and finally resulted in a division, the anti-slavery members withdrawing from the church and forming themselves into an organization styled " Wesleyan Methodist." The leading ministers seceding were Orange Scott, Leroy Sunderland, Luther Lee, Cyrus Prindle, L. C. Matlack, Edward Smith, and quite a number of lesser lights. An organization was effected and a society formed in Greenfield, and a circuit established called Bridgeport Circuit. The first preacher who traveled the circuit was John P. Betker. He was a clear-headed man, considerable of a preacher, and few men dared discuss with him the issues involved as between the Wesleyans and the Methodist Episcopal Church.

The members constituting the Greenfield Society were Job Johnson and wife, W. D. Veatch, S. S. Rothwell, Elizabeth Rothwell, Henry Dowler and wife, James L. Wells and wife, George Hornbake and wife, Henry Hornbake and wife, Albert Wilson, some fifteen in all, and during the years of their existence as a society quite a number were added. The circuit contained four preaching-places,-Greenfield, Bridgeport, Theaxton's, and one other. They never built a church at Greenfield, but had good churches at the other points. The organization continued in this county until the downfall of slavery; and then went down, the most of the members going back into the Methodist Episcopal Church.

In 1847 the district was changed to Morgantown District, Simon Elliott presiding elder. John Spencer and J. L. Irwin were on circuit. In 1854 and '55, T. M. Hudson was presiding elder, and A. Jackson on circuit.

In the years 1858 and 1859 the old church building in Greenfield was torn down, and .a larger one erected on the site. In the year 1859, C. A. Holms was presiding elder ; in 1861, D. L. Dempsy presiding elder, William McCracken on circuit; 1863, Greenfield and California became a station, Dempsy presiding elder, and J. J. Hayes on charge; 1864, William Cox presiding elder, and D. B. Campbell on charge. In 1865, William Cox presiding elder, and T. S. Hodson on charge. In 1866, W. A. Davidson presiding elder, and M. B. Pugh on charge. In 1867, Davidson presiding elder, and M. B. Pugh to December, from December to March, S. S. Rothwell on charge. In 1868, L. R. Beacom presiding elder, and D. A. Pierce on charge. In 1869, same as 1868. 1870, L. R. Beacom presiding elder, and J. G. Gogueley on charge. In 1871, same. 1872, H. Miller presiding elder, and William Johnson on charge. 1873, same. 1874, same. 1875, H. Miller presiding elder, and Rev. Batchtell on charge. In 1876, T. N. Boyle presiding elder, and Hollingshead on charge. 1876, S. H. Nesbit presiding elder, and W. F. Lauck on charge. 1877, same. In 1878, J. Baker presiding elder, and Lauck on charge. In 1879, J. Baker presiding elder, and Swan on charge. In 1880 and 1881, same. The membership in the two churches of the charge is three hundred and eighty.

Some time during the year 1873 the church in Greenfield was burned down, and soon the present one was erected on the same site, costing about three


thousand dollars. California Church is valued at four thousand dollars. There are two Sabbath-schools in the charge. Number of scholars, three hundred. Greenfield superintendent, Frank &utterly ; California, L. W. Morgan.

Cumberland Presbyterian Church.—This congregation was organized on the 28th March, 1836, by the Rev. S. M. Sparks. A church edifice was erected in 1839, and a larger one about 1870. The present pastor is the Rev. I. N. Cary, who is also pastor of the Millsboro' Church. For more extended information concerning this denomination the reader is referred to the article in the general history contributed by the Rev. Azel Freeman.

Catholic Church. Catholic services have been held in Greenfield borough only for the last six or seven years. Their first mass was celebrated by Rev. Father Arthur Develin in a frame house situated on the mill property on Water Street, and which is now occupied by George S. Hornbake and family. Prior to that date Catholic services had been held in the village of Granville, at the residence of Barney Sloan, Rev. Father Herman being first in charge of the parish, and was succeeded by Rev. Father Ryan. Since the beginning of the Catholic services in Greenfield they have rented for their use the Jackman Hall save for one year, when they worshiped in the house of Daniel O'Connell Lambert. Rev. Father Develin was succeeded by Rev. P. H. Connery ; then came Rev. C. A. McDermott, and he was followed by Rev. P. H. Connery. Two town lots, Nos. 22 and 23, have been purchased, upon which a church edifice is to be erected. The lots were bought of John R. Gregg. The history of the Catholic Church would be incomplete should the name of Joseph A. Lambert be omitted from the sketch. In the strict sense of the term he is not a practical Catholic, but has always been looked upon as one of the number, and has always sustained the church here pecuniarily as well as otherwise.

Schools.—The earliest teacher in this section of whom any knowledge has been gained was Robert Quail, who is mentioned as a " schoolmaster" in the assessment-roll of Pike Run township for the year 1807. The schools taught here during the half-century next succeeding the organization of. the county were, like all others that existed during that period in Western Pennsylvania, of low grade, and taught in log houses or cabins for short terms, mostly in the winter season. When the common-school law of Pennsylvania was passed (in 1834) old Pike Run township still remained undivided, embracing the territory now forming East and West Pike Run. The township accepted the provisions of the law in 1835, and raised in that year for school purposes the sum of $341.96, the number of persons in the township liable to taxation for that purpose at that time being 415. In 1836 the total amount of school money received for the township was $505.02, including amount from the State. In that year several school-houses were built, some of them being of brick. Upon the division of old Pike Run, and the formation of the townships of East and West Pike Run in 1839, the new townships were redistricted, and the character of the schools materially improved.

In 1863 the school-houses of Districts Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in East Pike Run were declared insufficient for the uses of the schools, and new ones were soon after erected in their stead, and from about that time the schools of this township gradually improved, until they became, as at present, equal in grade to those of any other township of the county. The school report of 1863 showed the following statistics of schools in East Pike Run, viz.: Number of schools, 5; number of teachers, 5 ; number of scholars enrolled, 208; receipts for school purposes, $497.64; expenditures for the same, $544.46. The report for the year ending June, 1873, showed the same number of schools and teachers as that of 1863, while the number of enrolled scholars had decreased to 162. In 1880 the number of schools reported was 6; number of teachers, 6; scholars enrolled, 262; receipts for school purposes, $1464.08; expenditures, $1336.02.

Justices of the Peace.—Following is a list of persons elected as justices in East Pike Run township:

Isaac Ailes, April 14, 1840.

Simeon Jackman, April 14, 1840.

Morrison Chester, April 15, 1845.

Isaac Ailes, April 15, 1845.

Azariah Crow, April 9, 1850.

Andrew Gregg, April 9, 1850.

Theodore H. Dowler, April 13,1853.

Andrew Gregg, April 10, 1855.

Andrew Gregg, April 10, 1860.

C. J. Springer, April 24,1862.

Augustus Wells, April 14,1863.

H. S. Chalfant, July 12,1865.

C. J. Springer, April 10, 1866.

H. S. Chalfant, April 11,1870.

C. J. Springer, April 19,187.2.

H. S. Chalfant, Jan. 26, 1874.

C. J. Springer, Jan. 11, 1874.

H. S. Chalfant, April 26, 1875.

C. J. Springer, March 14, 1877.

James Boyle, March 30, 1880.

Granville is a small village in East Pike Run township, situated on both sides of the stream Pike Run and its tributary, Gorby's Fork. The portion of the village east of Gorby's Fork was laid out by Henry Dowler, and is called Minersville. It contains nine dwellings, one store, and one blacksmith-shop. Granville proper is on the opposite side of the fork on Pike Run, and was laid out by James Gregg, who built the first house there, a log cabin, which is yet standing. It now has thirty-nine dwellings and one store. Nearly all the inhabitants belong to the mining class. The name of Granville was given to the place by its founder, James Gregg, who also kept the first store in the place. The merchants at the present time are James Knight, of Granville, and A. W. Bane, of Minersville. The first house erected in the latter place was of brick, built by Moses Billingsby, and now belongs to the heirs of Henry Dowler.. The Gregg school-house is also located in Minersville. William Winfield formerly manufactured pottery at this point, and the stock and turning-house of the factory are still standing.

