dren, one of whom, Charles, became a Presbyterian clergyman, and is now pastor of a church in Marlborough, N. Y. Several of his sons and daughters emigrated to Iowa and Missouri, and his later years were spent with them. He died at The house of his son, Zebulon, at Winfield, Iowa, on the 10th of April, 1873, in his eighty-fourth year.

Stephen Cooper, a son of Zebulon, settled in this township. He married Hannah Boner, by whom he had six sons—James, William, Josiah, Lewis, Stephen, and David—and three daughters,—Ellen, Sophia, and Charlotte. Ellen married a Mr. Vandyke; Sophia became the wife of the Rev. Ellis Weaver, of Hamilton, Ohio ; Charlotte married Israel Breese. John Cooper, also a son of Zebulon, had two sons—Thomas and Ephraim—and five daughters, —Harriet, Nancy, Martha, Parmelia, and Sarah.

Charles Cracroft owned land in this township as early as 1785. In that year his land is mentioned as adjoining land of George Atkinson. He had three sons,—Joseph, Charles, and William. Joseph settled in Buffalo township, where he built a mill on Buffalo Creek that was known many years as Cracroft's mill. William settled on the old homestead, where he lived and died, and left a numerous family. Three of the sons became physicians. Archibald, a son, now owns the Cracroft farm.

Samuel and Adam Weir, who were of Scotch-Irish descent, settled on the head-waters of Ten-Mile and Chartiers Creeks. Adam, on the 13th of May, 1785, bought seventy acres of land of Joseph Johnston adjoining land of David Dille and other lands of Weir. On the 14th of July, 1798, he purchased one-hundred and four acres of land of Daniel Dille, adjoining land of John Dodd. The land of Adam Weir was on the head-waters of Chartiers, and Samuel's on Ten-Mile; the head springs of each creek being not over half a mile apart. Adam Weir lived and died on the farm, leaving three sons,—Robert, Thomas, and Adam. The two first emigrated to Iowa. Samuel Weir, the brother of Adam, who came at the same time, did not purchase until 1813. On the 6th of September in that year he bought two hundred acres of land of John Sargent. On the 14th of April the next year he bought one hundred and fifty acres of Isaac Dille, and ten days later thirty acres of John Croll. This last was part of a tract patented May 17, 1804, by Nicholas Rigley. Samuel left three sons,—Adam, Thomas, and Joseph. Adam settled near where he was born, and left two sons,—John N., and Adam, and one daughter, Sarah, who became the wife of Charles Redick, and settled in Amwell township, where they still reside. Joseph settled near Van Buren. He was largely engaged in buying and selling stock, and. Interested in the introduction of fine-wool sheep with Joseph Clark, William Gabby, and James G. Strean. John B. Weir, a son of Joseph, lives near the old homestead.

Robert Stockton, of Scotch-Irish parentage, was married in the eastern part of the State near Chambersburg, where the most of his children were born, He removed to Washington County in 1784, and on the 2d of July purchased three hundred and fourteen acres of land of Peter Jolly, named in the survey " Beaver Dam." Mr. Stockton was chosen an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and held the position till his death in 1821. He had eight children,—Margaret (Mrs. Colton ), Frances (Mrs. Charles Stewart), Robert, Joseph, Elizabeth (Mrs. Cunningham), Thomas, and John. Joseph, soon after his father's removal to this county, entered Canonsburg Academy and studied theology under Dr. John McMillan. He was licensed to preach June 26, 1799. He became one of the constituent members of the Presbytery of Erie. He was pastor of the church at Meadville in its infancy, and had charge of the academy at that place. Later he was principal of the Pittsburgh Academy for about ten years till 1820. In 1827 he was one of the instructors in the Western Theological Seminary. The last three years of his life were spent with the church of Pine Creek (Sharpsburg). He died at Baltimore Oct. 29, 1832, in his fifty-fourth year, having been called to visit a son who was sick in that city. 

Thomas Stockton settled on the homestead of his father, where he lived till his death. Of his children Mary became the wife of David Slack, and settled in Marshall County, W. Va. ; Thomas settled in Licking County, Ohio ; Sarah became the wife of — Vance, and later of Alexander Gordon, and is now living at Washington, Pa. ; Robert settled on the homestead, which is now owned by his son, Dr. John W. Stockton, a practicing physician in Washington, Pa.

The Rev. Dr. John Stockton was born on the homestead on the 18th of November, 1803, and entered Washington College, where he graduated on the 3d of October, 1820. He studied theology with the Rev. Dr. John Anderson, of Upper Buffalo, and on the 25th of April, 1825, was licensed by the Presbytery of Washington to preach the gospel, and afterwards spent a year at Princeton College. He received a call through the Presbytery from the Cross Creek Presbyterian Church, which he accepted, and remained as their pastor half a century, when, on account of declining wealth, he resigned March 29, 1877, to take effect in June. He remained at Cross Creek, the scene of his lifelong labor, and died May 5, 1882. His son Thomas is a physician at Cross Creek, his native place.

James Brownlee emigrated to this country from Scotland, and settled east of the mountains in Pennsylvania. He was a millwright by trade, and came to this county with several others. After staying through the winter they returned to the East, concluding that they were too far beyond the bounds of civilization. He returned a year or two later, and purchased land near Sugar Hill of Hugh Wiley on the 2d of January, 1792. He married Jane, a daughter of John Leman, and settled on the farm, where they 



raised a large family of children, many of whom settled in the township and county. The old homestead has been in the family many years, and occupied until recently by the heirs of Samuel Brownlee.

William Brownlee, a brother of James, took up a tract of land, the warrant for which bears date March, 1785. It was surveyed November 19th of the same year, and named " Virtue," containing three hundred acres adjoining John Virgin, William McCombs, and Dr. Henry Moore. He married Margaret, a daughter of John Leman, by whom he had a large family.

Thomas Ringland was a prominent man in the township for many years. An ardent Democrat, twice elected to Congress, and in 1835 was one of the leaders in the support of the public school law. He emigrated West before the Rebellion, and died about 1870.

Van Buren.—The land on which this hamlet is located was the early home of Gobles. The old homestead and tavern stand (the latter kept many years by Daniel L. Goble) is now the property of Adam Weir, whose father, Adam Weir, purchased the property now Van Buren April 18, 1818, and opened a store, and became the postmaster at the office soon after established at that place. He was postmaster many years, and was succeeded by Stephen Pipe, who was succeeded by Adam Weir, Jr., the present incumbent. A store was kept a short time previous to the purchase of Adam Weir, Sr., near the Goble tavern by Sample Sweeny. The town is situated on the plank road that leads from Washington to Prosperity. The Bethel Church is near the settlement.

Toledo is a small hamlet situated on Chartiers Creek about three miles from Washington, and on the plank-road leading from Washington to Waynesburg. It contains a grist-mill, blacksmith-shop, shoe-shop, post-office, a toll-gate, and a few dwellings. The post-office was established Sept. 22, 1875. Christiana Miller was appointed the first postmaster, and was succeeded by S. D. Harshman, the present incumbent.

Presbyterian Church.—From the history of Lower Ten-Mile Presbyterian Church the following account of this branch of that church is taken. This society erected a brick edifice not far from Van Buren, on the road from that place to Lone Pine. " In 1825 the congregation of Lower Ten-Mile built of brick a house of worship on the farm of Mr. Jonas Condit, about five miles northwest from Amity. It was long known as the ' brick meeting-house.' After Nov. 10, 1825, by request of the congregation, Mr. Dodd preached one-half of his time in this house until 1844, when a resolution was adopted by the congregation that two-thirds of his time be occupied in Amity and one-third in this house. In 18j2, Dr. McKennan was rested that one-half of his services be in this house. In 1871 this house was sold for $213.70." It was removed soon after. In the little graveyard on the lot where the church once stood rest several of the early settlers, among whom are Jonas Condit, died July 17, 1850, aged eighty-one years; Luther Axtell, died Feb. 7, 1868, aged eighty-five years; and James McFarland, aged eighty-two years. 

Bethel Cumberland Presbyterian Church.—This society was organized on the 30th of March, 1832, by the Rev. John Morgan, as the Upper Ten-Mile Cumberland Presbyterian Congregation. It was composed in part of Presbyterians from the Upper Ten-Mile Presbyterian Congregation. The causes that led to its organization will be found in an article on Cumberland Presbyterian Churches in the general history. The following is from the minutes of the church :

" At a meeting of the Upper Ten-Mile Congregation, held at the house of Stephen Dille, on Tuesday, the 2d day of August, 1832, for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety or impropriety of erecting a house of worship in that vicinity for the Cumberland Presbyterian order, Abraham Vanvoorhis was appointed Moderator, and Luther Day Clerk, when, after much deliberation, the following resolution was adopted:

"Resolved, That for the express purpose of forever putting to rest all grounds for bard thought from the minority of Upper Ten-Stile Congregation, that we adjourn this meeting until the 6th day of September, that the minority may have another and sufficient opportunity to meet the Committee previously appointed for the purpose of effecting a compromise with regard to the time each occupy our present meeting-house, and that a copy of the proceedings of this meeting, so far as they relate to the above object, be communicated by the Secretary of this meeting to the elders of the minority of the Upper Ten-Mile Congregation.



The congregation met on the 6th of September according to adjournment, and the committee made the following report:

" That they, the committee of Upper Ten-Mile Congregation and the committee of the minority, met on the 5th of this inst., and all the committee of the minority were instructed to do was to allow the majority the privilege of occupying the present meeting-house¹ one-half the time until the first of April next, provided, however, that the majority make no movement towards building a new house of worship. On motion, Resolved unanimously, that we will not accede to the above proposition. On motion, Resolved, That we build a meeting-house on lands of Joseph Weir, of brick, sixty feet long and fifty-one feet wide, without galleries. Resolved, That Samuel Weir, Thomas Axtell, Jeduthan Sanders, and Joseph Weir be a committee to circulate subscription to raise funds to build said house. Resolved, That Sylvanus Cooper, John Wolf, and Thomas Axtell be the building-committee, and Samuel Weir, Ephraim Cooper, Stephen Dille, and Jeremiah Post be a committee of council. Resolved, That Thomas Axtell be our delegate to Presbytery, to be held in Uniontown, Fayette Co., on the 20th of this inst.



At a meeting of the congregation on the 14th of January, 1833, it was "Resolved, That we apply to the Presbytery for the labors of the Rev. John Morgan as our stated pastor for one year half of his time." At a meeting of the congregation on the 6th of April the same year, it was "Resolved, That we change the name of this congregation from Upper Ten-Mile to that of Bethel." The church was built as stated, not on the land designated, but on a lot containing one acre and one hundred and three perches, which was purchased by Samuel Weir and Isaac Condit, trustees of Bethel Congregation, of Daniel L. Goble on the 28th of July, 1833. The Rev. John Morgan became their pastor for a time. Ephraim Cooper, Sylvanus Cooper, Thomas Axtell, John Wolf, and Samuel Day having

¹ The brick church near Van Buren. 



been elders in the Presbyterian Church, were elected elders in this organization. Later, Samuel Weir, Isaac Condit, and Archibald McCracken were added to the number.

This is the largest society of this denomination in the county, having a membership of over one hundred and seventy-five. The present pastor is the Rev. P. H. Crider. The society owns a parsonage near the church.

Liberty Chapel.—The church known as Liberty Chapel is situated about four miles from Washington, and nearly on the township line between Franklin and Amwell townships. It is one of four stations in this section of the Methodist denomination, and is in charge of the Rev. Thomas Patterson. It has at present forty-nine members. The church edifice is a neat and commodious frame building.

Schools.—The territory now comprising the township of Franklin was in 1835 embraced in Canton and Morris. In District No. 5 Henry Dickerson sold a lot on the 18th of April, 1837, to the school directors of the township for a nominal sum, to be used for no other purpose than schools. In' 1853, when the town. ship was erected, it was divided into seven school districts. In the year 1863 twelve teachers were employed in the seven districts, three hundred and twelve scholars were enrolled, and the amount of money raised for school purposes was $1301.80. The amount of money expended was $1419. In 1873, with the same number of districts, seven teachers were employed, $2422.36 was received, and $2269.80 was expended; in 1880 there were three hundred and seventy-nine scholars, $1807.75 was received, and $1861.11 expended for, school purposes.


HANOVER is the extreme northwestern township of Washington County, having the county of Beaver and the State of West Virginia, respectively, for its northern and western boundaries. On the east it is bounded by Robinson and Smith townships, and on the south by Smith and Jefferson townships. The only streams of any size or importance belonging to Hanover are Raccoon and Harman's Creeks, which respectively mark parts of the eastern and southern boundaries of the township, and King's Creek, which flows in a southwesterly course across the northwestern corner of Hanover.

The territory now forming the township of Hanover was originally embraced in Smith township, and so remained for five years after the erection of the latter, Hanover being erected a separate township in 1786. On the 17th of January in that year a petition of certain inhabitants of Smith township praying for a division of that township was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions. The petition was granted by the court, and the action confirmed by the Supreme Executive Council on the 2d of September in the same year. The part of the township set off by this division was named Hanover, and embraced the territory lying north of Harman's Creek and. Brush Run to the Ohio River, bounded on the east by Raccoon Creek, and west by the Virginia line.

The line dividing the township from Cross Creek and Smith townships ran up Harman's Creek to its source near the old McCurdy farm ; thence across the ridge to the head-waters of Brush Run ; thence down the run to Raccoon Creek The village of Florence was in Smith township until the action of court on the 11th of March, 1830, by which the territory south of Brush Run and the heads of Harman's Creek and north of the present line of Hanover and Smith was attached to Hanover.

Two years after Hanover became a township, the erection of Allegheny County, Sept. 24, 1788, took a large portion of its territory, after which this township embraced the following : " Commencing at the intersection of the Ohio River with the State line ; thence south along the State line to Harman's Creek; thence up the creek to its source, across the ridge to the headwaters of Brush Run, down the run to its mouth, and down Raccoon Creek to White's Mill ; thence northwest in a straight line to the Ohio River and the State line, it being the place of beginning." It so remained until the 24th of March, 1800, when the erection of Beaver County took all that portion of territory north of the line at right angles from White's Mill on Raccoon creek.

An addition was made to its territory March 30, 1830, by order of court, which embraced the land north of Smith township as at present.

In April, 1793, a petition (indorsed "a petition for Riche township"), and signed by William Ferguson and twenty-three others, " Inhabitants of Smith and Hanover townships," was presented to the court asking for the erection of a new township to embrace a part of Hanover by bounds specified. It was continued to the September term of the same year, when " a petition of a number of the inhabitants of Hanover township" was presented, remonstrating against


the granting of the prayer of the first-mentioned petition, and setting forth :

"That they can not see the propriety of dividing the said township in the manner proposed by a petition which was read last sessions for that purpose. It would leave the old township (in shape) unlike anything in the Havens above or the Earth beneath as far as we know, and as we apprehend the above-mentioned petition, which has been read, was presented with the View to make a Justice of the Peace of one James Fling, a near relation of him your Honors read of in the Pittsburgh Gazelle of Aug. 3, 1793, if we mistake not. We therefore object to the Division as proposed in said petition, but we object not to Divide it in the following Manner, that is to begin at the house of Adam Vinnage (formerly of James Dornan) which is on the line between Smith and Hanover townships, and from thence to the nearest Branch of King's Creek, and down King's Creek to the State line, which course will be nearly parallel to Allegheny County line, and will leave our Township in a good form and by no means large."

Both petitions were disregarded by the court, and the territory of Hanover township remained intact.

Settlements.—In the assessment-roll of Hanover township for 1800 are found the following names of residents of the township, with their occupations at that time, viz., John Buchanan and John Dornan, merchants; John Gillillan and Robert Leeper, tanners; Samuel Glasgow, justice of the peace; John Irwin, James Nelson, John H. Redick, millers; Jonathan Potts, Daniel McConnell, and William Kerr, blacksmiths. William Carruthers was licensed to keep tavern in the township in 1796, and he kept until 1812. In 1813 the same house was kept by Jane Carruthers. One of the oldest grist-mills was the White Mill, mentioned in 1789 as a point in the boundary line of Beaver, Washington, and Allegheny Counties. This is now at Murdochville, in the northeast corner of the township.

One of the earliest settlers in what is now Hanover township was Samuel Johnston, though the precise date of his settlement here has not been ascertained, nor is it known on which of his several tracts of land he made his home, but there is little doubt that it was on the tract " Johnston Hall." The lands he took up were in both the townships of Hanover and Smith. In February, 1780, he was granted two Virginia certificates for lands on Raccoon Creek, one containing four hundred and five acres, and the other (adjoining) of one hundred and eighty-two acres.. In the survey (made July 11, 1785) the former was named "Johnston Hall," and the latter "Mill Town." He patented another tract named " Guadeloupe ;" and still other large tracts he acquired by purchase from other parties. He also made many sales of land in this section, one of which was of one hundred acres of the "Johnston Hall" tract to Alexander Reed, Feb. 13, 1787. Reed sold it the same day to Matthew Welch, and it is still owned by his son,. M. R. Welch. Another sale from the "Johnston Hall" tract was of one hundred acres to John Montgomery, Aug. 24, 1787, and another hundred acres (same date) to John Dodd; this being adjoining lands of James Edgar and David Hays, in Smith township. And on the same date Johnston sold one hundred acres to Job Stout, adjoining lands of John Moore, James Dornan, Isaac Pierce, Philip Jackson, and William Runnell. This last-named sale was from the " Guadeloupe.' tract, and on it the village of Florence was afterwards laid out.