Coal-Works and other Industries.—Just outside the borough limits of Greenfield are the extensive


works of Jordan S. Neal & Co., consisting of coalmines and works, coal-boats, barges, and yard, a saw-mill, store, and two blacksmith-shops. One mile below on the river this firm have other mines, and all the necessary appurtenances for mining and transporting coal. The mines at Greenfield yield annually one million bushels of coal, to mine which one hundred and twenty-five hands are employed, and paid three and one-half cents per bushel for digging. At the lower coal-works, called the Eclipse Mines, eight hundred thousand bushels of coal are taken out annually by eighty miners. In 1881, Messrs. J. S. Neal & Co. Wilt forty coal-boats and sixteen flat-boats. Their saw-mill cuts five thousand feet of lumber per day, and six men are employed to operate the mill. Sixteen men are employed upon the coal-boats and fiats, at wages averaging two and a quarter each per day. These coal-works were established by J. S. Neal & Co. in 1875, and each year finds the firm extending their operations, while they already rank among the most important dealers in the Monongahela Valley.

The Globe Coal-Works in this township are owned and operated by Messrs. Crowthers, Musgrove & Co. During 1881 they employed eighty hands for digging the coal, and shipped one million two hundred thousand bushels of coal.

The Monongahela Distillery is situated near the centre of East Pike Run township, on the branch of Pike Run called Gorby's Run. It was started several years ago by a man named Mess, who sold to Zephaniah M. and John Boyle. They began the business in 1876, and still continue in it. They occupy a frame building, which is 36 by 50 feet in size and three stories in height, a store 30 by 50 feet, and a warehouse 50 by 100 feet in size. They have a capacity for mashing and distilling fifty bushels of grain daily.

A steam- and water-power grist-mill is owned and operated by the Gregg brothers, under the firm-name of J. R. and A. J. Gregg. Some two or three mills have been built upon this site, the present one having -been erected by James Ailes, who purchased the property of Robert Jackman. Two miles from the Gregg mill are a grist-mill and a saw-mill, which are now owned by Washington Smallwood. They have previously been owned and conducted by many different persons. William Forsyth also had a still-house at or near this point at one time.


FALLOWFIELD was the sixth of the original townships of Washington, formed soon after the erection of the county in 1781. The next year a part of its territory was taken off in the formation by the Court of Quarter Sessions of the township of Somerset. On the 29th of August, 1788, certain "inhabitants of Fallowfield and Bethleheim townships" petitioned the court, setting forth "that the application to magistrates in cases whereof they have cognizance, from the too great extent of our townships, is rendered exceeding inconvenient as well as expensive to many of us ; among-other disadvantages, we beg leave to mention that the costs arising on actions brought for the recovery of small sums frequently exceed the debt to the great oppression of a number of good citizens." Wherefore the petitioners prayed the court "that by an order from your honorable court a line be drawn as follows, viz.: Beginning at the mouth of Ten-Mile Creek, and running up the said creek to William Montgomery's mill ; thence with a straight line to Zephaniah Beall's, so as to exclude both, the said Montgomery's and Beal; from thence to Henry Coonrod's, including him, and then down that branch of Pike Run on which the said Coonrod lives, unto its confluence with the Monongahela River; then up the said river to the place of beginning, so as to include a township separate from Bethlehem and Fallowfield." And the petitioners added that if the court should think it more desirable to draw the line otherwise, "you'll be pleased to make such amendments as in your wisdom shall be judged expedient." This petition was signed by Joseph Dorsey, Barnabas McNamee, Thomas Bishop, William Sloan, David Ruble, William Buckingham, Barzilla Clarke, James Powell, George Myers, Joseph Brinton, and thirty-seven others, but it was not granted by the court, and in the following year there was presented another petition, praying that

"That part of Fallowfield township, viz.: Beginning at Peter Drake's where the line dividing Bethlehem from East Bethlehem intersects the road leading from Redstone Old Fort to Washington; and thence with Summerset township to Henry Coon-rod's, to include him; and then down that branch of Pike Run on which the said Coonrod lives to the Monongahela; thence up the river to the line of East. Bethlehem, be added to East Bethlehem township, and that it be recommended by your honorable bench to the Executive. Council to have the said township erected into an election district."


This petition, made on the 25th of September, 1789 (a petition for a division of Bethlehem into East and West Bethlehem townships having been presented in the mean time), was laid over and held under advisement by the court until April 23, 1792, when an order was issued erecting the township of Pike Run, to include territory as indicated previously belonging to Fallowfield. Again, on the 30th of September, 1834, a part of Fallowfield was set off in the formation of the township of Carroll ; and on the 14th of June, 1853, by the erection of Allen township from a part of the remaining territory of Fallowfield, the latter township was reduced to its present area and limits, and giving it the following boundaries: North, Nottingham and Carroll townships; east, Allen township and the Monongahela River; south, Allen, East Pike Run, and West Pike Run townships; west, Somerset township. The only streams of any importance in Fallowfield are the Monongahela River, which forms a part of its eastern boundary, and Pigeon Creek, which passes through the northwestern part of the township, taking a northeasterly course, and flowing thence through Carroll township enters the river at Monongahela City.

Settlements.—Fallowfield township, like all the northeastern part of, the present county of Washington, was within the county of Yohogania, as claimed by Virginia, prior to the settlement of the boundary controversy between that State and Pennsylvania; and it was under chiefly Virginia certificates that the first settlers in this township held their lands. The first entry in the first survey book of Yohogania County is that of "Maiden's Hall," a tract of three hundred and seventy-five acres, for which Joseph Brinton was granted a Virginia certificate, and which was surveyed to him by Col. William Crawford, May 2, 1780, as follows :

"YOHOGANIA, May 2, 1780.

"Surveyed by virtue of a certificate granted by coma. appointed to settle and adjust claims to unpatented lands in the counties of Yohogania, Monongalia, and Ohio, for Joseph Brinton three hundred •and seventy-five acres of land in said county agreeable to the above plan, one hundred and three acres thereof the property now of Isaac Powell, and is described in the above plan.

"Signed Aug. 4, 1780.

"JOHN BRACH, D. S., ye



The boundaries of the survey of Joseph Brinton's land place it next the lands of John Adams, John Buffington, Joseph Brown, and Isaac Powell, and it is only by this adjacent property that the tract can be located. In the assessment-roll of Fallowfield township for the year 1788 the names of Isaac Powell, John Adam's, John Buffingtom, and Joseph Brown again appear as assessed upon land in the township, showing that they were still residents of this section. The survey of Joseph Brinton's land was made Jan. 31, 1786.

Vincent Colvin was one of the earliest settlers in Fallowfield. He invested quite extensively in land. and was the possessor of many hundred acres, divided into five or six tracts, taken up at different times. "The Farm" was a tract of four hundred and seventy acres, situated on Pigeon Creek, adjoining the property of Joseph Plattor, Peter Cheserounds, and William McComber. He was granted this on a Virginia certificate dated March 28, 1780. "Triple Ford" was surveyed to him Jan. 5, 1787, containing two hundred acres. "Good Fortune" was the three hundred and twenty-one acre tract, granted on a Virginia certificate, which was surveyed to Mr. Colvin Feb. 22, 1788. Two other tracts, one having upwards of six hundred and the other about three hundred acres, were also surveyed to Mr. Colvin in 1780.

Vincent Colvin had a number of sons and daughters, to whom he left his property by his will, made Sept. 2, 1811, and proved April 22, 1812. To his son, Stephen Colvin, he left the two hundred acres comprising the homestead. The sons, John, Vincent, Jr., Joshua, Moses, and Lott, had smaller tracts varying in area. The daughters were Agnes, who became Mrs. Powell; Susanna, who married Mr. Wilson; Charlotte and Lucy, who each married a Mr. Frye; and Harriet Colvin.

Joseph and Christopher Graybill made early settlements in Fallowfield township, and each held Virginia certificates entitling them to large tracts of land here. The tract taken up by Joseph Graybill, according to the early survey book, is bounded on the south by Sugar Camp Run, and on the north and east by Pigeon Creek and Cave Run. The land granted to Christopher Graybill was in the immediate vicinity of Joseph Graybill's property, and was surveyed to him on the same date. The land of Christopher Graybill adjoined the tracts of John Hall, Vincent Colvin, and John Cramer. Cave Run and Joseph Graybill's tract formed the northern, and Pigeon Creek the western boundary. On the map of that survey a mill two stories in height is shown as located at the bend of Pigeon. Creek, some distance above the mouth of Cave Run. At the mouth of Sugar Camp Run a road crosses the tract east and west, which is called the Mill road. Another road branches off' from the Mill road and crosses Cave Run, and near this point is marked a cave, from which the run probably received its name. A little distance above the mouth of Sugar Camp Run, and above the mill, is shown a still-house. The two tracts owned and occupied by Christopher and Joseph Graybill are still in the possession of their descendants.

John Cramer was one of the settlers in Fallowfield township whose land was surveyed in the year 1780. Mr. Cramer's Virginia certificate granted him four hundred acres, which he located next the tracts of Vincent Colvin and — Wallace, on the waters of Pigeon Creek. No further information is gained of him, nor does his name appear in the assessment-roll of the township for 1788. The roll of that year shows that Joseph Allen, Joseph Chester, Samuel



Dixson, Robert and John Jackman, Thomas Parkison, and William Parker were owners of saw-mills, Nathan Heald, Benjamin Hinds, Robert and John Jackman, James Young owned grist-mills, and Thomas Parkison owned two grist-mills. Peter Carner, Neal Gillespie, and Thomas Pew were proprietors of ferries. Nicholas Crist, Vincent Colvin, Henry Conrad, John Crow, Matthew Deems, John Dunn, John Hopkins, Jr., Daniel Hamilton, George Nox, William Nitterfield, David Ritchie, George Riggle, John Reed, Henry Speers, Matthew Spane, Conrad Weaver, James Davis, and William Gibson were each assessed on distilleries.

James Innis was one of the largest land-holders among the early residents of Fallowfield township, having two tracts joining each other, and the whole body adjacent to the lands of Noah Williams, William Wood, and Daniel Preston. Sugar Camp Run was the southeastern boundary of his property, and Froman's wagon road traversed the southwestern part of the tract. This land came into Mr. Innis' possession under. Virginia certificate, and in 1788 he was assessed upon six hundred and ninety-six acres.

The tract of land surveyed to Noah Williams contained three hundred and-ninety-four acres, and was located on Sugar Camp Run, in the same vicinity that the other tracts mentioned were situated. The land of James Innis was adjoining, and the southern boundary was formed by Froman's road.

In the survey book of 1780 for Yohogania County is a map of the tract of land granted to William Wood in that year. In the map the land of Nicholas Plat-tor is located next to his tract, but just across Innis' Run. The Graybill tracts and that of Daniel Preston are opposite Sugar Camp Run, and the Innis land adjoins the land of Mr. Wood, and was between the two streams. Mr. Wood's name does not appear among the Fallowfield assessment, nor in any place later than the survey mentioned.

"Pleasant Flat" was the name of the tract of land warranted to Amos Bailey on Feb. 17, 1785, and surveyed to him May 29th following. It contained one hundred and seventy-five acres, and was located near the property of Isaac Powell, John Adams, and Joseph Brown.

The tract of land surveyed to Henry Krepps, March 1, 1786," by virtue of a certificate which had been granted to him by the commissioners of Virginia, was called " Maiden Head," and contained four hundred and twenty-six acres. It was located near the lands of Alexander Hill, Philip Miller, and Thomas Carson.

Frederick Cooper was a native of Germany, and emigrated to this country before 1770, and settled in Frederick County, Va., where he lived in 1771. On the 20th of April in that year he came to this county and purchased a tract of land (quantity not mentioned) of Andrew Devore, described as "one certain tract or parcel of land lying on the north side of the Monongahela, and bounded by lands of Paul Froman and James Devore." This tract he retained about a year, and in April, 1772, he sold it to Abraham Miller, who sold it. to Samuel Devore, May 22, 1777, by whom it was conveyed September 1st of the same year to Joseph Beckett. When Cooper came here he left a wife and three children, John, Polly, and Betsey, in the East. The Indians became so troublesome that after the sale of the property he returned to the East and remained several years. In the mean time his wife died, and he married Elizabeth Kyle, and soon after came back to this county with his family. He purchased a tract of land containing two hundred and eighty-seven acres which had been warranted on the 17th of April, 1769, to Jacob Froman, and surveyed under the name of " Wrangle." The warrant was returned to Frederick Cooper on the 27th of December, 1784. Here he lived till his death. The following in reference to the family is taken from a series of historical sketches of early families written by Dr. J. S. Van Voorhis :

"Frederick Cooper, the elder, had several sons and daughters. Catharine married Thomas Ward, who built the first house in Bellevernon ; Peggy married John Roland, both of whom died near Wooster, Ohio; Rebecca married Daniel Jacobs, both dead ; Nancy we cannot trace; Abraham died a few years since in Guernsey County, Ohio; Frederick lived and died in the Dutch Settlement, and the late Samuel Cooper and K. Cooper, who now own the old homestead,

were his sons; George lived and died in Ohio, and Valentine lived and died on the original Cooper homestead at the mouth of Maple Creek. He was the father of Jackman, Washington, Jehu Frederick, and Josiah C. Cooper, also of Nancy, lately deceased, wife of Newton Van Voorhis. Narcissa married Martin Weaver; after living for a time at Fish Pot' removed to Huron County, Ohio, where she died many years ago, and Elizabeth married Apollas Speers. They had five sons and six daughters. Solomon C. owns and resides on a part of the Speers' Intent,' on which he has one of the most beautiful residences on the river. He is proprietor of the Clipper Sand-Works, from which he sends to market vast quantities of sand of superior quality for manufacturing. Noah resides at the ferry, of which he is sole owner. Jasper died some years ago. Jacob and Henry live in Marshalltown, Iowa. Margaret married Enoch Baker, of Ten-Mile. Nancy, now deceased, married Samuel Frye; she was the mother of the wife of William Jackman, of Allen township. Mary married B. W. Johnson, nephew of the late Job Johnson ; she lives in Marshalltown, Iowa, as does also Clara, who married James Walker; and Sarah, who married a man by the name of Lucas." 

The property located in Fallowfield township by John Reef was a tract of five hundred and nineteen acres called "Speer's Intent," and was granted to him on order No. 3255, issued with many other lots in 1769. The tract was located a little above the mouth


of Maple Creek, and was surveyed Sept. 8, 1784. Upon the same date a tract of land called "Bruce," containing two hundred and fifteen acres, was surveyed to Samuel Sinclair.

The Newkirks were early settlers in this section of Washington County, and the land they owned was located in both Fallowfield and Somerset townships. A tract of land called "Agriculture," containing three hundred and eighty-six acres, which was warranted to Vincent Colvin Feb. 13, 1786, was returned by the board of property to Isaac Newkirk, who received a warrant for it February 27th of the same year. The land was next that of Vincent Colvin, Abraham Newkirk, John Wallace, and Joseph Wilson. Henry Newkirk received a Virginia certificate in 1780 entitling him to four hundred and fourteen acres of land " lying on Pigeon Creek," and adjacent to the tracts of Isaac Newkirk, the Graybill brothers, John Wallace, and John Hall. The survey of this land was made to Henry Newkirk Feb. 13, 1786, and he afterwards conveyed the land to Abraham Newkirk. The property of this family now belongs to Thomas Elwood.

William Niblick came into this township when the Newkirk family did, and like them he was of Scotch birth. He located three hundred acres of land adjoining the Newkirk tracts, whereon he made a home. The. family of William Niblick became widely separated. William Niblick, Jr., had a son named Thomas who went to Ohio, and William Niblick third, son of Jackson Niblick, emigrated to Illinois. In this county the name has become extinct, none of the male descendants living here. Of the daughters of William Niblick, Sr., there are several descendants : Hannah E. Leyda, of Allegheny City ; Mary E. Hopkins, of the same place; William M. Richardson, Seth B. Richardson, Olive J. Newkirk, Joseph B. Hawkins, and Mrs. Amanda Ross being among the number.