On the" Mill Town" tract Mr. Johnston built a mill, and Oct. 12, 1785, he sold the mill property to Humphrey Montgomery. Mr. Montgomery received the deed for this land, Jan. 2, 1795, from Andrew Swearingen and John Hutchinson, " Assignees of the estate of Samuel Johnston." He bad become heavily embarrassed in his pecuniary affairs, and from this time his name disappears from the records of township and county.

Samuel Johnston was a man of excellent abilities, and was prominent in that section of the country from his first appearance to 1795. He was nominated and elected with James Edgar as a justice of the peace for Smith township at the first election after the formation of the township. At the same time when he was confirmed by the Supreme Executive Council (Aug. 23, 1781) as justice of the peace he was appointed and confirmed by that body as a justice of the peace of the Court of Common Pleas and of the Orphans' Court of the county. None of his descendants are now living in Hanover township or vicinity.

Alexander Duncan emigrated from Lancaster to Washington County, and located a tract of land in Smith township. His sons were Daniel and John. Daniel was killed by a tree falling upon him during a heavy storm. John Duncan married Elizabeth Moreland. He was ordained an elder in the Three-Spring Church in 1803. His residence was near the present town of Florence. His living children are James, Daniel, and Susan (Mrs. Culley), who is now living in Florence in her eighty-second year.

James Proudfoot emigrated from York County in the year 1782, and settled in what is now Hanover township. On the 8th of December, 1787, he purchased one hundred acres of Job Stout. This was a part of the tract " Guadeloupe" patented by Samuel Johnston, and the same land now owned by James Proudfoot, grandson of the elder James. The farm was near the town of Florence, and adjoining Philip Jackson.

James Proudfoot, the pioneer, was an elder in the Cross-Roads Presbyterian Church, and justice of the peace for thirty-four years. He married Jane Wallace, of Hanover township, and lived on the homestead all his days, and died May 2, 1856, aged ninety-six years, leaving many descendants.

Nathan Dungan took out a warrant for a tract of land, which was surveyed to him on the 14th of June, 1785, called "Amity," which contained three hundred and fifty-one acres. It was patented April 25, 1788. The family were settlers in the county before its erection. Levi Dungan was a collector in 1781, then of Smith township, now Hanover. He kept


tavern in the township many years, and owned a tract of land adjoining Nathan Dungan.

James McNary, a native of Scotland, emigrated to this country prior to 1760, and settled in Chanceford township, York County, Pa., where he bought a farm. A son, James, in 1780, removed to Chartiers township, in Washington County, and in 1783 he removed to Hanover township, and purchased a farm near Paris, where he lived till 1796, and died aged eighty-five years, and was buried in Harmon's Creek churchyard. He had five children, of whom David came with his father, and settled near him, having purchased three hundred acres Oct. 27, 1783. He married Esther Cowden. He was an elder in Dr. Anderson's Harmon Creek congregation. He died in 1817, leaving seven children, of whom Mary married Samuel Martin ; William married a sister of the Rev. James Ramsey; John, a son of James, remained in York County for some years, and in 1801 bought three hundred and forty acres in what is now North Strabane township, and returned home and died early in 1782. His family came out to the farm in May, 1802, and his son John took possession of the property, on which James McNary, a grandson, now lives.

Michael Dillow located a tract of land on Dillow's Creek, a branch of, Raccoon Creek. He settled before 1780, and in that year received a Virginia certificate for the land on which he had located. It was adjoining the land of Thomas Armour and James Crawford, and a short distance from Thomas Bigger. A survey of Samuel Beeler, made in 1782, shows a road from Fort Dillow to Fort Beeler, and east from there to Turner's Mill. The tract of land was surveyed June 8, 1787, and named " Dillow's Fort," containing three hundred and ninety-nine acres. A warrant of the board of property, dated March 24, 1798, was returned to Abraham Kirkpatrick. The land warranted by Matthew Dillow is now owned by Robert R. Coventry. Some time after 1782, Matthew Dillow and his son, John, were at work in the clearing when Indians in ambush shot the father and took the son a prisoner. He saw them secrete the body of his father near a large log before starting on their march. The boy was kept a prisoner for several years, and upon his return was questioned as to what became of the body of his father. He recalled and narrated the incidents of his capture. A number of friends gathered together, and after a search found the skeleton of the elder Dillow. It was brought to near the old fort and buried. A large yellow poplar stands near the site of the old fort. John Dillow built a cabin up the creek from the fort on land now owned by Robert Cooley, whose residence is near the site of the Dillow cabin.

Thomas Armor received a Virginia certificate for a tract of land " situated on the waters of Raccoon Creek, to include his improvement made in the year 1776." This certificate was granted at Cox's Fort Feb. 4, 1780. The land was adjoining Capt. Kilpatrick Hollingsworth and William Dunnam. It was surveyed on the 16th of February, 1785, named "Golgotha," and contained three hundred and eighty-eight acres. Grace Fuller, a female slave, who was the property of Thomas Armor, lived to be one hundred and seventeen years of age. She remembered being in Dillow's Fort when about seventeen years of age, at the time of an attack by the Indians, about the year 1778. She was later owned by a man of the name of Pierce. A daughter was born to her on Raccoon Creek, who was sold when about ten years of age to Daniel Swearingen, who lived about four miles from Paris. She lived to be upwards of eighty years of age. Her mother had been married to three different husbands, all slaves, two of whom were sold and sent South and one died. She was the mother of eight children. Thomas Armor lived on the tract which he settled upon in 1776 until his death in June, 1826. His sons were William, John, Thomas, and James. His daughters were Nancy and Mary. William came into possession of one hundred and forty-four acres adjoining Raccoon Creek. Nancy became the wife of Benjamin Bubbett, and received one hundred and fourteen acres of the home tract. He was justice of the peace many years, and an elder in the Robinson United Presbyterian Church. John received one hundred and forty acres, on which he resided. Mary, the wife of James Thompson, came into possession of one hundred and fourteen acres on Dillow's Run. Thomas inherited one hundred and forty acres, lying principally. in Beaver County. James inherited one hundred and eighty-four acres, the remainder of the home tract. The family is numerous in the township, and the original lands are still in possession of some of them.

A large tract of land in Robinson and Hanover townships was taken up by one Hollingsworth. Isaac and William Donaldson, natives of Ireland, purchased a portion of the tract, part of, which is now owned by Andrew B. Donaldson, a grandson of William Donaldson. William Elder occupies the part on which Isaac settled, and is owned by the heirs of Richard, son of Isaac. On a portion of the Hollingsworth tract Joseph Scott settled, and built a mill in this township near Bavington. He had two sons, Benjamin and Joseph. On the 17th of July, 1835, Joseph sold to Robert Withrow, and he to Richard Donaldson. The mill was in operation till about 1879, being then owned by James Donaldson. John Travis came from Ireland shortly after the Revolution, and bought a farm of one hundred and fifty acres of John Sherrard in Dunbar township, Fayette County. In 1798 he purchased a farm about a mile and a half east of the cross-roads, on one of the branches of Raccoon Creek, where he settled. He was an elder in the Laurel Hill congregation, and was chosen an elder in the Cross-Roads Church, formerly King's Creek Church. He became insane while living in Dunbar township, but had entirely recovered before removing to this place.


For many years after he settled on Raccoon all went well with him, but after a time his son Samuel, who was. a trader down the Mississippi, having re-. turned from a remarkably successful trip by way of New Orleans to Havana, Cuba, where he sold his cargo of flour at $25 per barrel, induced his father to risk property in his hands belonging to minor heirs to fit him out on another trip to the same place in the expectation of making a fortune. The trip was made and the flour sold in Havana as advantageously as before, but in New Orleans, when on his way home, the son fell in company of gamblers, and was by them robbed of the entire proceeds of the voyage. Knowing that this would be the ruin of his father, Samuel dared not return, and was never again seen in Pennsylvania. The following in reference to this sad affair is related by Robert A. Sherrard in his " History of Centre Church :"

" John Travis bore up under what he knew would be the loss ultimately of +his property, both real and personal. Time rolled on, and the young heirs became of lawful age to receive each their rightful share of the money for which Mr. Travis must now, as their guardian, account to them for, and no money on hand to pay either principal or interest. His personal property was first sold, and then his farm, and he left poor and destitute, and old age advancing upon him, and no help for him. But he bore up under every difficulty with Christian courage and fortitude. It was the wonder of many of his old friends and acquaintances, who knew of the calamity that had befallen him, by his becoming crazy. He withstood the loss of his property with the greatest of Christian fortitude, for he put his trust in God, and He did not forsake him in the time of his sore trial. For he had full confidence that God would provide for him as long as He pleased to let him stay on His footstool. And it was even so ; for, although he was reduced to the necessity of crossing the Ohio River, and the taking of a lease for a term of years in Columbiana County, Ohio, after the expiration of his lease he returned to the settlement near Briceland Cross-Roads (now Florence), and spent the few days that God was pleased to grant him, where he at length died in peace at an advanced, ripe old age, much missed and much lamented by all who knew him. He was a man of eminent piety, useful as a peacemaker both in church and State, or wherever it pleased God to give him a home."

John Travis had four other sons, all of whom became members of the church. Several of his posterity are elders in Presbyterian Churches in various parts of the country.

Robert Wallace was a native of Scotland, who emigrated to this State and settled first in Indiana County, and later to what is now Hanover township, Washington County, where he took up a tract of land which was afterwards surveyed as " Wallace's Bower," and contained three hundred and seventy-nine and three-quarter acres, adjoining lands of James Dornan, James Crawford, Isaac Pierce, and others. In 1782, on the 10th of February, Robert Wallace's cabin was attacked and burned by Indians during his absence, and his wife and children taken prisoners by the savages as mentioned in the general history of the county. The story of the fate which befell them is told by Butterfield in his " Crawford's Campaign Against Sandusky" thus: " With their prisoners, consisting of Mrs. Wallace, her little son Robert two and a half years old, another son ten years of age, and an infant daughter, and what plunder they could carry off, the savages made their way toward the Ohio, but finding the mother and her infant somewhat troublesome, they were tomahawked and scalped. The two boys were carried to Sandusky, where the elder died. Robert was then sold to the Wyandots, by whom he was held in captivity about two and a half years. His father hearing of him, sent a man to the Wyandot towns after peace had been declared, giving him a certain mark by which the boy could be recognized, and by that means he was rescued and restored to his friends." Robert Wallace, Jr., who was taken captive by the Indians, as above narrated, married Miss Mary Walker and settled in Robinson township, where they lived and died. Joseph and Robert Wallace, of that township, are his descendants. The tract " Wallace's Bower" has been divided, a portion falling to Sarah, wife of Samuel McConnell; the portion belonging to Robert Wallace has long since passed to others, and is now owned by John B. Burns. Mrs. Culley, of Hanover, is also a descendant of Robert Wallace.

Adam and Andrew Poe were emigrants from New England, and came to this county at the same time as did Philip Jackson, Robert Wallace, and others. They located tracts of land for which they were granted Virginia certificates. The tract Adam selected was surveyed Jan. 13, 1786, and was named " Poeville." It contained three hundred and seventy-seven acres, adjoining lands of Matthew Ritchie, Isaac Miller, and John Comly. The tract selected by Andrew was surveyed Feb. 15, 1786, was named "Poe Wood," and contained three hundred and thirty-three acres. This was adjoining land of Robert Laughlin and William Matthews. They also owned a tract of land prior to this time in Smith township, where they lived at the time of the burning of the Wallace cabin. That tract they sold to Arthur Campbell. Adam and Andrew both sold their farms in this county, and moved to Ohio and West Virginia.

The brothers Andrew and Adam Poe were men remarkable for their personal prowess,—powerfully built, active, and fearless,—and they enjoyed great renown among the borderers as among the bravest and most successful of fighters in the Indian hostilities that were carried on along the Ohio River frontier from 1777 to 1784. Many accounts of their remarkable adventures in Indian fighting are found in the annals of frontier warfare.


Augustine Moore came to this county about 1790, and settled on a tract of land about one mile north of Florence, part of which tract is now owned by the heirs of John McConnell, whose wife was a daughter of Moore. He lived and died on the farm, leaving children, of whom John emigrated West; William became a pilot on the river, and died at Wellsville, Ohio ; Ellen, who became Mrs. McConnell, now ninety-six years of age, lives with her son-in-law, S. D. Lockhart, near Paris ; Rebecca married Gilbert Cool, and settled in Robinson township, where they lived and died. Another daughter became the wife of Charles Hoey, and settled in Ashland County, Ohio, where she died. They were cousins of the late Hon. John L. Dawson, of Fayette County, and relatives of the Swearingen family.

William McConnell came to this county about the year 1784, and located a tract lying on the waters of Harmon's Run, containing two hundred and forty-three acres. It was named "The Hermitage," and at that time was adjoining lands of John Stone and George McCullough. On the 24th of February, 1795, he purchased two hundred and fifty-seven acres of William Campbell, part of a tract of four hundred acres patented to Campbell April 5, 1787. Later he purchased one hundred and five acres of the heirs of William Bay adjoining his other lands. He lived and died on his original farm, later known as the Dinsmore farm. His wife lived many years later, and died at an advanced age at the residence of her son, John McConnell. They had five sons,—John, William, Daniel, Samuel, and James. John married Ellen Moore, daughter of Augustine Moore, in 1807, and settled on the McConnell home farm, where he had lived since he was seven years of age, and where they lived together seventy-two years. He died April 9, 1879, aged ninety-five years. William, the second son of William McConnell, entered Washington College, and died while there. Daniel emigrated to Texas, where he lived and died. He was with Gen: Sam Houston at the battle of San Jacinto. Samuel settled in Columbiana County, Ohio, where he died. James also settled in Ohio. Isabella, a daughter of William McConnell, became the wife of John Pyatt, and settled in what is now West Virginia.

Jonas Potts became a land-owner in Hanover township in 1787, but it is believed that he had been a resident of the county for a considerable time before that. He was born in Loudoun County, Va., where the family settled in 1746, having gone there from Eastern Pennsylvania. Jonas Potts was the son of Jonas Potts, Sr. The traditions preserved in the family state that Jonas Potts, Sr., came to that section lying between the present town of Washington and the Ohio River when it was a wilderness. He is said to have died at Georgetown, on the Ohio River, in 1819. He had eight sons. Jonas, Jr., John, and Jonathan settled in Washington County, but the latter two afterwards removed to Ohio. John Potts was the ancestor of Gen. Benjamin. F. Potts, Governor of Montana Territory.

On March 20, 1787, Jonas Potts, Jr., bought of William Holmes a certain two-hundred-acre warrant in name of William Holmes, dated Feb. 23, 1786. On Jan. 9, 1788, Jonas Potts was granted a patent for four hundred and four acres, which is recorded in Patent Book No. 12, page 102. He also bought land of Matthew Ritchie and of Samuel Marques. His wife's name was Hannah. She was still living in 1824. He died in 1833 at an advanced age, leaving four sons—David, Jesse, Jonas, and Samuel—and a daughter Anna, the wife of Jonas Sams. William J. Potts, now of Florence, is a son of the last-named Jonas Potts.

John Tucker emigrated with his wife from the New England States in company with the Poes, Potts, Jacksons, and other families. He located a tract of land on the dividing ridge between. King's and Harmon's Creeks. The warrant was dated Jan. 4, 1788. The tract contained four hundred acres, and was named "Grace." It was not surveyed until March 17, 1812, and was at that time adjoining lands of Aaron Davis, James Pollock, James Potts, Thomas Haines, George McCormick, and Jonathan Albertross. John Tucker had married in the Eastern States a lady by whom he had one son, who afterwards became the Rev. John Tucker. After the death of his first wife he married again, and emigrated to this township. The children by the second wife were Jonathan, Thomas, and David. Jonathan and David now reside on the homestead. The Rev. John Tucker came to this county with his father, but joined a party of emigrants bound for Kentucky, and was killed by Indians while on his way there.

Levi Culley emigrated to this county after 1800, and purchased part of the tract then belonging to John L. Proudfoot, and settled upon it. His sons were Jesse, Joseph, George, Robert, Levi, and John. Jesse settled on an adjoining farm. He married Susan, a daughter of Elder John Duncan. They lived and died there, leaving descendants. Joseph married Martha, the daughter of Benjamin Scott. They settled on part of the Scott farm, now owned by their son Joseph. George married Jane Fulton, and settled on the homestead where he died. His widow still survives. A daughter became the wife of John W. Duncan, who occupies the property. Robert Culley was a cabinet-maker by trade, married Amanda McCloud, settled in Florence, and died Aug: 21, 1848. Levi married Mary Ann Butterfoes, and settled in Cambridge, Ohio. John married Julia, daughter of James Briceland, who kept THC Florence Hotel many years. They settled on the James Smith farm, adjoining a farm of his father.