Solomon Redd was a son of Nathaniel Redd, who kept a tavern in this section as early as 1800 and until 1820. Peter Redd, another member of the family, kept a tavern in 1816-17. Solomon lived near the mouth of Maple Creek, where he owned and operated a still-house. Thomas Redd, who was captain of the ill-fated steamboat " Lander," was also of this family and a resident of Fallowfield township. He died a few years ago near Cameron, Va.

The Cheserown (or Cheseround) family lived in Fallowfield as early as 1780. On June 27th of that year Peter Cheserown had a tract of land containing two hundred and sixty acres surveyed to him upon a Virginia certificate. It was located on the south side of Pigeon Creek, and at the Mouth of Maple Run. He built both a saw-mill and a grist-mill at this place, but the grist-mill never proved of much value. Peter Cheserown sold thirteen acres of his land, a little below his own mill-site, to John Rodecker, who built a stone grist-mill, which was known as the Union mill. It is not in use now, but belongs to Hollingsworth Hout, who also owns the original Cheserown mill-site, upon- which is another mill, built some thirty years ago by John A. Redd. George Cheserown lived for many years upon a farm on Pigeon Creek above Hair's mill. John Cheserown was his son.

Abraham Frye came from New Jersey to Washington County, and located on the banks of the Monongahela River, near the mouth of Maple Creek, in Fallowfield township. He had a family of ten children,—Benjamin, Johnson, James, Noah, Elijah, Luke, Smith, Thomas, Polly, who married Stephen Colvin, and Hetty, who became the wife of Lott Colvin. Abraham . Frye gave each of his sons a farm, but none of them are in this township. The son, Luke Frye, settled in Carroll township, near the Horseshoe Baptist Church. His son, West Frye, lives in Union township.

Samuel Frye came to this township from Virginia, in company with Henry Speers, each having married the other's sister. They were both coopers by trade, and each owned several slaves. During their early residence here they were much annoyed by the Indians. It is not stated whether Abraham and Samuel Frye were relatives, but both names appear upon the assessment-roll of 1788 as landholders. Samuel Frye's heirs still own a portion of the homestead, and Jackson and Smith Frye have two hundred and ninety-two acres of land lying along the Monongahela River. Seven acres of the original tract was sold with the mill built by Samuel Frye in 1820.

John Ringland came to this county before 1796, and settled adjoining the Fryes. Of whom he made his first purchase or how much land he bought is not known. That he was possessed of lands is shown by a deed made by the executor of William McComas for fifty-six acres "lying on the waters of Pigeon Creek, adjoining lands of Peter Chessround and other lands of John Ringland." On the 23d of October, 1802, he purchased forty acres of Patrick McCardel on Maple Creek, adjoining lands of Henry Speer and his own other lands. On this purchase he built a mill and made his homestead, which is known as the Ringland mill farm, located on the south branch of Maple Creek. The farm (located in the present township of Allen) is now in possession of Samuel and John Frye, grandsons of John Ringland, and sons of his daughter (and his only child who lived to maturity) Isabella, who married Abraham Frye, Sept. 13, 1813. John Ringland later purchased a large amount of land in Fallowfield, and became the largest land-owner in the township. His property was inherited by his daughter Isabella, Mrs. Abraham Frye. Of her children, Samuel and John live on the Ringland mill farm, as before mentioned; Christina be- came the wife of Abraham Colvin, and resides in Fallowfield township near the old mansion, on the Brownsville and Pittsburgh road; Henry and Absalom settled near Gallatin, Tenn.; Noah settled on a


part of the Ringland farm in Fallowfield ; Smith lives on the home farm of his father; Jackson Frye lives where his grandfather, Abraham Frye, resided, where his father, Abraham Frye, Jr., was born in 1793, and where, three years later, his grandfather, John Ringland, lived, where his (Jackson Frye's) mother, Isabella Ringland, was born in 1796, and where, in 1813, Abraham Frye and Isabella Ringland were married, in the same house in which both were born.

Thomas Carson's name rightfully belongs with the first settlers in Fallowfield township. He was an Irishman by birth, and with his wife (Mary Smith) came here and took up a tract of land on the waters of Maple Creek, where they lived and died, leaving a large family of children, eleven in number. Besides attending to the improvement and tilling of their land, Thomas Carson was a shoemaker by trade, at which business he made a good livelihood. During the earliest years of their residence in this township, the settlers being much annoyed by the Indians, Mr. Carson, with the rest, was often obliged to seek protection for himself and family at Burd's Fort. He died in 1816, and his farm, which has never passed out of the family, is now owned by John S. Carson. The eleven children of Thomas Carson settled as follows: the son James married and went to Ohio, where he died, and left four children, all sons. Joseph went ,to Ohio, and from there to Indiana. Thomas Carson, Jr., married, and Thomas G. Carson is his son. William Carson married Mary Burgess, and lived and died upon the homestead. He left eight children,—Elizabeth, Mary, John, Henry, Annie, Lucy, James, and Sarah. The daughter Sarah became the wife of Parker Scott, and had twelve daughters,—Elizabeth, Martha, Lydia, Mary, Margaret, Rebecca, Charlotte, Nancy, Emily, Lucy, Christiana, and Sarah, all of whom grew to womanhood and reared families of their own.

John Carson, son of Thomas Carson, Sr., married Elizabeth Springer. Their family numbered nine children, three of whom died in infancy. Of the six who reached maturity, Mary became the wife of A. J. Van Voorhis; John S. Carson married Margaret Jones; Elizabeth married Noah Fry; Sarah Ann became Mrs. Heman Almond ; Margaret became the wife of Parker Carson ; and Caroline married George Hazel. Only three of these children are now living. John B. Carson, still another son of the pioneer Thomas Carson, married Sarah Scott. Mary Carson, one of the daughters of this first Carson family, married John Grable, the daughter Elizabeth married James Young, Ann married a man named Grable, and Charlotte became the wife of John Carson. The lineal descendants of the children of Thomas and Mary Carson, the early settlers, bearing the family name are John S. Carson, John Carson, John Carson, Jr., Washington Carson, A. J. Carson, John Carson, Alexander S. Carson, New ton Carson, Smith Carson; Lewis Carson, John D. Carson, and Jerome Carson, living in Washington County ; also James, Alexander, Joseph, and Thomas Carson, of Indiana.

James Hair came from Middletown, Berkeley Co., Va., into Fallowfield township in the year 1806, and located upon a tract of land on Pigeon Creek which he purchased of George Platter. He also purchased in connection with the farm the old log mill known as Hair's mill, built of hewed logs, and no doubt the oldest water-mill on Pigeon Creek. The purchase of the mill was made Sept. 15, 1809, as set forth in a memorandum of the bargain still in existence. The mill was rude and imperfect in structure, but it had the reputation of making the best flour to be obtained in this section. A portion of this grist-mill and a saw-mill, also built by James Hair, are still standing. But of a sawmill which he operated at another point on Pigeon Creek only the race remains. Before coming to this township James Hair was an elder in the church, and he was the founder of the Presbyterian Church at Monongahela City when that place was known as Williamsport. Dr. Ralston, who was contemporary with James Hair, and before the church mentioned had been instituted, was asked how a church could be organized in Williamsport. He replied, " Elect Esquire Hair an elder, now already ordained, and go to work." They did so, and the " Old Horseshoe Bottom" congregation was swallowed up in the new Presbyterian organization. On June 4, 1811, Mr. Hair was appointed to the office of justice of the peace. He continued to reside upon his purchase in this township until his death in 1826. His family consisted of six sons and five daughters. John Hair was the oldest son. For many years he lived at the mill, but finally moved to Ohio, where he was the founder of the village of West Union. He died there in 1855. The Rev. Samuel Hair, another son, was born in this township at the Hair homestead. He graduated from Jefferson College in this county in 1832, and then went to Michigan, where he pursued his studies in a theological seminary. He was licensed to preach by the Monroe Presbytery of Michigan, and settled in that State. His death occurred May 10, 1876, in Chicago, Ill. The other sons of James Hair were James, Jr., Gilbert M., Uriah, and B. W. Hair. The daughters of James Hair were Martha, who became Mrs. Crouch, and went West; Ibela, who became Mrs. Baker, and lived and died on the home farm ; Eliza, who became Mrs. Potter, and lived in Allegheny County, in this State; Louisa, who was Mrs. Brinton, and died near Brownsville, Fayette Co., in 1875; and Mary, the wife of Isaac Van Voorhis, who died April 14, 1876, in the eightieth year of her age.

Edward Nixon, a native of Ireland, and his family settled in this section upon land near the river, but afterwards went to Virginia, locating upon the flats of Grave Creek, near Moundsville. There were sev-


eral children. The son John settled in Fallowfield township ; Robert went -to Indiana County, Pa. ; James went to Virginia ; and Hugh and William went to Ohio. Frances Nixon married Jonathan West, and settled in this township, where she died.

The early taverns of Fallowfield were kept by the following-named persons at the dates given :¹ Zachariah Beall, in April, 1782; John Adams, in July, 1782; Joseph Brenton, in December, 1782; Samuel Large, in January, 1788 ; John Adams, in September, 1790 (John Adams was also keeping tavern in Pike Run township in September, 1791, after the township lines were changed) ; James McMillan, in March, 1793; James McCallister, in March, 1794; Isabella, McCallister, in October, 1810; the time in which taverns were kept by Nathaniel Parkison and Nathaniel Redd extended from the year 1800 to 1820 ; and Peter Redd kept tavern in the township during the years 1816-17.

Not much information is to be gained concerning the primitive business interests of Fallowfield township, save that of the farming and general improvement done by the early settlers. However, considerable whiskey must have been manufactured in the township and its immediate vicinity, as Mr. Edward West says " that at one period of his life he could stand on the hill where his father's farm lay and see the smoke from nineteen distilleries in active operation." As early as 1783, Fallowfield township paid a State tax which amounted to £50, and it was the only township in Washington County that paid such a tax in that year, the county commissioners in the report of their session held that year stating that "they did exonerate and discharge the inhabitants of each township from the payment of the State tax, except a few inhabitants in Fallowfield township, which the commissioners allowed should pay a State tax, for reasons known to them, which amounts to £50." Benjamin White was the assessor of Fallowfield township for 1783, Nathan Ellis collector, and the amount of the county tax £94 10s.

Jones Town Post-office, in Fallowfield township, is a place named in honor of John Jones, and is located on land patented to a Mr. Longsley. John Jones died in this place at the age of ninety years, and his father, William Jones, was one hundred years old at his death. This village contains nine dwellings, and has one store, a school-house, and a blacksmith-shop, first owned by Samuel Withrow and afterwards by Isaac Grimes. A post-office was established here in 1857, with Edward Creighton as postmaster, and he still continues in the position. This office was at one time discontinued but soon re-established.

¹ The dates being those of licenses found in records.

Lock No. 1 is situated on the Monongahela River, and has eleven dwellings, besides the store of McGorrell & Allen, the post-office, and a telegraph-office.

Churches.—The religious .society in this township now known as the Maple Creek Baptist Church was originated under the title "Baptist Church Enan," and was in existence as early as March 19, 1791. At that time its members were John' Bailey, William Jackman, Sr., Stephen Barclay, Henry Speer, Samuel Vail, Charles Whitlatch, William Jackman, Jr., Abraham Evans, James Deems, James Watson, Jesse Vandolah, John Mason, Nathan Ellis, Aaron Boylan, John Seward, John Ennis, William Allen, John Vandolah, Thomas Crow, John Earles, Nathaniel Carns, Thomas Carson, George Innis, John Stelle, William McFee, Thomas Cloud, B. George, Mary Barclay, Rebecca Speers, Margaret Ellis, Rachel Mifford, Mary Jackman, Nancy Neal, Sarah Boylan, Mary Boylan, Nancy Bailey, Margaret Innis, Catharine Seward, Abigail Hayden, Sarah Vandolah, Elizabeth Bonham, Margaret Earles, Winifred Ryan, Lavina Stelle, Eleanor Ellis, Esther Vandolah, Anna Vandolah, Mary Carson, Mary Ward, Mary Burgess, Lucy Burgess, Elsie Stanish, Jemima Evans, Mary Patton, Rachel Springer, Peggy Cloud, Elizabeth Yateman, Keziah Berk, Abigail Ogg, Polly Carns, Elizabeth Burgan and Elizabeth Burgan (2d), Keziali Barkhammer, Rebecca Prichard, Sarah Parsons, Mary Ertlin, Nancy Riggs, Rachel Springer, Catharine Rutan, and Mary Karnes.

The first business meeting of this church was held on March 19, 1791, when Church Enan met agreeable to appointment, and after prayer proceeded to business, as follows : First, chose Elder Smith as moderator ; second, chose Brethren John Bailey and William Jackman, Sr., to supply the places of deacons for the ensuing day." At another meeting, held Feb. 4, 1792, Rev. Samuel Vail was chosen moderator; and on Aug. 6, 1796, Messrs. Speers, Rutan, Whit-latch, Jackman, Yateman, and Carson, members of the society, were appointed messengers to attend a Baptist Association soon to be held. On Sept. 3, 1796, the records show that Joseph Hill was accepted as a member of the church. Nov. 1,1800, this church "gave Brothers Speers and Rutan the privilege of choosing six other brethren to settle their church business at the residence of Brother Jackman on the second Wednesday in December, 1800. The six men chosen were Rev, John Corbly, Matthias Luce, William Davis, Joseph Hill, J. Jones, and A. Kearns."

The services of the Baptist Church Enan were originally held in a log house, which was succeeded by a brick building, located on Maple Creek near its mouth, and the Monongahela River, opposite the village of Belle Vernon, in Fayette County. It was built during the pastorate of Rev. Henry Speers, and upon a tract of land containing one hundred and forty-eight perches, donated by him in 1842. After the society obtained the present site for their church, the brick building was sold to the grandchildren of Rev. Henry Speers, and it is now occupied by several families. The old graveyard belonging to the church is still


used. The society now worship in a frame edifice erected near the house of John S. Carson, and upon land owned by him.

The clergymen who have officiated in this church since its organization have been Revs. Henry Smith, Henry Speers, Mr. Burnett, Whitlatch, and Adah Winnett. No minister has charge of the society at present, but services are conducted occasionally by Rev. William M. Smoots. The removal of this Baptist Church to Carson's Ridge occurred about the year 1870, and the new house of worship was erected in 1875. Rev. Adah Winnett was the officiating pastor at that time; he conducted the dedication of the building, and continued his pastoral duties here until he was stricken with paralysis while officiating in the pulpit. The church, as stated, is a frame structure, thirty-two by forty feet in size, and one story in height. A new burial-ground was platted, which is called Carson's graveyard. The first interment was that of Mrs. Margaret Jones Carson, wife of John S. Carson, who died Dec. 16, 1870, at forty-three years of age.

On Jan. 18, 1800, Christian Stockers sold to the trustees of the Presbyterian and German Lutheran societies, both of which then existed in Fallowfield township, one acre of land, for which he received a consideration of seven shillings and sixpence. This acre was from the tract of land called " Carlisle," for which an application was made May 23, 1769, by Stockers through William Wilson. After becoming possessed of the land Wilson conveyed it to Stockers, who obtained a patent for it June 2, 1794. Upon this land, purchased of Christian Stockers, the Presbyterian and Lutheran societies erected church buildings. At the present time the site of the Presbyterian Church is only marked by the ruins of the building and the old graves in the churchyard. The Lutheran organization was removed to Ginger Hill. Their old church was purchased by Frederick K. Cooper, and it is now used as a dwelling-house.