Levi Culley also had four daughters, of whom Eleanor became the wife of Robert G. Smith, of Florence. (Mrs. Catharine Hood, of Burgettstown, and Mrs. Esther Clelland, of Florence, are daugh-


ters of Robert and Eleanor Smith.) Lydia married James Culbertson, and settled in Iowa. Esther became the wife of William Cole, and settled on a farm of David Fulton, a part of the old Thomas Cole tract.

Philip Jackson, a Welshman, or of Welsh descent, emigrated to Maryland, where he remained several years, then came west of the mountains, and finally located in Hanover about the time of the erection of the township. He applied for a warrant which was granted Feb. 22, 1786. The tract was named "Satisfaction," and contained three hundred and ninety-six acres. It was adjoining Joseph Jackson, Joseph Holmes, Isaac Pierce, Samuel Johnson, and Jonah Potts. He married Miss Rosannah Murphy, by whom he had five sons, Joseph, John, Moses, Mason, Philip, and two daughters, Ann and Elsie. Joseph, the eldest son, took out a warrant for a tract of land adjoining Philip Jackson (his father), Benjamin Jackson (his uncle), Jonah Potts, and John Tucker. The warrant bears date Sept. 6, 1787, and was surveyed as two hundred and sixty acres, and named " Delay." On this place he lived and died. His children emigrated to the West. Moses settled on the homestead, and the property is now owned by Marion Jackson, his son, and the grandson of Philip. The sons of Mason were John and Philip. Ann (daughter of Philip, Sr.) became the wife of Robert Murphy, and emigrated to Michigan. Elsie became the wife of William Travis, and also moved West.

Philip Jackson, Sr., was one of the original members of the Cross-Roads Church, and signed the call in 1799 for the Rev. Elisha McCurdy to become the pastor of that church. Benjamin Jackson was a brother of Philip, and owned an adjoining tract.

Samuel Merchant, who was an Irishman, emigrated to this country in 1765 and settled in Maryland, where he remained until the year 1778, when he came to this county and settled on the farm for which he later received a warrant and patent. In February of that year he located a tomahawk improvement and built a cabin. The Indians were very troublesome, and his family, consisting of his wife and child, were sent to Beeler's Fort for protection. About that time Indian raids in that section were numerous, and he removed to Westmoreland County, where he remained till the spring of 1779, when he returned to his farm in Hanover which was a tract of 301 acres, named "Atlas." On this tract he lived till his death. His son John inherited a portion of the homestead, and on the 28th of January, 1811, sold to Joseph Scott and emigrated to Ohio, where he died. Margaret, a d daughter of Samuel Merchant, became the wife of James Proudfoot, and lived and died near Florence. Prudence never married, and lived at the homestead, and died at an advanced age. Ann, the youngest daughter, married Matthew McConnell. They settled on the " Atlas" tract, where she lived to the age of eighty-one years. Their sons now living are Samuel and Matthew F. The family of McConnells came from Scotland' in 1781, and, settled in Cecil township.

Among the early settlers .in the township, but of whom but little is known, are the following : James Simpson received a warrant for a tract of land lying on the waters of King Creek, dated Feb. 18, 1785, surveyed as "Middle Brook" Jan. 18, 1786, adjoining Samuel Moore, Hugh Miller, and John Lee Webster. Samuel Clark owned four hundred acres where his descendants still reside. John Comley owned one hundred acres, and had a horse-mill where Thomas Hunter now lives on Harmon's Creek. He left several children. The mill was in use as late as 1820, and the site is now occupied by a steam grist-mill. Hugh Miller, in 1786, owned a large tract of land adjoining the lands of James Simpson. Later his son John owned two hundred acres. John Kirby had a warrant for a tract of land dated Jan. 15, 1785, surveyed December 14th the same year as " Slave Gallant," and contained four hundred and thirty-one acres.

Florence.—The tract of land on which this town is located was granted to Samuel Johnston on a Virginia certificate, Feb. 25, 1780, and was surveyed to him on the 25th of July, 1785, as "Guadeloupe," and patented on the 28th of February, 1786. One hundred acres of the tract was sold by Johnston on the 24th of August, 1787, to Job Stout, who sold it on the 8th of December of the same year to James Proudfoot. On this place a town was platted in 1814, called " Mount Bethel." By this name it was known as late as 1823, and is found so mentioned in a deed from James Proudfoot to Daniel McLoud, dated June 20th of that year, by which is conveyed lot No. 1 " in the town of Mount Bethel." On the 15th of May, 1834, the same lot is sold by McLoud to James Briceland, and is there mentioned as being in the town of Florence. Other lot-owners in 1823, whose lots were adjoining McLoud, were William Criswell, Joseph Stewart, and — Ritchie. The town was in Smith township until 1830, when it became a part of Hanover.

The one hundred acres purchased from" Guadeloupe" was adjoining the tract "Satisfaction," owned by Philip Jackson, and the tract " Contention," owned by Samuel Marques. The Rev. Elisha McCurdy had purchased of Philip Jackson, Feb. 11, 1803, ten acres, and on the 9th of September, 1816, sold it to James Briceland. Samuel Marques, who patented " Contention" in April, 1799, sold to Jacob Specht, June 12, 1806, eighty-eight acres. Specht sold to James Briceland on the 1st of May, 1816. These two parcels of land were owned by James Briceland and adjoining the town of "Mount Bethel." Additions were made by Briceland and lots sold by him. He kept tavern many years from 1813 at the Briceland Cross-Roads, as it was called before it was laid out as a town.


The following advertisement was published in the Washington Reporter of Aug. 15, 1814, and has reference to the town which afterwards bedtime Florence :

"NEW TOWN.—The Subscribers respectfully inform the public that they have laid out a town at the Cross-Roads in Smith's Township, Washington County, Pa., where the roads from Pittsburgh to Steubenville and from Washington to Georgetown crosses. Various circumstances conspire to make this an eligible situation for a town or village. The site of the town is handsome, the situation healthy, the land rich, the water good, and abundance of stone coal within 100 perches; the adjacent country is fertile, and in a forward state of cultivation. The roads passing through the village are much occupied at present, and must annually increase, it being on the direct route by land from Pittsburgh, the focus of the Western country, down the river—the distance from Pittsburgh 26, from Steubenville 12 miles. The lots will be sold by vendue on Tuesday, the 6th of Sept. next. The sale to commence at 11 o'clk. An indisputable title will be given, and the terms of sale made known by

" Aug. 15, 1814."


The first store in the town was kept by a Mr. Anderson. A tannery was soon after established by James Allison. Benjamin Kindrich opened a silver-plating establishment. William Mercer also kept a store here. many years ago. In 1825 Dr. Day was a practicing physician in Florence. He was succeeded by Drs. Scott, Sutherland, Smith, Makakey, Cunningham, McDowell, Bradley, Anderson, McCoy, Carroll, Graham, and McCarroll. The first post-office in this section was a white-oak tree a short distance below Florence, on which was nailed a clapboard box, in which letters and papers were placed by the postman, who passed through the town from Washington to Georgetown. About 1818 a post-office was established in. the town, and Moses Bradford was the first postmaster. He was succeeded by John Mitchell in 1822. William L. Robb was in office in 1833 ; John K. Norton from 1835 to 1837; Charles Calhoun in 1838. The succeeding postmasters have been William L. Robb, O. P. Walker, William Criswell, Samuel Livingston, Joseph Bell, W. J. Cool, and Dr. G. S. Graham, who is the present incumbent.

The residence and tavern stand of James Briceland is still standing, now owned by John Dennis. In the year 1845 a small newspaper was established called the' Florence Enterprise. It lasted but a short time. An agricultural society was established in 1858, and a fair held that year. This was continued for several years. It was known as the " Florence Agricultural Association." The third annual exhibition was held at Florence on the 27th and 28th of September, 1860. The officers were William Livingston, president ; John McCullough, James H. McNall, Marshall Short, Thomas P. Vance, and John Ferguson, vice-presidents; M. Anderson, treasurer; S. L. M. Henry, secretary. The society lived a few years, then languished, and was discontinued.

A Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in the town in the year 1833 by the Rev. Wesley Smith. A lot of ground was donated by James Proudfoot, on which was erected a large frame building. This was blown down by a violent, storm, and the present building was erected. A parsonage was also built. The society belongs to the same charge with the Tucker Church, and the pastors who have ministered to that church have also had the care of this. The membership at present is very small, and but little care is given to the church property.

Cross-Roads Presbyterian Church.—The mother-church from which this society and that of the Three Springs Church sprang was known as "King's Creek Presbyterian Church." The ordinance of the Lord's Supper was administered first in August of the year 1788. Philip Jackson, Miles Wilson, and John Mc, Milian were then elders. Ten years later it was thought best by a large majority of the congregation to remove the place of worship from King's Creek to the " Cross-Roads," now Florence

On the 20th of November, 1799, a call was extended to the Rev. Elisha McCurdy by the united congregations of Three Springs and Cross-Roads to become their pastor. This call was signed by Philip Jackson, James Proudfoot, Samuel Merchant, William Jackson, John Goodman Young, William Lee, John Coulter, John Wyhe, William Ledhe, and John Orr. The call was accepted, and the Rev. Mr. McCurdy was ordained and installed pastor of the united congregations in June, 1800.

The following are the names of the persons who were chosen as' elders from the organization of the society till 1807, while the society worshiped in the old log church, viz.: 1786, Philip Jackson, Miles Wilson, John McMillan ; 1799, John Orr, John Goodman Young, William Lee, and John Wyhe; 1800, John Travis, John Riddle; 1803, Samuel Fulton, James Proudfoot, John Duncan, Sr. ; 1804, John Withrow; 1807, Joseph Jackson, James Allison.

The ministers who have served the church as pastors were and have been as follows: Rev. Elisha McCurdy, June, 1800-35. Rev. Daniel Dewrelle, supply in 1836. Rev. William Burton, 1838; resigned February, 1839. Rev. J. W. McKennan, November, 1839 ; resigned 1841. Rev. Joel Stoneroad, 1842; resigned 1850. Rev. J. S. Wyhe, 1850; resigned 1851. Rev. Oliphant M. Todd, November, 1852; resigned 1858. Rev. John P. Caldwell, 1860; resigned 1864. Rev. A. W. Boyd, 1864 ; resigned 1865 ; Rev. I. M. Miller, 1867 ; resigned 1871. Rev. Samuel Forbes, resigned 1876. Rev. Ross Stephenson, July, 1877, to the present time.

The society first worshiped in a tent, which was soon after replaced by a hewed log house, which stood on the site of Alexander Scott's shop. It was built in the form of a cross, about forty by eighty feet in size. This was sold to John Proudfoot, who built a barn of the logs. A neat two-story brick church was then erected, which was destroyed by fire on the 23d of September, 1845. The present church edifice was erected in the fall of the same year.

Presbyterian Graveyard.—In this old ground,


located at Florence, many of the old settlers in this section of country were buried, among them the following: David Jackson, died Feb. 13, 1802, in the 53d year of his age ; Mary McFarren, died Nov. 29, 1817, in the 61st year of her age; Sarah McCurdy, wife of the Rev. Elisha McCurdy, died Oct. 26, 1818, in her 48th year; Jane McFarren, died Sept. 25, 1820, aged 68 years; Daniel McLoud, died Jan. 29, 1829, in the 82d year of his age; John Barton, died Feb. 22,1838, aged 82 years; Daniel McConnell, died Jan. 31, 1843, aged 70 years; John McConnell, Sr., died April 11,1879, in his 95th year; Benjamin Scott, died Sept. 20, 1877, aged 85 years. The Rev. Robert Fulton, who founded the Florence Academy in 1832, died Aug. 20, 1842, in Wellsburg, Va., in the 38th year of his age, and was buried here.

The Rev. Elisha McCurdy was buried here, and the following is inscribed upon his tombstone :

"In memory of the Rev. Elisha McCurdy, Late Pastor of the Congregation of Cross Roads. Born October 15th, 1763. Licensed June 24th, 1799. Ordained and Installed Pastor June, 1800. A Pastor 35 years and minister of the Gospel 46 years. Died July 22d, 1845. He took an active part in the great revival of 1802, and was distinguished for his zealous labors in the cause of Indian Missions."

Florence Academy.—This institution was founded by Robert Fulton in 1832, and first located in a house now the residence of Alexander Scott. Soon afterwards .a brick building was erected for its use on the lot of ground belonging to the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Fulton's proprietorship continued till the year 1839. A more extended account of this academy will be found on pages 452, 453 of this work, in the educational chapter contributed by the Rev. James I. Brownson, D.D.

"The "Rural Female Seminary" was in existence in Florence in September, 1835. It was then in charge of Mrs. Paull, governess, and Miss Cutter, teacher. Neither the date of its establishment nor the period of its continuance is known.

Murdochtown is situated on Raccoon Creek, at the point of intersection of the likes of Washington, Beaver, and Allegheny Counties. Five townships (Hanover and Robinson in Washington County, Independence and Beaver in Beaver County, and Finley township of Allegheny County) all corner here. The land at this place was originally owned by John White, and from 1780 to long after 1800 the place was known as White's Mill. A grist- and saw-mill is now owned here by John Withrow. The town was named after James Murdoch, who was an early settler here, and is said to have been the first postmaster. The place now contains nine dwellings, a school-house, post-office, store, blacksmith-shop, wagon-shop, and shoe-shop.

Paris.—This little town is situated in the western part of the township. It was laid out by Samuel Hill and Richard Ward. The latter built the first house in the town, in which he kept a tavern to accommodate travelers on the Pittsburgh and Steubenville turnpike, which passed through this place. The building is now the property of Mrs. Freshwater, of Hancock County, W. Va., and is used as the post-office. Among the early residents was Dr. Ramsey, who practiced in this region prior to 1840, and later emigrated to Ohio. Among the early merchants were Wolf, Gibson, McCabe, and McCuen. The town now contains twenty-six dwellings, three stores, two blacksmith-shops, a cabinet-maker's shop, two churches (United Presbyterian and Presbyterian), a schoolhouse, and the Paris Collegiate Institute, which was established in October, 1878, by Prof. William I. Brugh, who is still the principal. The resident physician is Dr. James H. Christy.

United Presbyterian Church. — A Seceders' Church was organized and a meeting-house built between Holliday's Cove and Cross-Roads as early as the summer of 1785, near the place where the village of Paris now stands. The congregation at that time was much scattered, and it was first thought best to build about two miles south of Paris, near a spring (which about the year 1860 suppled the mansion-house of Thomas Graham). For that purpose those interested gathered at that place and cut the logs for the house. After further consultation, however, the society concluded to build, and did build where Paris now stands. This place of worship was kept for twenty years, when the society became so reduced in numbers by deaths, removals, and the growing interest of the union of the two parties of the church that the Seceder house of worship was given up to the united congregation, and remains in their possession to the present time.

In 1813 the Rev. George Buchanan accepted a call to preach one-half the time to this society, and the other half to the Associate Reformed Society in Steubenville. He was a native of York County, Pa., received his early education at Gettysburg, and graduated at Dickinson College, Carlisle. He was licensed in the city of New York, and for a year or two preached in the city of Baltimore, and came west of the mountains in 1809, and placed himself under the Monongahela Presbytery. He remained as pastor of these churches for thirty years, and was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Rev. James Galloway, who served until 1851, when he removed to Steubenville, and with the Rev. Joseph Buchanan established an academy, which they conducted successfully many years.

After the Rev. Mr. Galloway came the Rev. Joseph Buchanan as pastor. He was succeeded by the Rev. James C. Campbell, who began his labors in 1855, and continued until April, 1875. He was succeeded by the Rev. John C. May on the 1st of April, 1876. Mr. May was released in February, 1878. The Rev. William J. Cooper, the present pastor, commenced his labors on the 1st of April, 1880. The elders who have served the church since 1868 are David S. Fulton, June 16, 1868; James P. McCalmont, April


3, 1876 ; David Gardner, April 4, 1881; James Morton, April 4, 1881.

The first place of preaching was a log building that stood on the Steubenville pike, on the line between Pennsylvania and Virginia (now West Virginia). Soon after the Rev. George Buchanan became the pastor a new meeting-house was built " out of small hewed logs, with a recess set back for the pulpit to be placed in, after the plan of many of the early Presbyterian meeting-houses that were built west of the mountains." The house stood exactly on the State line, the preacher being in one State and the congregation mostly 'in the other. No provision was made for heating the house for many years. On great occasions the society held services in a grove, a tent being erected for the preacher, and the congregation were seated upon logs. After many years a stove was allowed to be put up in the church, and on a cold winter's day the stove was heated so hot that it set the church on fire. All saw the danger, but the old men could not put the fire out, and the young men wanted to see it burn. One old man rose and said, " Young men, will you sit and see the house of God burn down ?" This appeal, with a few urgent remarks from Mr. Buchanan, incited the young men to activity, and with snow the fire was finally put out. This building remained in use until after 1843, and under the ministration of the Rev.' Mr. Galloway a new brick meeting-house was erected at the east end of the village of Paris, south of and on the Pittsburgh road, where it is still standing and in use.