The church building of the society called the Newkirk Methodist Church was erected in the year 1836, upon land owned jointly by Cyrus Newkirk and William Niblack. It was built of brick; and after a few years was taken down and rebuilt upon a site farther up the hill. The subscription for this church was started by Samuel Babcock, and was so successful that a commodious brick church, forty-four by sixty feet in size, was the result .of the effort. The first great revival held by this denomination in Fallowfield township was under the charge of Rev. John Spencer and David Cross, and among the early converts were John Jones, Sarah Newkirk, Maria Niblack, Mary Jones, Elijah Jones, Jesse Jones, Eleanor Jones, William Jones and his Wife, and Annie K. Bentley.

The Maple Creek Christian Church in Fallowfield township was organized Oct. 17, 1857, by James B. Piatt and Samuel B. Teagarden. The early members were Samuel and Ann Frye, Abraham and Isabella Frye, Jackson Frye, Sarah A. Frye, Clarissa Frye, Solomon and Charlotte Frye; Noah and Lydia Frye, John and Elizabeth Frye, Christian Colvin, John Merrick, Mary Merrick, John and Hannah Rider, Joseph and Charlotte Rider, Rebecca J. Shannon, Louisiana Cooper, Sarah Phillips, David McCracken, Mary McCracken, Joseph McCracken, Elizabeth and Amelia Phillips, A. Hendrickson, Amanda Thompson, Martha Stillwell, and Emma McGlaughlan.

Samuel Frye and John Merrick were chosen elders of the church, the former of whom has labored much "in word and doctrine," being the regular instructor of the congregation during most of the time since the organization. John Frye is now associated with him in the eldership. John Frye and John Rider were the earlier deacons. John Wilson and John B. Carson now officiate as deacons.

For ten years the church met for worship in the school-house where it was organized. In August, 1867, Dutton Shannon and wife gave a lot containing twenty-two and seventy-nine one-hundredths perches, strict measure, to Abram Hull, Joseph Rider, and Dutton Shannon, trustees of the Christian Church of Fallowfield, for the purpose of erecting a house of worship, and other religious purposes, and in case it shall cease to be so used the title is to revert to the grantor. Upon this lot the present plain but commodious brick house was built, and here the church has continued to meet regularly, and it still maintains the Christian ordinances according to the primitive order.

This church has generally relied on its own eldership for public instruction, but has called in evangelists occasionally for special labor, and J. B. Piatt was employed regularly for two or three years a part of the time. Of others who have preached for this church at times since its establishment the following names are mentioned : Alanson Wilcox, L. P. Streator, M. L. Streator, J. F. Rowe, J. D. Benedict, and R. H. Singer. The present membership is sixty-two.

The Ebenezer Church of the Methodist Episcopal denomination was built more than thirty years ago, during the pastorate of Rev. Warner Long, the dedication occurring in 1850, and was conducted by Rev. Thomas Hudson. The building is of brick, erected at a cost of one thousand dollars. The ground upon which it is located was purchased of Joshua G. Baker, and the ;Rev. William Ward, James Shroud, and John Biddle composed the building committee. At the date of the dedication of the Ebenezer Church its members were Rev. William Ward, Pleasant Ward, Nancy Ward, Levi and Catharine Biddle, Asa and Eleanor White, John and Maria White, Wesley and Jane White, Joshua and Mary Baker, Thomas and Hester Richards, Silas and Lucinda Lutz, John and Susanna Beadle, Asbury and Ann Smith, James and Martha Stroud, Barnett


and Hannah Sickman, James and Sarah Smiley. At the time the church was built Rev. Warner Long had charge of the society. Since that time the clergymen who have presided have been Revs. James Lansom, Thomas Hudson, Gustavus Lemon, Mr. Snyder, Samuel Wakefield, Mr. Neff, J. W. Kesler, John W. Weaver, Charles Edwards, T. J. Stiffey, James Meacham, Rezin Mansin, S. G. Miller, J. A. Henry, and the present pastor, Rev. E. B. Griffin.

Another religious society which once existed in Fallowfield township was known as the Maple Creek Presbyterian Church. The first church building was erected on land donated by Rachel and Mary Earel, who made provision that when the building ceased to be used for church purposes the land should revert to Andrew Waller: The first house passed into decay, and a second, built to replace it, has also been abandoned, and the site is now owned by Andrew Waller, as stipulated by the donors. One of the pastors of this church was Rev. Boyd Mercer, and one of the elders Mr. John Moss, who died July 5, 1868, in the ninetieth year of his age. After the Maple Creek Presbyterian Church abandoned their house of worship in this township they erected a handsome edifice in the village of California, which is still in use as their place of worship.

Schools.—Two of the earliest school-teachers in Fallowfield township were Thomas Sutton and Joshua Pennell. It was full seventy years ago that the latter taught school in a log house that stood at the crossroads near West Church. Thomas Sutton taught in a school-house which stood on Maple Creek, on the present farm of John S. Carson.

Upon the adoption of the new system, under the school law of 1834, the amount of money raised for school purposes in Fallowfield was $297.10, of which $115 was transferred to Carroll township, which had then recently been erected from territory of Fallow-field, leaving the total for this township $182.10. In 1836 the school money of the township was $293 from the county and $66.39 from the State; total, $359.39. In 1837 the amount was reduced to $300.12. In 1863 the number of schools in the township was seven. There were seven teachers and three hundred and five pupils. During that year the school fund amounted to $1066.48, and the expenditures were $1007.25. Ten years later, in 1873, seven schools were taught by seven teachers, and two hundred and fifteen scholars were in attendance. The amount of money raised for the schools was $1470.34, and the expenses for the same were $1303.50. In 1880 the township had eight schools, employed eight teachers, and one hundred and seventy-eight pupils were enrolled. The receipts of school money for that year were $1696.85; expenditures, $1467.78.

Justices of the Peace.¹ —Following is a list of justices of the peace appointed and elected in Fallowfield since its erection, viz.:

John Parker, John Hall, east end, July 15.1781.

John Stevenson, Patrick McCullough, west end, July 15, 1781.

John Worth, Nov. 1, 1786.

Daniel De Pue, March 12, 1793.

Henry Gregg, Feb. 7, 1796.

Andrew Boggs, Feb. 17, 1797.

Nathan Powell, Feb. 23, 1801.

Jacob Crabo, June 5, 1801.

William Irwin, June 5, 1801.

Thomas Carson, Jan. 1,1806.

Hugh Scott, July 4, 1806.

Caleb Johnston, March 29, 1808.

Jacob Van Degraff, July 11, 1809.

James Hair, April 4, 1811.

Jacob Risinger, March 29, 1813.

Robert W. Fleming, Sept. 21, 1818.

Parker Scott, May 28, 1819.

Seth Buffington, Jan. 23, 1819.

George Jackson, Dec. 8, 1823.

Stephen Hill, March 6, 1827.

William Hopkins, March 12,1827.

Andrew Gregg, April 20, 1829.

Joseph Wells, April 24,1834.

George McFarland, April 1, 1835.

George Passmore, Nov. 18,1835.

Moses Bennington, Oct. 17, 1830.

James L. Morris, July 19,1839.

James Stroud, April 14, 1840.

George Passmore, April 14,1840.

John Rider, April 15, 1845.

Mark Mitchell, April 15, 1845.

David Mitchell, April 13,1847.

James Stroud, April 9, 1850.

Edward Creighton, April 15,1851.

Samuel Swabe, April 10, 1855.

Richard Richardson, Apri116,1856

Benjamin Crow, Aug. 10, 1860.

Edward Creighton, April 9, 1861.

Washington Carson, June 3,1865.

Edward Creighton, April 16,1866.

Joel Grable, March 29, 1870.

Edward Creighton, April 12,1871.

Edward Creighton, Jan. 20, 1874.

Joel Grable, Jan. 26, 1874.

Dutton Shannon, March 17,1875.

Edward Creighton, March 10,1876.

J. K. Sickman, March 30, 1880.

David Mitchell, April 9, 1881.

Edward Creighton, April 9,1881.

¹ Fallowfield was a separate and independent district until the organization of Pike Run, when that township was attached to it, and so remained until 1838, when Pike Run became an independent district. The next year it was divided into East and West Pike Run townships.