Methodist Episcopal Church. - This church, whose place of worship is the " Tucker Meetinghouse," was organized in 1824, by the Rev. Thomas Jamison. The original members were John Tucker and wife, Jonathan Tucker and wife, James Jackson, and Elizabeth and Jane Hanlin. A small class had been formed previous to this time, and meetings were held in the house of Jonathan Tucker. A lot of land was purchased of John Tucker, situated on the Pittsburgh and Steubenville turnpike midway between Florence and Paris, and a stone meeting-house was built, which has been in use to the present time. The society have now under consultation the proposition to erect a new building in place of the present one. The ministers who have been in charge since 1828 to the present time are named below, viz. :

David Merryman, Jacob Young, William Hanlin, George McKaskies, Hiram Gilmore, - McMahon, John Spencer, Richard Armstrong, Wesley Smith, George L. Sisson, - Swaney, Simon Locke, G. Foster, Charles. Thorn, John P. Kent, Israel Dallas, Harvey Bradshaw, Elisha P. Jacobs, Ebenezer Hays, W.. P. Blackburn, C. Jackson, J. Gibson, J. Boggs, Joshua Munroe, John Gregg, R. Jordan, G. Jones, G. A. Lorrian, - Dorsey, J. Wright, David Hess, L. Dales, George B. Hudson, D. A. McCready, A. J. Rich, - Burbuage, James Turner, George Dunlap, S. H. Nesbit, Warner Long, James Hollinshead, M. B. Pugh, J. L. Stiffy, J. Kesler, J. J. Hays, J. Kesler, A. Baker, P. M. Hudson, I. N. Boyle, J. V. Yarnell, J. Jones, J. M. Mayer, C. McCslin, W. P. Blackburn, J. Williams, W. Gamble, G. A. Sheets, M. M. Sweeney, E. Jones, E. Taylor, A. V. Galbreath, G. V. Hudson, D. K. Stephenson, M. S. Kendig.

In the graveyard of the Tucker Church are found inscriptions to the memory of the following-named persons who were buried there, viz.: John Tucker, died April 6, 1831, aged one hundred years; Henrietta Tucker, died Nov. 29, 1833, aged ninety-six years; Edward Shipley, died April 6, 1817, aged eighty-three years; Martha Ralston, died July 1,1839, aged seventy-three years; Elizabeth Miller, died July 4, 1846, aged seventy-three years; Ann Cole, died Oct. 8, 1847, aged eighty-eight years.

The burial-place that is used by the people of the town of Paris contains among others the following: Robert Gibson, died Oct. 24, 1807, aged sixty-nine years ; William Wallace, died Nov. 10, 1825, aged seventy-seven years; John Gorley, died Feb.14,1831, aged seventy-six years ; William Leadhe, died Jan. 5, 1835, aged eighty-eight years ; George M. C. Keazy, died Dec. 16, 1836, aged eighty-seven years; James Caldwell, died Oct. 10, 1837, aged seventy-six years; William McClung, died Sept. 18, 1842, aged eighty years ; Joseph Lyon, Sr., died May 26, 1852, aged seventy-seven years ; Robert Simpson, died Oct. 29, 1855, aged eighty-eight years.


.-In the year 1805 a Mr. Shaw taught school in a cabin on the farm now known as the D. C. Fulton farm. In 1810, George Cunningham taught one year in the same cabin. In 1817, Richard Shillcock taught in a house on the farm now owned by John W. Duncan. Hugh Barton afterwards taught about two years in the same house, and still later John McCreary taught a school in it. Douglas Geary taught in a house on the land of Joseph Scott, then in Smith township, now Hanover.

Schools were not taught in the township with any regularity until after the passage of the school law of 1834. David McCoy was appointed from this township to attend as delegate the county convention held in Washington, November 4th of that year, to discuss the question of accepting the provisions of the school law, and whether to levy the tax in accordance with it. When the question was brought to vote, Mr. McCoy was one of five who voted nay. Election was held at the school-house in Florence on the 20th of March, 1835, for directors, and James Braden and Robert Coventry were elected. The next year the township was districted, and houses were erected soon after. In 1863 there were fourteen districts with fourteen teachers in the township. Six hundred and two pupils were enrolled, and $2218.07 was raised for school purposes. The districts remain unchanged since then. In 1873 there were 466 scholars, and $5182.86 was raised, and $4705.08 ex-


pended. In 1880 there were 478 scholars, and $2856.62 received for school purposes, with an expenditure of $3023.17 for the same purpose.

Justices of the Peace.—This township was an independent district from its erection in 1786 to 1803, when it was embraced in District No. 4 and so remained till 1838, when it again became an independent district. The names of the justices of the peace who exercised jurisdiction over the territory during the time it was embraced in District No. 4, will be found in the justices' list of Smith township. The names of those appointed and elected in Hanover township during the two periods in which it was an independent district are given in the following list, of their appointments or together with the dates election, viz.:

Samuel Glasgow, May 7, 1788.

Samuel Fleming, Feb. 9, 1799.

William L. Robb, April 14, 1840.

Benjamin Bubbett, April 14, 1840.

John McCullough, April 15, 1845.

Benjamin Bubbett, April 15, 1845.

Walter Buchanan, April 11, 1848.

John McCullough, April 9, 1850.

Walter Buchanan, April 13, 1853.

John McCullough, April 10, 1855.

Walter Buchanan, April 13, 1858.

John McCullough, April 10, 1860.

Robert Neely, April 14, 1863.

John McCullough, June 3, 1865.

John McCullough, March 29,1870.

Samuel Martin, March 29, 1870.

John McCullough, Jan. 28, 1874.

Samuel Martin, May 24, 1874.

John McCullough, March 17,1875.

Oliver P. Shields, March 16,1876.

Alex. McConnell, March 14, 1877.

H. A. Jackson, March 25, 1878.

Francis Finnegan, March 25, 1878.


HOPEWELL, the seventh in the list of original townships of Washington County, formed July 15, 1781, embraced at the time of its erection the territory of the present townships of Hopewell, Independence, Cross Creek, and Jefferson, and part of that of Mount Pleasant. The successive erections of the last-named four townships reduced the area of Hopewell to its present boundaries, which are, on the north, Cross Creek township; on the northeast and east, Mount Pleasant and Canton ; on the south, Buffalo; and on the west the township of Independence. The principal streams of Hopewell township are the south branch of Cross Creek and Brush _Run of Buffalo Creek, which respectively mark the northern and southern boundaries of the township. A number of smaller creeks and runs flow into these streams from the north and south, heading in the dividing ridge which extends in an easterly and westerly direction through Hopewell north of its centre.

One of the earliest white settlers within the present limits of Hopewell township was Jesse Martin, who received a Virginia certificate, dated at Redstone Old Fort, Dec. 6, 1779, for a tract of land in Ohio County, Va. (which county, as then claimed by the State of Virginia, covered all the west part of the present county of Washington), " situate on the waters of Buffalo Creek, and to include his settlement, made ill the year of our Lord 1772." This fixes definitely the date of Martin's settlement on the tract granted by the certificate. Its location was in the present township of Hopewell. When afterwards surveyed it was found to contain four hundred and five acres, and was named "Buffalo." It adjoined lands of William Slemman, John Johnston, and Hugh H. Bracken ridge. It was sold by Martin in 1785 to Robert Caldwell.

William Smiley was a Scotchman, who first settled in York County, Pa. Very soon after, however, he emigrated to Washington, and the year 1779 found him a resident of Hopewell township. In 1780 he had made a comfortable dwelling for his family, and brought them here, settling upon that part of his land now owned by his grandson, William Smiley. The land upon which William Smiley, Sr., located in 1779 was warranted to him Feb. 21, 1785, and surveyed September 11th of the same year. The tract contained three hundred and eighty-seven acres, was situated on the waters of Buffalo Creek, and was called " Moab." William Smiley was an elder in the Buffalo and Cross Creek Presbyterian congregations, and always efficient and enthusiastic in the work of the church. He was of a strong mind, very shrewd, and eminently pious. His manners were somewhat blunt, and he had an integrity and honesty about him which would not allow him to connive at anything which he thought to be wrong. He disliked everything which in any way, set aside the claims of religion, and did not give it its proper place in the business of life or the enjoyment of the social circle. He held the office of justice of the peace in Hopewell township for some years. His son 'William married Nancy Caldwell, and reared a family of six sons and one daughter. Margaret, the only daughter, became the wife of Alexander Hamilton. William lives upon a portion of his grandfather's original property. He is now in his eighty-fifth year. Robert Smiley married Rebecca Anderson, daughter of a clergyman. He died in Omaha, Neb. James married Nancy Hull, and died in Cincinnati, Ohio, whither he had removed.


John married Mary Williamson, and died in Mount Pleasant. Samuel married Hannah Cool, and went to Morgan County, Ohio, where he died. David C. Smiley, who married Nancy Tweed, died on the old homestead.

Robert Caldwell was one of the earliest settlers of Hopewell township. On April 7, 1785, he bought four hundred and five acres of land, situated on the waters of Buffalo Creek, of Jesse Martin, it being the tract " Buffalo" previously mentioned in the account of Martin's settlement. Robert Caldwell was of Irish parentage. The property he owned and lived upon here is still in the family, being owned by Samuel Caldwell, a descendant. His family consisted of six children,—Robert, David, Nancy, Margaret, Jane, and Martha. Robert married Jane Caldwell, and lived and died in Armstrong County; David married Nancy Curry, and died in Washington County; Nancy became the wife of William Smiley ; Margaret went with her husband, George Anderson, to St. Clairsville, Ohio, and died there; Jane married a Mr. Johnson; and Martha married William Nesbit. They removed to Beaver County, in this State, and died there.

The Rev. Joseph Smith, one of the early settlers in Hopewell, was of English parentage. His father settled on the road leading from the Susquehanna River to Wilmington, Del., near what is called Rising Sun, in the township of Nottingham, Md., where Joseph was born in 1736. His early education fitted him for a collegiate course, and he entered Princeton College, where he graduated in 1764, when he was twenty-eight years of age. He was licensed by the Presbytery of New Castle to preach the gospel at Drawyers, Aug. 5, 1767. On the 20th of October, 1768, he accepted a call from the congregation of Lower Brandywine, and was ordained and installed as pastor April 19, 1769. A short time before he was licensed he had married .Esther, daughter of William Cummins, merchant, of Cecil County, Md. His relation of pastor was dissolved Aug. 26, 1772. At the same meeting of Presbytery he received a call from the congregations of Rocky Creek and Long Cane, S. C., which he declined, and acted as a supply to his former congregation for one year, and also preached at Wilmington, Del. On the 12th of August, 1773, a call from the Second Church of Wilmington was placed in his hands by the Presbytery ; this call he held till the fall of the next year, when the congregations of Wilmington and Lower Brandywine having united, Ile accepted a united call, and became their pastor Oct. 27, 1774. In these churches he labored until April 29, 1778, when at his request the connection was dissolved. In the fall of that year he was taken suddenly and dangerously ill of a fever, and only recovered after a long and severe term of sickness.

At that time Judge James Edgar, who had for several years been an acquaintance and intimate friend of his, was living in what is now Washington County, and it has been said that it was largely through his influence that Mr. Smith was induced in the spring of 1779 to visit this section of country, to which the Rev. John McMillan had removed with his family a few months before, and where the Rev. James Power had resided since 1776. A short time after his return from the West Mr. Smith received through his Presbytery a call dated June 21, 1779, from the united congregations of Buffalo and Cross Creek, promising him £150 per annum. This call was signed by two hundred and four persons, with an amount of subscriptions already raised reaching £197 5s. 5d. The call and subscription-list were embodied in one paper —an original and singular document—thought to have been drawn up by James Edgar, who had been for some time an elder in the Cross Creek Congregation. Mr. Smith accepted the call on the 29th of October, 1779, and in the following year moved his family to his new field of labor, and settled in what soon after became Hopewell township, and where he passed the remainder of his life.

On the 2d of May, 1780, he purchased from Joseph Wells three hundred and seventy-six acres of land lying on the waters of Cross Creek, the consideration being £1625. Of this tract Mr. Smith afterwards sold eighty-four acres to Thomas Polke, and later it was sold to Robert Fulton. When Mr. Smith purchased the land of Wells he depended largely on the prospective income from his salary as a means of meeting the payments, a calculation which brought him no little disappointment afterwards. The Rev. James W. Miller relates an incident having reference to the financial relations between Mr. Smith and his people, as follows :

"He found them a willing and united people, but still unable to pay him a salary which would support his family. He in common with all the early ministers must cultivate a farm. He purchased one on credit, promising to pay for it with the salary pledged to hint by his people. Years passed away. The pastor was unpaid. Little or no money was in circulation. Wheat was abundant, but there was no market; it could not be sold for more than twelve and a half cents in cash. Even their salt had to be brought across the mountains on pack-horses, was worth eight dollars a bushel, and twenty-one bushels of wheat had often to he given for one of salt. The time came when the last payment must be made, and Mr. Smith was told he must pay or leave his farm. Three years' salary was now due from his people. For the want of this his land, his improvements upon it, and his hopes of remaining among a beloved people, must be abandoned. The people were culled together and the case laid before them ; they were greatly moved; counsel from on high was sought; plan after plan was proposed and abandoned; the congregations were unable to pay a tithe of their debts, and no money could be borrowed. In despair they adjourned to meet again the following week. In the mean time it was ascertained that a Mr. Moore ... would grind for them wheat on reasonable terms.. At the next meeting it was resolved to carry their wheat to Mr. Moore's mill; some gave sty bushels, some more. This was carried from fifteen to twenty-six miles on horses to mill. In a month word came that the flour was ready togs to market. Again the people were called together. After an earnest prayer, the question was asked, Who will ruts the flour to New Or. leans?' This was a startling question. The work was perilous in the extreme ; months must pass before the adventurer could hope to return, even though his journey should be fortunate; nearly all the way was a wilderness, and gloomy tales had been told of the treacherous Indian. More than one boat's crew had gone on that journey and came back no more. Who, then, would endure the toil and brave the danger? None volunteered; the young shrunk back and the middle-aged had the


excuse. The scheme at last seemed likely to fail. At length a hoary-headed man, an elder in the church, sixty-four years of age, arose, and to the astonishment of the assembly, said, Here am I; send me.' The deepest feeling at once pervaded the assembly. To see their venerated old elder thus devote himself for their good melted them all to tears. They gathered around Father Smiley to learn that his resolution was indeed taken ; that, rather than lose their pastor, he would brave danger, toil, and even death. After some delay and trouble two young men were induced by hope of large reward to go as his assistants. A day was appointed for their starting. The young and old from far and near, from love to Father Smiley, and their deep interest in the object of his mission, gathered together, and, with their pastor at their head, came down from the church, fifteen miles away, to the bank of the river to bid the old man farewell. Then a prayer was offered up by their pastor, a parting hymn was sung. There,' said the old Scotchman, 'untie the cable, and let us see what the Lord will do for its.' This was done and the boat floated slowly away. More than nine months passed and no word came back from Father Smiley. Many a prayer had been breathed for him, but what was his fate was unknown. Another Sabbath came; the people came together for worship, and there, on his rude bench before the preacher, composed and devout, sat Father Smiley. After the services the people were requested to meet early in the week to hear the report. All came again. After thanks had been returned to God for his safe return, Father Smiley rose and told his story ; that the Lord had prospered his mission, that he had sold his flour-for twenty. seven dollars a barrel, and then got safely back. He then drew a large puree, and poured upon the table a larger pile of gold than any of the spectators had ever seen before. The young mon were each paid a hundred dollars. Father Smiley was asked his charges. He meekly replied that he thought he ought to have the same as one of the young men, though be had not done quite as much work. It was immediately proposed to pay him three hundred dollars. This he refused till the pastor was paid. Upon counting the money it was found there wag enough to pay what was due Mr. Smith, to advance his salary for the year to come, to reward Father Smiley with three hundred dollars, and then have a large dividend for each contributor. Thus their debts were paid, their pastor relieved, and while life lasted he broke for them the bread of life. The bones of both pastor and elder have long reposed in the same churchyard, but a grateful posterity still tells this pleasing story of the past."

After the removal of his financial difficulties by the fortunate issue of Father Smiley's trip to New Orleans, Mr. Smith took up more land, including the tracts " Welcome" and " Mount Joy," amounting to seven hundred and sixty-six acres.

In the year 1785 he opened a select school with a special view to the training of young men for the ministry. Mr. Dodd's school on Ten-Mile Creek had just closed, and three young men from that school, James McGready, Samuel Porter, and Joseph Patterson, began a course of study with Mr. Smith. The class was soon afterwards joined by James Hughes and John Brice. The school was at first taught in a room which Mr. Smith had built for a kitchen, but was afterwards held in a building erected for that especial purpose in his garden. It was continued for some time, and was finally merged in the academy at Canonsburg, afterwards Jefferson College. To the project of the academy Mr. Smith gave his hearty support. He labored with his people until his death, which occurred quite suddenly on the 19th of April, 1792. His remains were interred in the graveyard at Upper Buffalo. His wife survived him more than twenty-eight years, and died Oct. 7, 1820, in the seventy-eighth year of her age.

The Rev. Joseph Smith left three sons and five daughters. To his son, William Cummins Smith, he bequeathed two hundred acres of land; to his daugh


ter Mary one hundred acres; and the same amount to his daughter Agnes. These lands were parts of the tracts " Welcome" and " Mount Joy." To his son David, who was a minister of the same denomination, he left seventy pounds in gold " for ye single purpose of supporting my said son David in his learning." To his daughters Esther, Elizabeth, and Naomi Smith he left the tract "Argyle," containing three hundred and eighty-five acres. To his son Joseph he left two hundred and seventy-eight acres, the homestead, it being a part of the tract " Mount Joy." Of the daughters of Mr. Smith, one died in early womanhood ; Mary became the wife of Rev. James Hughes, the first president of Miami University ; Agnes became the wife of the Rev. James Welch ; and Esther the wife of the Rev. William Wylie. Another daughter became the wife of the Rev. Joseph Anderson. Of the three sons, one died while preparing for the ministry. David became a minister, preached with great success for nine years, and died at the age of thirty-two. Several of the grandsons of Mr. Smith also became ministers.

Thomas Polke (whose name is also frequently found spelled Pollock in early deeds and records) has already been mentioned as the purchaser of a piece of land from the Rev. Joseph Smith. The purchase and sale was made May 3, 1786. The land conveyed by Mr. Smith to Polke (or Pollock) was a tract lying on Cross Creek, which was a part of the body of land granted by Pennsylvania to Joseph Smith, Dec. 12, 1785. There were eighty-four and three-fourths acres in the tract, and the consideration was five pounds, nineteen shillings, and six pence. The description in the deed is followed by this remark : " Which said land was formerly surveyed and patented by a certain John Hall for a certain Thomas Gardner, and afterwards surveyed with a tract of land in pursuance of a warrant granted to Joseph Smith, Sept. 30, 1785." Afterwards Thomas Polke and Margaret, his wife, sold this same property to " Robert Fulton, a miniature painter, of Philadelphia," for eighty pounds. This "miniature painter" was the same famous Robert Fulton who built and ran the first steamboat on the Hudson River. Upon the tract of land above mentioned the father, mother, and three sisters of Robert Fulton lived, and the parents died there, the mother last, in 1799. Robert Fulton also purchased a lot in Washington borough, on which his sisters, Mrs. Isabella Cooke and Mrs. Mary Morris, lived. The farm was left to the third sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Scott, by Mr. Fulton's will, made in 1814.

David Boyd, one of the best-known, as he was also among the earliest of the pioneers of this township, was a native of Cumberland County, Pa., and came to settle in Hopewell in or about the year 1787, bringing with him his wife, two daughters, and two sons,— James and John. Tile eldest son, James, known familiarly for many years of the latter part of his life " Uncle Jimmy Boyd," died in Independence town-


ship in 1880, in his ninety-ninth year, and immediately after his death there was published a narrative of his father's early life, which embraces events and adventures so remarkable that it is thought worthy of a place in this history. It is accordingly given as follows :

"In the year 1764 two cabins stood in the woods near where Carlisle, Cumberland Co., now stands. They were the dwelling-places of John Stewart and John Boyd and families, and were upwards of a mile apart. One day John Boyd was at the house of the Stewarts when marauding Indians burned the cabin. He hurried home to give the alarm, when he found his own cabin in ashes, and his wife and three children—two boys and a girl—missing. The red devils had annihilated the happy borne he left a few hours before. It would appear that two Indians straggled from the band which burned Stewart's house, and surprised David and his brother, while they were gathering bark not far distant from the house, and with raised tomahawks frightened them into quietude. They then entered the cabin, helped themselves to what they wanted, took prisoner the mother and daughter, set fire to the house and laid it waste-The mother was not in a condition to travel, and the murderous fiends took her into a thicket a short distance from the house and butchered her. David was then between six and seven years of age, and he not only witnessed the tragedy, but the Indians compelled him to carry the scalp of his loving and affectionate mother. He never forgot this circumstance. It was burned into his heart. He never saw his brother and sister after the murder of his mother, nor did the relatives ever get a trace of them. The Indians parted after the massacre of Mrs. Boyd, David going with one squad, and the brother and sister with another.

"The next thing the youthful prisoner recalled was the Indian camp, where all manner of indignities were heaped upon him by the young braves.' Running the gauntlet was one of the favorite pastimes of the braves, and he had to go through it every morning. He soon discovered that one of the Indian boys, in particular, laid the blows unusually heavy, and was bent on punishing him. He was very savage in his attacks. Smarting with pain as well as the indignity, young David resolved that if the Indian lad continued his malicious attacks he would stop and knack him down, and ono morning he executed his design, sending the little redskin head over heels in a twinkling. Instantly there was hilarity in Choctaw, and the chiefs, with raised tomahawks, ejaculated, Pale-face make good Indian !' This circumstance, unexpectedly to David, ended his guantlet experience, and from that time forward he became a favorite with old and young of the band.

" One of the Indian chiefs, an aged man, who had lost a son by death, agreed to adopt David Boyd. He accordingly had his head shaved until there was only a tuft left on the top; then he was taken to a creek and ducked three times, in order to wash out the white blood and introduce the Indian blood. Meanwhile there were incantations and all sort of gibberish. He was then dressed in an Indian garb and had all the privileges of the wigwam and camp. He was in the redoubt erected by Maj. William Grant.¹: There were about seventy-three Indians in the fort, and when they left it some of them went up the Allegheny, and others up the Monongahela River. He was with the Indians for three years and six mouths, and possibly would have remained with them had it not been . for the kind-hearted old chief who bad adopted him as his son. Recognizing the fact that age was creeping upon him, and that he would soon be called to the happy hunting-grounds, he resolved on taking the lad to Cumberland County, in order to ascertain if any of his relatives were gall living. He found some, and delivered the lad into their custody. David wept bitterly when he came to part with the old chief, and would have returned with him, but the old Indian forbade it. In after-life he often referred to the redskin, and said when provisions were low his Indian father would share his last bite with him. He lived for a while near Carlisle, from which place he removed to what is now Washington County."

Before he came to the West, however, he served in the Continental army through the Revolutionary war.

He was present in the army of Gates when Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, in 1777, and was also with Washington when Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown. The farm on which he settled in Hopewell township is the same which-is now owned by W. W. Dinsmore, located on the road leading from Washington to West Middletown, and three miles east of the latter place.

David Boyd was always a highly-respected citizen, and was a justice of the peace in Hopewell for twenty-five years, holding the office at the time of his death, which occurred about 1830, at the age of nearly seventy-five years. His children were four sons,—James, John, David, and William. James was born in Cumberland County in 1782, and was about five years old. In 1805 he settled in what is now Independence township, and died there, as already mentioned, in 1880, almost a centenarian. John, the second son of David Boyd, was also born in Cumberland County, and was three years of age when he came with his parents to Hopewell. He settled in West Middletown in 1808, and served there as justice of the peace for twenty-five years, being first appointed by Governor Joseph Ritner. He died in 1866, eighty-two years of age. Of his younger brothers, David and William, little has been learned, except that the latter died in Kentucky. David Boyd, Sr., had also four daughters,—Sarah, Mary, Nancy, and Betsey, two of whom were older than James, and born east of the mountains, before their father's settlement in the West.

David M. Boyd, son of John, and a grandson and now the oldest living descendant of David Boyd the pioneer, was born in West Middletown, where he still lives. He was early apprenticed to the carpenter's trade by his father, and followed the business for twenty-five years. He then engaged in flat-boating on the Monongahela, Ohio, and Mississippi, continuing in the trade for several years. In 1844 he married Eliza Boyd. In 1853 he was appointed postmaster of West Middletown, and about that time engaged in mercantile business also, in which he still continues. He held the office of postmaster for eight years. Mr. Boyd's wife died in 1865 (leaving an only son), and in 1866 he married Miss Annie McNulty, granddaughter of Col. David Williamson. In 1872, Mr. Boyd was a delegate to the Republican National Convention held at Philadelphia, which nominated Gen. U. S. Grant for President. He is now about seventy years of age, healthy and vigorous. He has served as justice of the peace for nearly twenty years, his father and grandfather before him having each filled the same office in Hopewell township for twenty-five years, as before mentioned.

Thomas Urie was a native of Ireland, who, emigrating to this country, lived for a time at Bloody Run, Pa., coming from there to Washington County. He received a Virginia certificate for four hundred acres of land by estimation, but when it was surveyed, Jan. 10, 1787, it was found to contain but three hun-

¹ This has reference to the time when Maj. Grant was defeated on Grant's Hill, Pittsburgh, in 1768, when pushing forward with the advance-guard of Gen. Forbes' force to attack Fort du Quesne. Young Boyd was With the Indian force that marched out from the French fort to attack Grant; and he witnessed the atrocities committed by the savages on the wounded and captured Highlanders after the defeat and rout of the whites.


dred and twenty acres. The name given his tract was "The Constitution." It was situated on the waters of Buffalo Creek, adjoining the lands of George Ramsey, Solomon Shepherd, James Martin, and John Chapman, and upon this place he passed his life. It is now in the possession of Robert Clark and John Brownlee. Thomas Urie had three sons,—Samuel, Solomon, and Thomas,—all men of remarkable stature and great physical strength. Samuel and Solomon each weighed over three hundred pounds. They were also men of prominence and ability, and Samuel represented his district in the State Legislature, besides filling the office of justice of the peace from 1810 to 1826. Solomon and Thomas were great hunters, and while thus engaged near Stillwater, Ohio, Thomas was killed by Indians. Solomon escaped, and years afterwards (in 1815), when living at Coshocton; Ohio, he killed an entire band of six Indians, one of whom had made an insulting boast of being the one who killed his brother Thomas on the. occasion referred to above. Solomon was arrested and taken to Mad River for trial, but was acquitted' and returned to his home. He was killed in 1830 by a fall from his horse. George W. Urie, a son of Solomon, was present at the centennial celebration of Washington County in September, 1881.

Thomas Urie, Jr., who was murdered by Indians, as above narrated, left a widow and two children, Elizabeth and Thomas. The widow married David Craig, and they had a large family of children. Mr. and Mrs. Craig died in West Middletown. Elizabeth, the daughter of Thomas Urie, Jr., married James McBride, and their descendants live in Independence township.

James Davis came from Delaware to Hopewell township in 1791, locating upon the tract of land now owned by D. C. Ross, which was patented to. Joseph G. Chambers. Previous to removing from Delaware, Mr. Davis married Celis Galloway. Their family numbered eight children, three sons and five daughters. Rebecca, one of the daughters, married John France, and went to make her home in Harrison County, Ohio. John married Jane Dolan, and also lived in Ohio, as did Sarah, who married Hanson Hamilton, and settled in Richland County. Mary became Mrs. Robert Sloan, and remained in Washington County. Susan became the wife of Robert Cruthers, and removed to Belmont County, Ohio. Elizabeth married Mr. Tweed, also going to Ohio, Harrison County. Ezekiel married Elizabeth Wylie, and resides in Hopewell township. Joseph died unmarried.

James Thompson came with his parents to this country from Ireland in 1796, when he was . but fifteen years of age. They came almost directly to Pittsburgh, Pa., and thence .to this county; Mr. Thompson was a surveyor by profession, having much and varied experience in that line in the years he pursued the vocation. His books and field-notes are models of neatness and accuracy. Mr. Thompson married Jane Craig for his first wife, and in 1840, having become a widower, he married Mrs. Matilda Ritchie, who still survives him. She resides in West Middletown, but her children are all residents of Washington borough. Mr. James Thompson died in 1863, aged eighty-two years.

George Work came into this township in 1802, and on May 4th of that year became the owner of one hundred acres of land, which was a part of the tract of four hundred and eight acres that was taken up by John Tweed, situated on the waters of Buffalo Creek, and patented to him under the title of "Tweed." John Tweed left one hundred acres of this land by will, March 16, 1791, to his son John, of whom George Work purchased it. It is now owned by Samuel C. Work, a grandson. George Work married Margaret Dunlap, and they had five children,—James, Alexander, John, Jane, and Mary. James married a Miss Tweed, and their children numbered eight,—George, Elizabeth, Nancy, Sarah, Isabella, Emeline, Ann, and Samuel C. Work. Alexander married Jane Taggart, and they also had eight children,—George, John, James, Jane, Mary, Samuel, Anderson, and Alexander,—all living in Ohio. John married a Miss Brown, and their four children —George, William, Nancy, and Mary—live in Indiana and Kansas. Jane married Andrew Gilmore, and removed to Highland County, Ohio. Mary became the wife of Robert Tweed, and lived and died in Buffalo village, in this township.

Peter McKee, an Irishman by birth, emigrated to America, and soon after his arrival came to Hopewell township, bringing his family with him. He purchased one hundred acres of land of John Brown, the deed being made Jan. 20, 1803. This was a part of "Castle Bracken," a tract of three hundred and eighty acres. Peter McKee's children were Thomas, John,. James, and Margaret. John never married ; Margaret became the wife of Jacob Logan ; Thomas married Mary Vincent, and they had three children, —Jane, James, and Samuel. James McKee married Margaret Dryden, and their two children were James and Margaret. The farm that belonged to Peter McKee is now owned by James McKee, his great-grandson.

William Vasbinder came from Carlisle, in this State, and located in West Middletown when that place contained but seven or eight buildings. He was a wagon-maker by trade, also occasionally working at harness-making and blacksmithing. His wife was Mary Buchanan. They had six children, three sons and three daughters. Jane married T. B. Slemmens, John married Margaret Slemmens, and Margaret married John Slemmens. The last named couple live in Canton township, Washington County. William married a Miss Sibley, and emigrated to Louisville, Ky.; George married Ann Craig, and lives in Mansfield, Ohio ; Mary died single.


William Craig, who was an early resident in Hopewell township, had four sons,—David, John, William, and Walter. David married the widow of Thomas Urie, and settled in West Middletown. To David Craig and his wife were born a large family of children, all girls. When Mr. Craig died, in 1857, he left a large landed estate. John Craig, second son of William Craig, went to Ohio. William, Jr., settled on the homestead and died there, leaving a large property, which was divided among his children. Walter Craig, youngest of William Craig's four sons, married a sister of Col. Joseph Scott. In 1818 and 1819 he was a member of the House of Representatives from this district. After his marriage and his removal to Cross Creek village he was elected to the State Senate.

Robert B. McClure is a eon of Robert McClure, of Washington, who was a noted draughtsman. He also practiced medicine in Washington for twenty-five years under the " Thompsonian" system, and was very successful in his treatment of cholera during its prevalence in 1832. Robert McClure died in 1852. Robert B. McClure, his son, settled in West Middletown in 1844, and the following year commenced the manufacture of threshing-machines. He is said to have been the first to manufacture machines for threshing and cleaning grain in the State of Pennsylvania. He is still engaged in that business and in the manufacture of carriages and agricultural implements. Previous to his commencement of the business in 1845, Mr. McClure had followed the trade of millwright. Since April 20, 1864, he has been a justice of the peace.

Justices of the Peace.—Following is a list of ' justices appointed and elected in Hopewell township¹ during the century of its existence, viz. :

William Scott, July 15, 1781.

John Marshall, July 16, 1781.

William Smiley, Nov. 11, 1788.

Samuel Urie, April 1, 1794.

William Slemmens, Nov. 1, 1799.

John Buchanan, Dec. 20, 1799.

James Gillespie, Aug. 4, 1801.

William Hughes, Jan. 7, 1805.

David F. Finney, Oct. 20, 1808.

Thomas Smith, March 15, 1809.

Thomas Patterson, March 15,1809.²

Samuel Urie, March 21, 1810.

Robert McCready, April 1, 1811.

Alexander Adams, Nov. 18, 1811.

David Boyd, Aug. 23, 1813.

Matthew R. Acheson, Nov. 1, 1813.

Robert Garrett, May 25, 1815.

William McClean, May 16, 1818.

Alexander Adams, Nov. 13, 1818.

George Plummer, June 13, 1822.

William Rea, March 6, 1823.

David T. Archer, Dec. 3, 1823.

Thomas McKeever, July 2, 1824.

James McFadden, March 3, 1826.

John Ramsey, Oct. 19, 1829.

George Elliot, Nov. 30, 1830.

James Lee, Nov. 18, 1835.

George Elliot, Nov. 18, 1835.

James Donahoo, Nov. 18, 1835.

Nathan Patterson, Nov. 18, 1835.

John Boyd, Nov. 17, 1837.

Henry Smith, Jan. 18, 1838.

George Plummer, April 14, 1840.

John H. Smith, April 14, 1840.

John H. Smith, April 15, 1845.

Thomas G. Allen, April 15, 1845.

James E. Lindsey, April 10, 1849.

Robert McKee, April 9,1850


John H. Smith, April 9, 1850.

John Vasbinder, April 10, 1855.

George Linville, April 10, 1855.

Abraham Wotring, April 14, 1857

David Brown, April 14, 1857.