THE territory now embraced in Franklin township was originally a part of .Amwell. Morris township, erected from Amwell in September, 1788, embraced the northern part of the present township of Franklin, and Canton township, erected April 23, 1792, embraced the northern portion. The territory remained within these two townships without any effort to form a new township until the year 1852, when a petition was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions praying that Morris township be divided. Viewers were appointed who asked further time. Re-viewers were appointed, and the matter continued from term to term until the 13th of August, 1855, when the township of Franklin was erected from Canton and Morris townships by decree of court. The following-named persons were and have .been elected to the office of


justice of the peace for Franklin township from the time of its erection to the present, viz.:

John Brownlee, April 16,1856.

John V. Wilson, April 10, 1860.

John Brownlee, May 10, 1861.

John Brownlee, April 17, 1866.

John Brownlee, April 10,1871.

John Brownlee, Jan. 21, 1874.

H. M. Keeny, March 21, 1878.

Andrew Horn, April 20, 1880.

Early Settlements and Settlers.-John Beard took out a warrant for a tract of land on the 19th of February,1785. It was surveyed to him as "Strawberry" on the 11th of September the same year, and contained two hundred and ninety-three acres. James Huston, Daniel Leet, John Gabby, and David Hoge were owners of adjoining tracts. On the 14th of February, 1793, Beard sold all of this tract to James Gilmore, of Bedford County, Pa., who then moved here and located upon this land. In November of this year he bought ten acres of William Faulkner of the Forbes patent, and on the 28th of October, 1794, ten acres of William Forbes, adjoining the Faulkner land. On the 15th of July, 1794, he purchased lots 216 and 183 on Market Street, and August 20th lot 221, also on Market Street, and on the 13th of August, 1799, lot 397, all in the borough of Washington. On the 22d of January, 1807, James Gilmore was appointed by Governor McKean justice of the peace of District No. 2, composed of Canton and Hopewell. In 1805 he was a school director in the borough of Washington, with Alexander Little and Robert Anderson. On the 20th of January of that year they purchased lot No. 77, on Belle Street (now Wheeling), to be made use of for a school-house and for no other purpose. Mr. Gilmore lived on the tract "Strawberry" till his death in 1833. On the 27th of December, 1817, he sold one hundred and nine acres of the tract to his son, Andrew Gilmore, who, Nov. .22, 1824, conveyed it to Thomas Morgan. He left two sons, John and Andrew, and three daughters, Lavinia (Mrs. James G. Strean), Margaret (Mrs. James Smith), and Jane (Mrs. William Campbell). On the 1st of April, 1835, the executors of James Gilmore sold two hundred and ninety-nine acres of land to James G. Strean, where he still lives. Mr. Strean has been one of the most successful wool-growers in Washington County, and in 1851 took the prize for the finest wool at the World's Fair in London.

Reason Virgin, of Fayette County, located a tract of land, for which he received a Virginia certificate June 22, 1780, which was surveyed November 13th the same year as " Virgin Dove," containing four hundred acres, adjoining lands of Daniel Leet and John Brownlee. Patent was issued March 2, 1786. The tract was divided into two tracts; the one on the north side, containing one hundred and fifty-seven acres, was sold June 20, 1786, to David Adams, who three years later sold to James Ross, who had purchased the south part, containing two hundred and forty-three acres, June 25, 1787. Brice Virgin resided in 1784 on a tract which he had taken up, and for which he had received a Virginia certificate. On the

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7th of August, 1784, he sold two hundred acres of it to James Wilson, and on the 12th of July the next year sold the remainder, viz., "all that tract whereon I now live," to Reason Virgin. This land is now mostly owned by the Brownlees and Ramseys.

On the 7th of May, 1791, Richard Yeates sold to David Bradford two hundred and eighty acres of land, adjoining Isaac Leet, John Gabby, and Enoch Dye, on which he built a mill. This mill has been known as Bradford's, Reed's, Gabby's, and is now owned by William Paull.

Daniel Leet was born in Bordentown; N. J., on the 6th of November, 1748. He early moved with his father to Virginia, and was a student at William and Mary College. He received a commission as surveyor of the county of Augusta, April 17, 1776. He came to this county at that time, and when the county of Augusta was divided into the counties of Yohogania, Monongalia, and Ohio, and given in, charge of surveyors, Daniel Leet was assigned to the territory from King's Creek to Tomlinson's Run. He served in the Revolutionary war as quartermaster, paymaster, and brigade major in the Virginia line. He located a tract of land "on the waters of Chartiers Creek," which was granted to him on Virginia certificate Jan. 2, 1780, and surveyed June 10, 1785, as " Brinton," containing four hundred acres. This tract adjoined lands of Reason Virgin, John Beard, James McCombs, James Huston, and Jonathan Leet. Daniel Leet lived on this tract of land till 1829, when he removed to Sewickly Bottoms, where his daughter, Mrs. David Shields, resided, and where he died June 18, 1830. He had but one daughter, Maria, who became the wife of David Shields, many years a merchant of Washington. They inherited the estate of eight hundred acres, now lying in Franklin township, which is still owned by descendants of the family. A daughter of David and Maria Shields married John K. Wilson, and for many years resided in Washington. He now resides in Allegheny City. David S. Wilson, now of Allegheny, is their son.

Isaac Leet, the father of David Leet, came to this county from Prince William County, Va., in 1779, a few years after his son Daniel. He settled upon a tract of land granted on a Virginia certificate, and surveyed Jan. 6, 1807, as " Leet's Fancy," containing three hundred and fifty-one acres, adjoining David Hoge, Alexander Cunningham, and David Clark. He lived and died on this farm (which is now owned by Jacob Weirick), and was buried in what is now known as the Weirick graveyard. His wife, Rebecca, and many of the family are also buried there. His other children were Jonathan, who settled in South Strabane and died there; a son, Isaac, who resided in Canton township, where he lived and died ; a daughter, Elizabeth; and a daughter, Rebecca, who married Enoch Dye, and settled in Canton township.

Henry Woods, of Beaver County, married a daughter of Thomas Scott. He purchased 306½ acres



land for £405 of James Huston on the 11th of August, 1787, and on the 17th of April, 1793, purchased of William Huston 233 acres. These lands were adjoining Hugh Means, James Workman, and Thomas Nichols. On the 18th of October, 1803, he sold 224 acres to George Nixon: He lived and died in Beaver County. His widow married Alexander McKinley ; their son, Alexander McKinley, is now a resident of Washington, Pa.

The family of Dille, who settled in this section, were numerous. They took up lands in what is now Franklin township. Caleb Dille warranted a tract of land on the middle fork of Ten-Mile on the 10th of February, 1785, which was surveyed Jan. 27, 1786, as " Pleasant Harbor," and contained 189 acres. David Dille's warrant was dated Feb. 10, 1785. His land was surveyed Nov. 7, 1785, contained 400 acres, and was named " Fair Plain." Isaac Dille's land was warranted the same date, surveyed Jan. 17, 1785, and was named "Rabbit's Burrow." Price Dille located a tract, which was warranted March 30, 1786, and surveyed June 19th, the same year; this tract contained 400 acres, and was called " Mendicum." These tracts were adjoining each other. Ezra Dille took out a warrant Dec. 3, 1811. It was surveyed to him by the name of " Peace," and contained 55 acres. It had long been occupied by him, and he continued to live there many years after. On the 4th of April, 1814, he conveyed 50 acres to Isaac Dille. David Dille conveyed to Isaac Dille 161 acres on the 21st of March, 1793. Some of the land purchased and settled on by the Dilles is still in possession of their descendants.

Richard Finley was an Irishman who came to this county before 1800, and on the 15th of November, 1799, purchased a small tract of land of William Mitchell, and Nov. 1, 1803, bought 225 acres of Henry Dickerson, a part of " Potato Hollow." He married Jane Anderson, by whom he had one daughter, Mary,. who became the wife of John McClelland. His lands are now owned by Richard McClelland, a son of John and Mary McClelland. The children of John McClelland were Nelly, Francis Jane, Richard, and Margaret. Nelly became the wife of James Wallace, of Beaver County, Pa. Francis married Margaret Brownlee, Jane married William Wallace, Richard married Jane House, and Margaret became the wife of William Gabby.