Abraham Wotring, April 21,1862

John White, April 14, 1863.

D. M. Boyd, July 11, 1865.

Abraham Wotring, April 9,1867.

George W. Richie, April 15,1873.

George W. Richie, Jan. 19,1874.

George W. Richie, March 25,1878.

¹ Hopewell township at its erection in 1781 embraced in addition to its present territory that of the townships of Independence, Cross Creek, and Jefferson, and part of that of Mount Pleasant. Upon the erection of Cross Creek, in 1790, that township became a separate district (embracing its own present territory with that of Jefferson and a part of Mount Pleasant), and so remained until 1803, when it, with Hopewell, became embraced in District No. 3. In 1822 a part of Mount Pleasant was attached, In 1823 West Middletown borough was erected, but remained attached to the district, which remained then with that jurisdiction till the commencement of the operation of the Constitution of 1838, under which the office of justice of the peace became elective, and each township a district.

² Not sworn in until April 27, 1813.

West Middletown Borough.—West Middletown is situated within the boundaries of the township of Hopewell, ill- its northwestern part, on the dividing ridge between the waters of Buffalo and Cross Creeks, and on the main road leading to Washington borough, which road forms the main street of the town. The borough of West Middletown now contains four churches, a school-house, post-office, two resident physicians, five stores, a drug-store, machine-shop, two wagon-shops, a cabinet-maker's shop, two blacksmith-shops, a hotel, a livery stable, seventy-five dwellings,—one-third of which number are of brick, —and a population of three hundred and twelve according to the return of the United States census of 1880.

The site of West Middletown borough is upon parts of two tracts of land that originally belonged to James Martin and Samuel Gill. The tract of James Martin was taken out under a Virginia certificate granted in February, 1780, and when surveyed was named " Saint Martin," and contained three hundred and four acres. A. patent for it was obtained March 4, 1794. The tract belonging to Samuel Gill when surveyed was called " Rosegill." Patent for this tract was granted Oct. 28, 1790. One of the first settlers in the locality was Galbraith Stewart, who was a blacksmith by trade and for several years previous had carried on his trade near Mount Hope Church, now in Independence township. In the year 1795 he removed to what is now West Middletown, where he built one of the first dwellings and opened a blacksmith-shop. Soon afterwards David Craig settled there and opened a store. The election district composed of Hopewell, Buffalo, and Cross Creek townships was erected in 1797, and this settlement became the polling-place and so continued many years. At one time during this period there were three licensed taverns in the town. A post-office is mentioned as being at West Middletown in the Postmaster-General's report in 1805. At this place William McKennan (who afterwards removed to Washington) settled and lived for a time. Robert Garrett (the father of John W. Garrett, president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad) also settled here, and opened a store which he kept many years. It is stated that while living here his son, John W. Garrett, was born. The house in which he lived is now owned by Robert Garrett.

William McKeever was a hatter by trade, and was also an early resident here. Later, Thomas and Matthew McKeever were prominent men, and they were among the first Abolitionists of the county. Thomas


was a justice of the peace, and upon a certain occasion a number of Virginians came up from Wellsburg in search of a negro slave, whom they captured at the house of his brother Matthew. He was brought before Justice Thomas-McKeever. The negro claimed that he was a freeman and was born in Somerset County, Pa., and gave names of parties living there to prove it. Justice McKeever returned the case to court, and demanded bail of the negro for his appearance. Col. McNulty signed the bond. The justice then demanded bail of the claimant for his prosecution of the claim, and no one responded, but the claimant threw down the amount claimed, which the justice refused upon the ground that it was not bail but forfeit. The justice then ordered the handcuffs to be taken from the negro, deciding that he had complied with the law and was a free man. The negro was surrounded by his friends and marched off in triumph. McKeever was a director of the " Underground Railroad" for forty years. " I was acquainted," said he, "with a large number of slaves, and also their masters, and I never advised a slave to run away from his master, but when they came to me I helped them all I could."

West Middletown was erected a borough by an act passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania on the 27th of March in that year, and, in accordance with other provisions in this act, borough officers were elected, and the board organized and proceeded to business, but little of importance was transacted. The road that passes through West Middletown was paved in 1824, but was taken in hand by the citizens, and the burgess and Council, as such, seem not to have been recognized in the action. A call was made for a public meeting of the citizens of West Middletown, to be held on the 19th of August, 1823, "for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of laying a road tax for the construction of a paved road through the borough." At a later meeting the same year (December 15th) the citizens decided to build one hundred rods of pavement, to be paid for in two years, to be contracted for in sections of five rods each. It extended from the east end of Joseph Lane's shop to the west end of Samuel Clutter's house. On the 26th of December, William Lindsey, Thomas White, and Thomas McKeever were appointed a committee to lay out the street in sections of five rods each as proposed, which was done, and during the next year the road was paved. It was not until the year 1832 that the burgess and Council took action to procure apparatus for the extinguishment of fires. In the latter part of that year a contract had been made for a fire-engine with parties in Wheeling, and on the 5th of January, 1833, Hugh Hamilton was sent to Wheeling by the Council to nullify ,the contract. A meeting of the citizens was soon after held, to vote whether or not a fire-engine should be purchased. Forty-one votes were cast, twenty-four in favor and seventeen against. A hand engine was thereupon purchased for two hundred and seventy-five dollars of Ira Cummings, of Vermont. The engine was kept at the house of David Craig, who kept a store where the hotel now stands. It was in use for twenty years, and was then housed till 1868. On the 13th of March of that year the Council ordered the fire-engine and all pertaining to it sold. A report made to the Council, March 24th, shows that the engine, ladder, hooks, weigh-scales, etc., were sold, and for them twelve dollars and twenty-five cents was received. Since that time no attempt has been made to organize a fire department in West Middletown.

Justices of the Peace.—Following is a list .of justices of the peace for West Middletown from 1840 to the present time, viz. :

James McFadden, April 14, 1840.

John Boyd, April 14, 1840; June 23, 1845.

Alexander Burns, June 23, 1845.

John Boyd, April 9, 1850.

James E. Lindsey, April 11, 1854.

Thomas McFadden, May 25, 1857.

James E. Lindsey, Aug. 8, 1859.

Andrew C. Ritchie, April 10, 1860.

R. B. McClure, April 20,1864 ; Jan. 8, 1874.

D. M. Boyd, Feb. 1, 1874.

R. B. McClure, May 24, 1874.

David M. Boyd, March 17, 1875.

R. B. McClure, March 27, 1879.

D. M. Boyd, March 30, 1880.

The following incident in connection with Squire Samuel Urie, who lived at West Middletown, is interesting. The docket from which it is derived is in possession of D. M. Boyd, Esq. On the 1st of February, 1818, complaint was made that a certain yeoman did " yesterday, the 31st day of January, being the Lord's day, commonly called Sunday, at Hopewell Township chop off wood to the amount of two sticks as big as his leg or thigh and further sayeth not."

For this outrageous violation of law and order Squire Urie, on the 6th of February, five days after, delivered the following decision : " I do adjudge him to forfeit for the same the sum of four dollars." In addition to this were the fees of the justice, 'seventy-five cents, and of the constable, twenty-five cents.

Post-Office.—The Postmaster-General's report of 1805 shows at that time there was a post-office at West Middletown, but fails to state who was postmaster. It is learned from the newspapers that David Craig was postmaster in 1808. He remained in that office till 1832, and was succeeded by Thomas J. Odenbaugh, who occupied the position till 1839. The following are the names of the postmasters of West Middletown and their terms of office, viz.: John Smilie, 1839-45; Thomas B. Slemmens, 1845-49; Robert Dougan, 1853-57 ; David M. Boyd, 1857-65; Thomas McFadden, 1865-69 ; George McFadden, 1869-80 ; William Fowler, 1880 (present incumbent).

Schools of West Middletown.—The first schoolhouse was a log building situated on the State road. School was taught in it by one of the McFaddens. The early history of the schools of the township, then embracing Independence, contains the history of the schools of this town up to The year 1856, when on the 12th of May in that year it became a separate district.


The first school directors under this act were A. S. Ritchie, president; S. S. Quest, secretary; and James Vasbinder, treasurer. Two schools were opened, and in 1863 there were one hundred and twenty-two scholars enrolled; the amount of money raised for school purposes of the district was $409.28, and the expenditures were $431.53. In 1873 there were one hundred and eight pupils; receipts for school purposes, $625.80; expenditures, $587.33. In the year 1880, seventy-seven pupils; receipts, $637.92; expenditures, $533.82.

Union Grove Seminary.—About the year 1828 this seminary was first opened, with James Sloan, principal. An anniversary meeting of the Franklin Literary Society, connected with the seminary, was held on the 4th of November, 1831. The trustees of the school at this time were Daniel McGugin, David Wherry, and William Lindsey. At an examination held on the 15th of November, the same year, J. Anderson, William Wallace, and Dr. Al. Hamilton were appointed by the trustees to take the charge. On the 22d of October, 1832, the school was opened under the superintendence of the Rev. Charles Wheeler as principal, and Mr. George Gordon (graduate of Washington College) as assistant, and on April 7, 1834, George M. Hall was principal. The school flourished a few years after this time with varied success, and was finally discontinued at a date which has not been ascertained.

The old " Horse Mill Academy," established in 1844, the Upper Buffalo Academy, which commenced in 1853, and the Pleasant Hill Seminary, located near West Middletown, are mentioned on pages 453 and 455 of this volume, in Dr. Brownson's chapter on the educational interests of the county.

The West Middletown Christian Church.¹ —The early history of this congregation is so intimately associated with the movements of Thomas and Alexander Campbell, and the first church they planted on Brush Run, that the reader is referred to the article on the Christian Church, or Disciples of Christ, in the general history of the county, and the early labors of these men as there presented, as a necessary introduction to a true sketch of the planting of this church.

Commencing in the year 1830, some of the former members of the old Brush Run Church, and of another church planted by the labors of Thomas Campbell, near to Hickory, began to meet for worship at Matthew McKeever's. The following are the names of some of the first members : Matthew McKeever and wife, Isaac Cox and wife, Martain and wife, Mother Buxton, George Webster and wife (colored), Mothers McCray and Gillen, James McElroy and

wife, and occasionally Joseph Briant and others.

They afterwards met in a school-house at the east end of the, village for some time, and also in other private houses besides McKeever's. During these years they were ministered to by the Campbells, by James McElroy, and others, who ministered Bible instruction for their mutual edification and encouragement. There was, however, no regular organization of them into a church until the year 1837, which was effected at Pleasant Hill Seminary.

The following were then members : James McElroy and family, — Wort and family, James Ryon and family, Matthew McKeever and family, Polly Gillen, the Tarr family, and John Mendle and family. John Mendle and Matthew McKeever were chosen as their elders, and in addition to the labors of the Campbells they had for some time the labors of Matthew Clapp and Dr. A. W. Campbell, with occasional visits from other ministers of the word. After this they met for some time in town, in the school-house and in private rooms, until 1848, when they erected their first meeting-house, in the western portion of the village, a small brick building. Here they worshiped until 1861, when they sold their house and bought their present church building.

During these years, from the time of the erection of their first house for worship up to the present, many of the young ministers attending Bethany College have ministered to them the word of life, but for quite a number of years previous to his death T. C. McKeever was their most active elder, laboring very acceptably to them and the public in word and doctrine. After his death Samuel Matthews was located there for a while, and since his resignation the church has depended for preaching very much on the Bethany students.

This congregation has had much trouble and affliction from internal dissension, which at times prostrated it very much ; but for some years past they have been doing well, having got rid of the disturbing element, and they are now in a good condition, though 'not strong, and their prospects for usefulness are very encouraging. The present number of members is forty-eight. The elders are Daniel Hare, John Nelson, and Thomas Lane. Their church property is worth about $1200.

United Presbyterian Congregation of West Middletown.² —The old minutes of this congregation have not been preserved, so that it is difficult to know the date of its organization. From the best information it was about 1810. Dr. John Riddle, of Robinson's Run, preached the first sermon for our people in the month of May, 1802. From that time till 1814 more or less supply of preaching was furnished. In the month of June, 1814, Samuel Findley was settled here only a part of his time. His pastorate continued for eight years, when he demitted his charge; afterwards he spent most of his long life and labors at Antrim, Ohio. The congregation remained vacant until the fall of 1828, when William Wallace was settled here, in connection with Wheeling and Short

¹ By the Rev. A. E. Myers.

² By the Rev. Samuel Taggart.


Creek, West Middletown receiving half his labors. In April, 1833, at the urgent desire of the Wheeling branch, but much against the wish of the people here, he saw fit to demit his charge here and removed to Wheeling, where he spent the most of his labors, though he finished his course at Canonsburg. The memory of Drs. Findley and Wallace dear to many here, and through a large portion of the church.

The present pastor accepted a call from the congregation, in connection with Mount Vernon, a new branch some nine miles east, two-thirds of his time to the former, and one-third to the latter. This relation continued ten years, when for reasons deemed sufficient the Mount Vernon branch was demitted, and the whole time was given to West Middletown. This relation continued till the spring of 1855, when by mutual agreement he gave up the congregation and removed to Illinois. He found the climate did not suit his constitution, and though he had accepted a call in Peoria County, he concluded that he must have his home somewhere among the hills, he knew not where. After having been "well shaken," he returned from the West in 1856. He accepted the second call from his old charge, and remains here at this present date, January, 1882.

In 1818 the congregation built a house that remained intact until 1860, when we entered our new church. The present building is a substantial one, built of brick, with a view to utility rather than ornament. It is fifty by seventy-five feet in size, with a gallery over the vestibule at the west end. It cost about four thousand dollars without the furniture. The people are pleased with it, and think it good enough for any country congregation.

This congregation belonged to the Associate Reformed Church up to the period of the union with the Associate Synod in 1858. Then the present name of "The United Presbyterian Church" was assumed. We have a legitimate claim to this title, for both these bodies were " true blue" Presbyterians previous to the union. While we do not claim to have attained to perfection, yet we are not ashamed of our creed, 'our profession, and our descent from faithful Scotch and Irish ancestors.

This congregation had about eighty communicants in 1834. It has varied from that number up to one hundred and seventy-five. There have been admitted to communion since that date more than six hundred, but from deaths and removals and other causes our number at present is about one hundred and thirty-three. Of the present congregation only one female member remains who had her name on the roll of membership when the writer was first settled here. About one-third of the ministers of the Presbytery of Chartiers have been called .home to their reward since the, union.

I will record the names of the ruling elders of the congregation who served here, most of whom have gone to the " house of silence :" Thomas Fullerton, James Welch, Thomas Patterson, Thomas McCall, Nathaniel Paxton, Thos. McCorkle, Samuel Patterson, Thomas Ritchey, Jas. Thompson, Thomas Gormley, Hugh Reed, John McCerkle, John W. Stewart, John Jamison, Samuel E. Brownlee, Aaron Welch, John Hemphill, all dead, making in all seventeen. Elders John Miloy and John Mustand removed from the bounds of the congregation, and are yet living. Walter Denny, R. C. Clark, D. F. Cummins, William Morrison, David McNary, and J. Forbes Welsh compose the present session. As to our progress in raising funds for ecclesiastical and benevolent purposes, we have advanced about one hundred and fifty per cent. In spiritual advancement we cannot speak with the same degree of certainty. The true condition of the soul is known only to the Omniscient One. The members attend regularly on the public ordinances, and we are generally favored with a number of outsiders and others. We have generally enjoyed peace and harmony, so that, everything considered, I can say this has been to me a pleasant. charge. During the troubles in our country more than thirty communicants left this church. They sent to the South for a minister, and have a small congregation at Patterson's Mills. Whether they have gained by this change I do not pretend to determine. " To their own Master they stand or fall."

But I must bring this imperfect sketch to an end. In looking over our roll of six hundred and ninety ministers I find West Middletown has the oldest settled pastor in the whole church. If the work done has not been very fruitful, we cannot complain that the time to perform it has been abbreviated.

Methodist Church.—A Methodist Church, located in West Middletown, has an excellent house of worship, which was dedicated Jan. 15, 1878, but it has not been found practicable to obtain any connected history of the organization and subsequent progress of this church. There is also an African Methodist Church located in the borough of West Middletown.

Hopewelltown.—James Gillespie, who was a settler in the township prior to 1788 (his name being found on the assessment-roll of that year), conceived the idea of starting a town upon his tract of land. The land was on the east border of the township, nearly adjoining the present town of Buffalo. He inserted an advertisement in the Washington Telegraphe and Western Advertiser of Feb. 10, 1797, which is here given :

"The subscriber has laid out a Town on his plantation (called Hopewell town) in Hopewell Township, on the great road leading from Henderson's Mills to Charlestown, mouth of Buffaloe, the 20th ultimo. The corner lots will be sold at twenty dollars each, the others at ten dollars each. The situation is elegant, about twenty rods from Henderson's Mills, and within one mile and a half from the two meeting-houses. Those that choose to purchase shall have a title in fee simple forever.