William and John Gabby were brothers, and emigrated from Scotland to this country. William settled in York County, Pa., and John settled for a time in Washington County, Md. In 1784, John Gabby came to Washington County, Pa., and on the 5th of June of that year purchased one hundred and twenty acres of land of Daniel Leet, and soon after purchased one hundred and sixty acres of Richard Yeates: James Gabby was a son of John, and a brother-in-law of James Burns, who had married his sister Jane. Burns was a sickle- and scythe-maker, and lived on this place for several years, and worked at his trade. He emigrated to Ohio, and located on the site of the present city of Cincinnati, there being at that time but three log cabins on the river at the place. Mr. Burns lived here many years, and bought a farm on the Miami River, and lived there till his death. James Gabby married Jeannette Gabby, a cousin, and settled on the farm his father purchased, and where he lived and died. His children were Mary, Jane, Ann, William, James, John, Joseph, Margaret, and Emily. Mary became the wife of Robert Smiley, and settled in Mount Pleasant township; Jane married Hugh Allison, and settled in Chartiers; Ann and Joseph lived single ; Margaret became the wife of Alexander Templeton, and emigrated to Wilmington, Lawrence Co., Pa.; Emily married Joseph Thompson; William married Margaret, daughter of John McClelland, and settled on the old homestead, where he still resides, far advanced in life. It is on this farm that the jail of Augusta County was said to have been built, and James Gabby used to say he tore it down and used the logs to build a kitchen. Some of the logs are now in the ice-house. William Gabby had thirteen children, nine of whom are living, Mary, James, Margaret, William, Francis, Jane, Hugh, Robert, and Ella. Mary became the wife of James G. Allison, and resides in Nebraska; James married Nora Cane, and settled in Washington ; Margaret married Jonathan Allison, and settled in Chartiers township; William married Ada Wilson, and settled in Franklin township ; Francis married Sarah Wier, and resides in Morris; Jane married Dr. E. H. Cary, of Prosperity, Morris township; Hugh married Mattie Brownlee, and resides in Franklin township.

Henry Dickerson was one of the earliest settlers in the limits of this township. In a deed that bears date Oct. 21, 1773, he describes the property conveyed as " containing my old improvement," which would indicate that he had been a resident some years.. The land conveyed by the deed mentioned above was sold to Robert Doak, and embraced three hundred and thirty acres. It later passed to John Ralston, John McMullen, Robert Henry, William Doak, and Robert Hazlett. Mr. Dickerson took up large quantities of lands which later were warranted and surveyed in his own name and in the names of his sons. A tract of three hundred and seventy-four acres was warranted Feb. 26, 1786, surveyed as " Bare Hollow," adjoining lands of William Atkinson, John Sailor, and Asa Dickerson. This tract was patented June 16, 1789.

A tract of land called " Squirrel," on the headwaters of Ten-Mile Creek, was patented Aug. 20, 1790, and one hundred and twenty acres of it was sold to George Harsh, April 27, 1795, and fifty acres to Robert Cunningham, Feb. 11,1797. A tract called " Cool Run" was warranted and surveyed to Gideon Dickerson, but patented to Henry Dickerson, April 13, 1790. One hundred and twenty acres of it was sold to .Andrew Beck, June 12, 1802. John Dick-


erson took out a warrant for a tract of land March 4, 1785, situated on the head-waters of Ten-Mile Creek. There seems to have been some dispute in reference to the title to this land, as the matter was brought to the notice of the board of property, who issued a warrant of acceptance May 18, 1789. The survey of one hundred and ninety-three acres was made July 20, 1770, in which the name " Difficulty" was given to the tract. John Dickerson, Jr., received a warrant March 30, 1798, for a small parcel of land which was surveyed Aug. 20, 1804, and named " Escape." Asa Dickerson warranted a tract, Nov. 1, 1788, which was surveyed July 29, 1790, as " Dickerson's Claim." Gideon Dickerson received a land warrant April 20, 1786. It was surveyed as "Coal Hill ;" the patent, however, was made out to his father, April 13, 1790. Other tracts were warranted to John, Pontius, and Joshua Dickerson. Henry Dickerson died in the fall of 1823, and left six sons,—Joshua, George, Gideon, Asa (all of whom had large farms), Henry, and Leonard.

George followed the business of boating. Henry married Catharine Beck, lived for some years in this county, and then went to Illinois. Gideon married Eliza Gunn, and settled in Ohio, as did also Leonard, whose wife was Susan Wolf. Joshua married Margaret McPherson and remained on his father's farm, and died in 1853. He served several years in the State Legislature. His daughters were Lydia, who became Mrs. Trusell ; Jennie, who married Samuel Waters; Ruth, who became Mrs. Barker, and Mary and Matilda Dickerson. Of the two sons, Alexander died in Harrisburg, Pal, and John died in this county.

William Fitz William emigrated from Ireland with his wife and family, and settled in York Co., Pa. In 1794 he volunteered as a soldier, and came West with the troops when they were sent out to suppress the Whiskey Insurrection.

He returned with them, but soon after removed to Washington with his family, and settled on Gallows Hill, where he followed the profession of a weaver for a few years, and removed to Mercer County, Pa., and later to Ross County, Ohio. Francis, a son, who was born on Gallows Hill in 1800, returned from Ohio, where he was with his father's family, learned the trade Of a blacksmith, and worked in Washington borough, and in the spring of 1832 purchased the farm' now owned by his eldest son, R. M. Fitz William, which was part of the Walnut Hill tract, and lived upon it till his death, in 1874, at the age of seventy-four years. He left three children, two of whom are living,—R. M., on the homestead, and Jane, who became the. wife of Dr. Henry Wheeler, and settled in Iowa.

Bantus Ruple came from the city of Philadelphia about the year 1792, and bought the tract of land that was surveyed under the name of Bear Wallow. He lived and died upon the farm, and left four sons,—John, Samuel, James, and David. John and Samuel settled in Cuyahoga County, Ohio ; David, in Knox County, Ohio ; and James, in the borough of Washington, where he lived and died, leaving three sons,—James B., Joseph C., and John. Charles M. Ruple, of Washington, is a descendant.

Thomas Nichle, or Nichols, came to this county and took out a warrant, Feb. 14, 1785, for a tract of land now owned by John Hughes, whose wife is a granddaughter of Thomas Nichols. This tract of land was surveyed on the 13th of May, 1785, and was named in the survey " Crystal," containing two hundred and eighty-one acres, adjoining lands of James Huston, James Workman, John McCombs, Joseph Leacock, and others. His son Samuel settled on the homestead, and died there. Of his other children, Franklin settled in the borough of Washington, James removed to Columbiana County, Ohio, Thomas purchased a farm and settled in South Strabane. The daughters were Mary and Elizabeth. Mary became the wife of Oliver Leacock; and settled at Scenery Hill, and Elizabeth married John Hughes. They settled on the old homestead, the " Crystal" tract, their grandfather took up in 1785.

Dr. Henry Moore lived in Buffalo township, and in addition to lands taken up on Virginia certificates in that township, located others lying in what is now Franklin. A tract containing three hundred and ninety-eight acres was surveyed to him, Nov. 18, 1786, as "Battle-field." This was adjoining lands of James Ridgeway, Robert Stockton, and William Brownlee. He died about 1824. His later years were passed in Washington with his son Daniel. Of his three daughters, Ann became Mrs. Carter, Mary Mrs. Leet, and Elizabeth Mrs. Bentley.

George Atkinson took out a warrant for a tract of land, March 1, 1785, which was surveyed as two hundred and eighty-seven acres, and named " Pheasants' Resort." It was located on the north fork of Ten-Mile Creek, adjoining lands of John and Thomas Atkinson and Charles Cracroft. On the 11th of October, 1793, George Atkinson sold the whole tract for five hundred and fifty pounds to Zebulon Cooper. He was a native of New Jersey, and came to this county about the close of the Revolutionary war, and settled in this neighborhood, where he raised a large family.