No further account of the embryo village is obtained till 1800. No deeds are on record prior to


that time that show that lots were sold, but on the 10th of June in that year Michael McClung sold to Francis Henry " lot No. 20 in Hopewell town," and the same was sold by him on the 26th of August, 1809, to John Trimble, William McClelland, Thomas Gillespie, and James Clark. Nothing more is known of it. All recollection or tradition of the town seems to have passed from the memory of man. Ezekiel Davis now lives on the James Gillespie property.

Schools.—Primitive schools, supported by subscription, were taught in this township, as elsewhere in the county, several years before the beginning of the present century ; but few particulars have been learned concerning them, or the teachers employed in them prior to 1828. Mr. William Hunter says he recollects at that time but four log school-houses in Hopewell, and that the teachers in that year, or in two or three years following, were John Ross, Bartley A. McClean, Nathaniel Jenkins, Samuel Elder, George Forester, and Joseph G. Chambers. The last named died in 1829.

Under the school law of 1834 the township (then comprising also the territory of Independence township) was districted in that year and 1835 by a committee chosen for the purpose, consisting of George Plummer, John Lowry, James Thompson, James Bell, Aaron Johnston, Abram Wotring. The number of districts into which the two (present) townships was divided was twelve. There were then in the entire territory (Hopewell and Independence) four hundred and twenty-four persons liable to taxation for school purposes. David Craig and Hugh McGuire were elected the first school directors, and James Thompson treasurer. The amount of money raised in that year for school purposes was $349.37. In 1836 the township refused action under the school law, and only the State tax of $124.78 was raised. In 1837 the provisions of the law were accepted by the township, and a total of $718.15 was raised.

On the 26th of August, 1836, the township " resolved to build the necessary number of school-houses for the districts as soon as proper arrangements can be made, and that the secretary give notice in the Reporter and Examiner for proposals on the first Monday of October next." Feb. 14, 1837, it was " resolved that the secretary be authorized to contract for brick for -.eight school-houses." David Craig and James Thompson were appointed "a committee to obtain right of school property for West Middletown District, No. 3." Aug. 18, 1837, it was resolved that equal amounts be distributed among the several districts, except Middletown, No. 3, and Williamsburg, the former of which was to receive one hundred per cent. and the latter fifty per cent. more than the others. The secretary was authorized to contract with George Newcome to build these school-houses. The Adams school-house, No. 6, was also built by Newcome. Abraham Wotring, John Lowry, Henry Smith, Hugh McGuire, William Tweed, and James Thompson were authorized to procure school lo which they did, as follows:

Lease, 99 years from James Boyd, 80 perches $1.00

Purchase from Joseph Scott, 80 perches 1.00

Purchase from Alexander Adams and Aaron Templeton, 79 perches 10.00

Purchase from John Lowry, 72 perches 10.00

Purchase from William Jamison, 80 perches 1.00

Purchase from John Dunkle, 80 perches 12.00

Purchase from Joseph Bigham, 80 perches 1.00

Purchase from Isaac Manchester, 82 perches 10.00

Purchase from Robert Harvey (Williamsburg), 36¾ perches 60.00

These purchases were all made in 1837 and 1838. On the 27th of May, 1839, a lot was purchased of George Plummer, thirty-six perches, for the consideration " Love and respect for education, and the better maintenance and support of common schools." In 1845 the store of James McFadden was purchased for a school-house, in District No. 3. On the 14th of September, 1846, a lot was purchased of William McNulty for a school-house, and on the 16th of April, 1847, it was voted to. proceed with the erection of a house forty-two by thirty-two feet, brick, thirteen inches thick, ten feet story, two stories in height. To this building another story was added in 1858.

The school report for the school year ending June 1, 1863, showed the following school statistics of the township : Number of schools, 6 ; number of teachers, 6 ; number of pupils enrolled, 216 ; receipts for school purposes, $983.69; expenditures, $695. The report for 1873 showed : number of schools in township, 6; number of teachers, 6 ; number of pupils enrolled, 162; receipts, $1389.95; expenditures, $1312.46. In 1880 the report showed the same number of schools and teachers; number of pupils enrolled, 210; school receipts, $1356.11; expenditures, $1217.29. The present number of districts and school-houses in the township is six, exclusive of the West Middletown district, which has been separate and independent from, the township in school matters in and since the year 1856.

Churches. —The Upper Buffalo Presbyterian Church was organized in May or June, 1779.¹ The location of the house of worship of this early congregation was a spot " near the northwest corner" of the old burial-ground, or "graveyard," as the old settlers in their austerity of speech as well as of manner loved better to express it. The building was simply a log house, differing in no essential particular from the meeting-houses of all denominations in the pioneer days, but it served the needs of this weak but devoted congregation for nineteen years, from 1779 to 1798. This included the period of the labors of their first pastor, the Rev. Joseph Smith. He had been called by the congregations of Upper Buffalo and Cross Creek, June 21, 1779. Each congregation agreed to

¹ The reader is referred to the history of Cross Creek Presbyterian Church for the early history of this church ; also to the personal sketches of the Rev. Joseph Smith and William Smiley in the early settlements of this township. Much of the account here given of the Upper Buffalo Church is taken from the centennial addresses of the Revs. William F.. Eagleson and James D. Walkinshaw, delivered June 19, 1879.


pay him seventy-five pounds. The story of his labors, pecuniary trials, and pastoral success is told elsewhere in the history of Hopewell township. He continued as pastor of both churches till the time of his death, April 19, 1792, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. During his pastorate, " in the latter part of the, year 1781, the Lord began a gracious work in the congregations of Cross Creek and Upper Buffalo. . . . At the time the Lord's Supper was administered at Buffalo, in the fall of 1783, about one hundred of the subjects of this good work were admitted to communion."

On the 13th of June, 1794, the Rev. Thomas Marques was ordained and installed pastor of the Cross Creek congregation, and so continued until the beginning of the year 1798, during which pastorate he also acted as stated supply of the Upper Buffalo Church.

The second house of worship of this church was built in 1797-98. It was a large building, made of hewed logs, furnished with galleries on the ends and also on one side, the pulpit being on the other side. The first stoves were put in it in 1806 ; it was weather-boarded in 1808 ; pews were put in it in 1812. Some time afterwards the pulpit was painted and the house plastered. It was first used in 1798, and was occupied as a place of worship for forty-seven years.

The Upper Buffalo Presbyterian Society was incorporated under civil law by act of Assembly passed March 29, 1804,,and approved by Governor Thomas McKean. The first trustees of the society (named in the incorporation) were James. Taggart, Sr., David Boyd, 'Alexander Hunter, William McComb, John Flack, Matthew Morrow, James Dinsmore, John Gilchrist, William Hughes.

From 1798 to 1800 this church was dependent on presbyterial and transient supplies. In October of the latter year the Rev. John Anderson, D.D., accepted a call and at once entered on his pastoral duties. He was esteemed a good theologian, and superintended the studies of a number of young men for the ministry, who took high rank among their ministerial brethren ; among them were Henry Hervey, D.D., William C. Anderson, D.D., James McKennon, D.D., and Rev. James Anderson.

The Rev. John Anderson, pastor of Upper Buffalo, was born in Guilford County, N. C., in April, 1768, and received his education, both academic and theological, under the Rev. David Caldwell. He was licensed by the Presbytery of Orange in 1793, was shortly afterwards ordained as an evangelist, and spent several years in itinerant labor in the States of North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. In 1799 he visited this part of the country, and in 1800, after the meeting of the General Assembly at Philadelphia, came here to remain as pastor of the church, as before mentioned.

"He himself stated," says the Rev. W. E. Eagleson, " that the first two years of his ministry were not very fruitful, and that in the summer of 1802 about twenty careless persona were awakened to serious concern. This was the beginning o that great work of grace that swept over this whole region in the beginning of the present century, commonly known as the falling work.' The most memorable Sabbath in the whole history of the church was the 14th of November, 1802, when the Lord's Supper was administered hare. It is estimated that ten thousand people were present. They brought their provisions with them, encamped on the ground, and slept in their wagons. Fifteen ministers were present. On Saturday afternoon Dr. McCurdy and one of the other brethren preached simultaneously, one in the meeting-house and the other in the tent. Two sermons were preached in the same way on Sunday morning. Whilst Dr. Milligan and some of his brethren were administering the communion in the open space in front of the tent to about one thousand communicants, Dr. McCurdy preached his famous war sermon from a wagon some distance west of the meeting-house. The exercises on this occasion were continued until Tuesday evening. The divine power was signally displayed. Some hundreds were convinced of their sin and misery, and many of them sank down and cried bitterly and incessantly for several hours. Some fell suddenly; some lost their strength gradually; some lay quiet and silent; some were violently agitated; and many sat silently weeping, who were not exercised with any bodily affections."

The pastorate of Dr. Anderson continued for thirty-two years and eight months, the pastoral relation being dissolved on the 18th of June, 1833, at his request, made and urged on account of his declining health. In the fall of 1834 he preached his farewell sermon at a meeting of the Synod held at Steubenville, Ohio, and on the 31st of January, 1835, he died, aged sixty-seven years. His remains were interred in the burial-ground of the church.

After Dr. Anderson's death this congregation was served for a time by supplies. On the 24th of December, 1834, the Rev. John Eagleson, D.D., was ordained and installed pastor of this church, and served in that capacity just thirty-nine years, during which time six hundred and twenty-three members were added to the church. He died Jan. 23, 1873, at the age of sixty-four years, and while he was yet in all the vigor of his usefulness.

After the death of Dr. Eagleson the congregation was supplied by the Washington Presbytery until 1874. On the 3d of February in that year a call was made to the Rev. James D. Walkinshaw (who had preached his first sermon here on the second Sabbath of the preceding November). The call was accepted on the 29th of April following, and on the 22d of May, 1874, he was installed the fourth pastor of this church, which relation still continues.

The building and occupation Of the first and second houses of worship of this congregation have already been mentioned. The second, after being in use for forty-seven years, gave place to the third, which was built and occupied in 1845. It stood on the site occupied by its predecessor, and was dedicated on the Sabbath, Oct. 26, 1845. The dedicatory sermon was preached by the Rev. John Eagleson from 2d Chronicles vii. 1. The lecture-room was " raised" April 29, 1845, and was occupied (in an unfinished state) on the following 11th of May.

The fourth church building was commenced in 1872. It was in process of erection at the time of Dr. Eagleson's death, in January, 1873, being then under roof and inclosed. The funeral services over


the remains of the old and beloved pastor were the first ever held within it. The basement was provided with temporary seats, and here the funeral was held it was the first meeting of pastor and people within its walls, " he in the embrace of death, they to weep over their sore bereavement." The church was dedicated May 22, 1874, the day of the installation of the present pastor, Mr. Walkinshaw. The dedication sermon was preached by, the Rev. J. T. Fredericks. The church edifice is a good and commodious building of brick, forty 13y fifty feet in dimensions. In 1875 the congregation built a parsonage, at a cost of twenty-five hundred dollars, completed in August of the year named. The present membership of the church is two hundred and sixty-six. A Sabbath-school has been in operation since about 1815. A library was furnished to it in 1827.

The elders of this church prior to 1834 were William Smiley,¹ John Johnson, William McCullough, William Hughes, John Cowen, James Dinsmore, Robert Lyle, James Brice, William Patterson, John Flack, and David Rannello. At the commencement of Rev. John Eagleson's ministry the elders were John Gilchrist, William Wallace, John Dinsmore, John McWilliams, James McConahey, Robert Caldwell, William Smiley, and David McComb. ' On the 9th of January, 1840, James Taggart, Parker Reed, Andrew Herron, and Samuel Donahey were ordained to and installed in the office of ruling elders, and on the 25th of September, 1853, Ezekiel Davis, William Donahey, and Robert Sloan were so ordained and installed. On' the 7th of January, 1872, William W. Hunter, David C. Ross, and Samuel A. Caldwell were ordained and installed. The elders composing the session at the time of the commencement of Mr. Walkinshaw's pastorate were William Smiley, William Donaltey, Ezekiel Davis, Robert Sloan, S. A. Caldwell, W. W. Hunter, and D. C. Ross, the first named an elder since the pastorate of Rev. John Anderson, the next three since Sept. 25, 1853, and the last since Jan. 7, 1872.

Buffalo Village, situated in the east part of Hopewell township, on the road leading from Washington borough to West Middletown, is a hamlet of twelve dwellings, a post-office, a store, and having one resident physician, Dr. Henry L. Snodgrass. Here also is located the house of worship of the Upper Buffalo Presbyterian Church. The post-office was first established at the Wotring farm, with Abraham Wotring as postmaster. After him came John Smith and Samuel Merchant. Under the last named the office was removed to Buffalo village. The present postmaster is William McGill, who is also the merchant of the village.

¹ The same brave and devoted old man who took the cargo of flour to New Orleans for sale to procure the means to pay the arrearages of the Rev. Joseph amities salary, and avert the impending disaster of the loss of his farm and the congregation's pastor when all other means had failed. (See account of Rev. Joseph Smith's settlement in Hopewell.)

Brush Run Post-Office was established in 1846, largely through the instrumentality of James Clark, who was made postmaster. His successor was Samuel Merchant, under whom .this office and that at Wotring's were consolidated and the new office established at Buffalo village, about midway between the original sites of the two old offices. Merchant was the postmaster in charge in 1866-67. His successor was William McGill, as above mentioned.



Parker Reed, farmer, was born in Hopewell township, Washington Co., Pa., March 11, 1811, and died there March 27, 1871. He was the son of James Reed, a native of Scotland, a carpenter by trade, who built the first court-house erected in Washington, Pa. Parker Reed was tutored at home and in the country schools, and reared upon the farm which he subsequently inherited. He was an elder in the Upper Buffalo Presbyterian Church for thirty-three years, anc superintendent of the Sunday-schools for seventeen years, and was efficient and zealous. His record as a man and citizen is unassailable. He was marries June 13, 1838, to Jane Ann Brice, by whom he has six children,--John B., a Presbyterian minister o Sisterville, W. Va., married to Isabella Shields; Lin, Catharine, who died when eight years of age ; James P., a grocer of Lamed, Kan., married to George Walker ; Rebecca J., the wife of Samuel P. Wilson


a farmer of Hopewell township, Washington Co., Pa. ; Henry H., a flour and grain merchant of Larned, Kan., married to Anna Dumont ; L. C., a concrete maker of Garden City, Kan., married to Nancy J. Matthews.

Mrs. Jane Ann Reed, who survives her husband, is the daughter of Rev. John Brice, who died Aug. 26, 1811, aged fifty-one years, and in the twenty-second year of his ministry. He was a self-made man in the best sense of the word, having pursued his studies when a boy under the discouraging ,restraints of poverty, and having advanced upon his merits. Aug. 16, 1786, he appeared before the Presbytery of Redstone, and asked to be taken on trial in order to his being licensed to preach. April 16, 1788, " Presbytery having received sufficient testimonials in favor of his having gone through a regular course in literature, of his good moral character, and of his being in the communion of the church, etc., having given satisfaction as to his accomplishments and experimental acquaintance with religion, and as to his proficiency, etc., in divinity, did license him to preach as a probationer for the holy ministry wherever he might be orderly called." April 22, 1789, a call was received by him from the united congregations of Three Ridges and Forks of Wheeling, and at the meeting of Presbytery May 25, 1789, he declared his acceptance of the same. He was ordained at Three Ridges in April, 1790. After leaving this charge he removed to his farm in Virginia, where he spent his remaining years. While there he organized the church-at :Unity, Greene Co., Pa. His first wife, Rebecca Carr, a woman noted for her piety, died in 1794, leaving two children, -James, and Jane, who married John McCoy.

By his second wife, Jane Stockton, he had nine children,-Mary, who married Dixon Coulter; John, who married Nancy Byers ; Rebecca, who married Samuel Frazier; Margaret S., unmarried ; Sarah, who married Isaac Oldham ; Elizabeth, who married Edward Supler ; Alice, who married William Craig; Fannie S., who married Joseph Blaney ; and Jane Ann, the wife of Parker Reed, and the only one of the family now living.


George Work and his wife, Martha Dunlap, were natives of Londonderry, Ireland, where they were married, and whence they emigrated to America in 1789, landing in Wilmington, Del., July 24th of that year. They resided in Eastern Pennsylvania for three years, and then settled in Hopewell township, Washington County, upon a farm now owned by their grandson, S. C. Work. Their children were as follows: Alexander, born Feb. 11, 1781; Jane, born May 9, 1783 ; Mary, born Nov. 8, 1790 ; James, born Sept. 12, 1792 ; John D., born Dec. 14, 1794.

Alexander Work married Jane Taggart, Jan. 10, 1809. They died in Harrison County, Ohio. Jane married Andrew Gilmore, July 3, 1810. Their home was in Highland County, Ohio. Mary married Robert Tweed, Oct. 10, 1821. They lived and died in Hopewell township, Washington County, Pa. John D. married Miss Brown. They died in Jasper County, Ind.

James Work was twice married,-first, Feb. 7, 1822, to Grizzilla Tweed, who was a daughter of Robert Tweed by his first wife, Elizabeth Wylie, sister of Adam Wylie, M.D., and Andrew Wylie, D.D., and after whose death he (Robert.) married Mary Work. The children of James and Grizzilla (Tweed) Work were Grizzilla Elizabeth, born Dec. 20, 1822, who was the wife of Robert Denny, and died in 1859 in Morrow County, Ohio ; and George T., born April 7, 1825. Grizzilla (Tweed) Work died Jan. 27, 1827, and James married his second wife, Margaret Caldwell, June 3, 1828. By this marriage there were nine children;-Martha L., born June 1, 1829, died Aug. 19, 1832; Agnes A., born Nov. 17, 1831, is the wife of Robert S. Caldwell; Sarah J., born Oct. 14, 1832, is the wife of William Denny, of Harvey County, Kan. ; Mary B., born May 8, 1834, died Aug. 14, 1834 ; Clarissa E., born Nov. 8, 1835, died Aug. 29, 1840 ; Samuel C., born July 16, 1838, married Anna Donahey ; Maria I., born Aug. 11, 1840 ; Margaret E., born Oct. 26, 1842, is the wife of Joseph H. Rankin ; Sophia M. A., born March 6, 1846, is the wife of William Smiley; James Work died Sept. 26, 1868. His second wife is still living.

George T; Work received a good practical English education, the principal part of which he obtained in the common schools, and assisted his father in the business of farming until twenty-six years of age. He then engaged in the lumber business, to which he has given attention ever since, except during the war of the Rebellion. He was married Sept. 19, 1850, to Catharine Denny, daughter of Robert Denny, of Chartiers township, Washington County, Pa. Their children were seven in number, -- Lydia J., was drowned June 29, 1857, in her fourth year; John D., died Jan. 30, 1858, aged nineteen years, five months, and thirteen days. Those living are James A., married to Laura B. Logan ; Margaret E. ; Grizzilla, the wife of William Patterson ; Emma C. ; and George R.

George T. Work enlisted as a private in Captain W. W. McNulty's cavalry company in May, 1861. On their way to camp (Camp. Wilkins) he was appointed orderly sergeant. In August, 1861, their company was ordered to Washington, D. C. Soon after its arrival there it was disbanded by order of Gen. Stoneman, who, at the request of Mr. Work, who was then a second lieutenant, assigned his company to the First Pennsylvania Cavalry, in which it became Company I. In a short time thereafter Mr. Work was first lieutenant, and in November following captain, and while holding that position he took part in the battle of Dranesville, where. he commanded a squadron, and was also a participant in


minor engagements. He was under McDowell on the Rappahannock during the Peninsular campaign in 1862. He remained there until his regiment was ordered to join Fremont in the Shenandoah Valley, and was with his column in advance at Mount Jackson, having participated in all the marches and skirmishes in which his regiment had been engaged up to that time. Suffering from malarial fever, he was sent from Mount Jackson to Douglas Hospital, Washington, D. C., from which he was discharged because of disability in July, 1862.

On his way to his home, which he reached in August, he was authorized by Governor Curtin to recruit two cavalry companies. The Governor laughed at the idea of recruiting, as he then had recruiting officers in nearly every county in the State, who were getting very few volunteers. In less than sixty days Capt. Work had recruited two full companies, and joining his efforts with those of Capt. John Keys, of Beallsville, they were able to take into service in West Virginia six companies of cavalry, which were known as the Ringgold Battalion until March, 1864, when, together with the Washington Cavalry and five new companies, it was organized as the Twenty-second Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry. In this organization Capt. Work was chosen major, and served in that capacity until the close of the war. He was twice wounded at the battle of Port Republic, Sept. 27, 1864. He was discharged in August, 1865.

Immediately after his return home he engaged in the oil business in West Virginia, where he remained for two years. He then engaged in farming and milling, which he followed in his native county until 1876, when he was elected as the Republican candidate for sheriff of Washington County. He filled the office for three years, when he returned to his farm in Hopewell township, where he lives quietly, enjoying good health, a comfortable home, And the esteem of a large acquaintance. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, as were also his father and grandfather.


John Maxwell was born in Hopewell township, Washington County, Sept. 5, 1809. He is of Scotch lineage, the son of Robert and Hannah (Graham! Maxwell. He learned the cabinet-maker trade in West Middletown, Washington Co., and worked for while as a journeyman, a part of the time in Cincinnati, Ohio. About the year 1834 he purchased the farm where he now resides, and has since been engaged in farming and stock-raising. He has been twice married,—first to Elizabeth Dinsmore, and after he: death to Mary E. Caldwell, who died Nov. 24, 1873 But one of his first wife's children, Robert G., grew to manhood and married. He died April 12, 1881 having been twice married. His first wife was Bel S. McCarrell, who died, leaving two children, Edna D. and William W. His second wife, Jennie Cald well, survives him, and has two children, John Ralph and Robert Graham. John. Maxwell by his second marriage had three children, all living,—Samuel, farmer of Hopewell township, married to Anna Hemp hill; John, a farmer, of Hopewell township, unmarried ; and Jennie, the wife of James McBride Taggart a farmer, of Buffalo township. Mr. Maxwell was in early life a member of the United Presbyterian Church, but afterwards united with the Presbyterian Church, of which he is now a communicant. He has followed his business steadily and very successfully, gathering together much valuable property. Among the self-made men of the county he occupies a most worthy and honorable place.


INDEPENDENCE is one of the townships lying on the western border of Washington County. Its northern boundary is the stream Cross Creek, which separates it from the townships of Cross Creek and Jefferson. On the east it is bounded by Hopewell township ; on the south by Donegal, from which it is separated by Buffalo Creek. Its western boundary is the State of West Virginia. The two creeks above mentioned (Cross and Buffalo), forming respectively the north and south 'boundaries of Independence, are the only streams of any size or importance belonging to the township.

Independence was originally a part of Hopewell, as mentioned and explained in the history of the latter township. The two remained together as one township for almost seventy-five years from the formation of Hopewell in 1781. At the November term of the Court of Quarter Sessions in 1854 there was presented to the court " A Petition of Divers inhabitants of Hopewell Township for a division of said township, Commencing at the mouth of Brush Run in Buffalo Creek, running up said Run, the line between Nos. 7, 8, School Districts, to the line of Middletown district; thence the line between Middletown and No.


8 ; thence between No. 2 and the Middletown district to the mouth of a run emptying into Crisswell's Mill-Dam on Cross Creek." The court appointed as viewers Lysander Patterson, John Cole, Esq., and William Gillespie. The matter was continued from term to term until February sessions of 1856, when the court ordered the division and the erection of "a new township, to be called Independence, elections to be held at the house of William White. in the village of Independence."

Early Settlements.—The first authentic record found of a permanent settlement in the present territory of Independence township is of that made by John Doddridge, who came here from Bedford County, Pa., in 1773. Upon a Virginia certificate he took up four hundred and thirty-seven acres of land, which was surveyed to him April 6, 1786, under the title of "Extravagance." This tract was adjoining the one soon after warranted to Samuel Teeter, and upon it Was built the "Doddridge Fort," of which Samuel Teeter, a relative of the Doddridge family, had command during the times of trouble with the Indians. Mrs. Doddridge was a niece of Alexander Wells, an extensive landholder in Independence, Jefferson, and Cross Creek townships. She died, and Mr. Doddridge married Elizabeth Reeves, who survived him. He died in February, 1791. The children of the first wife were Joseph, Philip, Ann, and Ruth. Those of the second union were Josias, Benjamin, Enoch, John, and Eleanor. The daughter Ann became Mrs. Nathan Reeves, Ruth became Mrs. Carson, and Eleanor married Mr. Gautt. The greater portion of the land owned by John Doddridge is now the property of David Huston.

Samuel Teeter was a relative of the family of John Doddridge, and soon followed them into what is now Independence township. He located a tract of land that contained three hundred and eighty acres, which was surveyed to him May 1, 1780, and twice resurveyed by an order of the board of property, Sept. 15, 1784, and March 7, 1785. Upon the tract " Plenty" Samuel and Mary Teeter, with their sons Samuel and George, resided in a two-story log house, which stood near the house now occupied by Col. Asa Manchester. Northwest of the house and adjoining it was a fort known as "Teeter's Fort," which was not far from the "Doddridge Fort," and is well remembered by Col.. Manchester. Around the house and fort Mr. Teeter. had built a stockade, which inclosed about one-eighth of an acre of ground. This stockade was built high above the house, and was constructed of logs sixteen feet long, which were split and set in the ground, with another tier placed over the interstices. Some of the logs which composed the house and fort of Samuel Teeter are still in use in the woodshed of Col. Manchester, who now owns and lives on the Teeter homestead. The property descended to him from Isaac, Manchester, to whom Mr. Teeter sold it in 1797, when he removed to the State of Kentucky.

Benjamin Wells settled on a tract of land on or very near the State line in this township. A few years after his settlement he died, leaving the farm to his widow and son Charles, the latter eventually owning the whole of it. He died, leaving a widow and two children. The property was left to the widow for her sole use while she remained unmarried. She, however, married a man named James, who had nine children, and the estate left her then passed to her children. The son, Charles Wells, Jr., went to Wellsburg, Va., learned the tanner's trade, married, and came back to the Wells homestead in 1817, building a tannery, which he carried on until 1824, becoming quite wealthy. He died from an accident which occurred while he was attempting to repair the roof of his house. His wife survived him but one week. Eliza Wells, daughter of Charles and sister of Charles Wells, Jr., married Mr. James, a son of her stepfather. The old Wells place is now owned by David Buchanan, but the house and tannery have disappeared.

The tract " Pembroke," in the territory of Independence township, was owned by Thomas Maguire, and contained nearly four hundred and forty-four acres. Francis Maguire, a brother of Thomas Maguire, lived in Virginia, on a farm adjoining the " Flower Garden" tract. Thomas Maguire had three sons,—Hugh, John, and Thomas, Jr.,—who inherited his property. John sold his portion, which extended nearly to the village of Independence, to Richard Carter, who in turn sold it to Arnold Lee. It was disposed of by Lee to Bazil Bell, and is now in the hands of his son, Cornelius Bell. Hugh sold his inheritance in 1840 to Dr. Parkinson, who still possesses it.

Samuel Buchanan, with his wife and son John, came from Lancaster County, Pa., to Hopewell (now Independence) township in 1783, and purchased the property of Joseph Worley, who received the tract on a Virginia certificate granted Jan. 28, 1780, which recites that it is situated " in the county of Ohio, on the waters of Buffalo Creek, to include his settlement made in the year 1773." It was assigned by Mr. Worley to Samuel Buchanan, and surveyed to him as "Comfort," containing three hundred acres, on the 19th of April, 1785. The creek on which it was situated was known as Worley's Run. Joseph Worley returned to his home in the East, and died there within a year.

After coming to this township three sons were born to Mr. and Mrs. Buchanan,—William, Samuel, and David. They, with the son John, inherited the property at the death of the parents, and all settled in this township. John Buchanan, as assignee of Henry Nelson, took up the tract of land called " Dundee," adjoining the lands of Henry Levens and John and Philip Doddridge, which was surveyed March 27, 1786, as containing two hundred and twenty-five acres. John Buchanan died in this township. Sam-


uel, who lived upon his father's farm, died there in 1804 or 1805. William removed to Zanesville, Ohio, where he lived and died. David Buchanan married a daughter of Robert Cummins, and also settled upon a portion of the homestead, where he built a tannery in 1810, but a son of his being drowned in the vat in 1817, he soon after discontinued the business. His son, David Buchanan, Jr., now lives in Independence township, and owns the old Buchanan farm, which is occupied by John McAllister, and his son George came into possession of " Dundee," which he sold to his cousin, Robert Buchanan, in 1840, when he removed to Indiana. About six years ago the property passed into the hands of William Craig, who still owns the greater portion of it.

Samuel, Arthur, and Josiah Scott were natives of Lancaster County, Pa., who made early settlements in Washington County. Samuel and Arthur Scott settled in the eastern part of the county just after the close of the Revolution, and lived near Ginger Hill, on the waters of Pigeon Creek. In 1786 they came into this section, and purchased one hundred and seventy-five acres of unpatented land of a German who had settled upon it. This tract of land was in that portion of Hopewell township which has since been set off as Independence. Arthur Scott married Ann Hamilton, and the two families resided here together. Not long after their settlement Samuel Scott was killed by the accidental discharge of a gun in the hands of James Law, who was out with him on a hunting expedition. He left one child and a widow, who afterwards became the wife of Mr. Hutchinson. John Scott, son of Samuel, married Miss Ferguson, a daughter of one of the pioneers of Hopewell township, and continued to live on his father's property from his marriage in 1808 till 1831, when it was purchased by Joseph Scott, son of Arthur.

The property adjoining that of the Scott brothers (Samuel and Arthur) on the north was the four-hun- dred-acre tract belonging to Col. David Williamson. Of this Arthur Scott purchased one hundred and thirty-five acres, which, with his early purchase, made his estate nearly two hundred and twenty-five acres. He lived upon this place until 1843, the year of his death. The only children of his family now living are David Soott, of Portsmouth, Ohio, Mrs. Hugh Miller, of Knox County, Ohio, and Col. Joseph Scott, who resides on the homestead. He was born on the

old farm in May, 1808, and his present residence occupies the site of the old log house.

Col. David Williamson owned a tract of four hundred acres of land in the extreme southern part of Independence, but he never lived upon it. He first sold a part of it to Arthur Scott in July, 1802, and William Haggerty afterwards purchased the remainder. Thomas Haggerty, a grandson, now owns one hundred acres of William Haggerty's portion and Barnet Jones the remainder.

James Welch came into this part of Hopewell township soon after 1788, and settled upon a tract of land adjoining that of Arthur Scott. Mr. Welch married for his first wife Agnes Smith, a daughter of Joseph Smith, who at her death left her husband one hundred acres of land, which had been her portion of the Smith patent. Mr. Welch was married the second time to Margaret Johnston, a native of Hopewell township. She was born in 1776, on the farm (east of Mount Hope Church) that Thomas McFadden occupies. Two of her brothers, Nimrod and Aaron Johnston, removed to Ohio, where both died at a very advanced age. Mrs. Margaret Welch spent her whole life in this township, and died in 1867. Mr. Welch died in 1840, aged seventy-seven years, leaving a family of ten or twelve children. Several of the sons removed to the West. Aaron Welch lived and died near West Middletown, in Hopewell township, and Abel Johnston Welch still owns and lives on the homestead. The daughter Jane, now Mrs. Jane Hunter, is living here with William Smith, and is eighty-four years of age.

" Levens' Hall" was a. two hundred and fifty-three acre body of land in this township, which was patented to Henry Levens, March 28, 1788, adjacent to the lands of John Doddridge and Samuel Teeter, and now possessed by Col. Asa Manchester, Elijah Carman, and Mr. McMurray. Henry Levens never lived upon this property, but leased it to Jehial Carman, a native of Trenton, N. J. Carman's wife was a niece of Robert McCready, who was a brother-in-law of Mr. Levens. Jehial Carman in time bought one hundred and twenty acres of the tract "Levens' Hall." He finally emigrated to a place near Richmond, Ohio, and thither all of the family removed except the sons, Elisha and John Carman. John Carman removed to West Virginia, and Elisha lives upon the Levens' Hall property, which Jehial Carman left to his grandson, William Carman, who is Elisha's son, and is now eighty-five years old.

Galbraith, Benjamin, and William Stewart were three brothers, who lived in Independence township as early as 1788, and all were blacksmiths by trade. Galbraith Stewart lived near Mount Hope Church, on the place later occupied by George Macauley, and now owned by David Buchanan. Benjamin Stewart lived on the road leading from Independence to Patterson's Mills, in Cross Creek township,, and on the place Joseph Brown now occupies. His blacksmith-shop at this point was kept up until 1825, when Thomas White purchased the property, and also started a shop of the same trade. His shop did not occupy the Stewart site, as the house in which Mr. Magee lives was built upon that. No information of the brother, William Stewart, has been gained, save that he resided here as early as the others, and followed the trade of a blacksmith. Galbraith Stewart lived in West Middletown, and carried on black-smithing in and after 1795.

Matthew Mitchell came from Cumberland County,


Pa., into Hopewell township in 1790, and June 29th of that year purchased two hundred acres of land of Robert Caruthers, a portion of the tract " Liberty," patented April 8, 1788. This land was situated in the vicinity of Mount Hope Church, and is now the property of Samuel Cosner. Mr. Mitchell lied there until his death, which occurred in 1829, at the very old age of ninety-six years. Soon after the death of Mr. Mitchell, Rev. Thomas Allison came into possession of the property, and it later descended to his son, Matthew Allison. The Mitchell family has entirely disappeared from this vicinity.

Robert Cummings lived in what is now Independence township as early as 1792, if not before that time. On March 6th in that year he purchased one hundred and twenty-one acres of land of William Spry. Again, Nov. 24,1800, he bought two hundred acres of Thomas Sheirer, part of a tract situated on the waters of Buffalo Creek, for which a warrant was issued Sept. 5, 1787. It is not known upon which purchase Mr. Cummings resided, but he lived so exactly upon the State line that one-half of his house was in Virginia and the other half in Pennsylvania. He built a grist-mill upon his property in this township, which is now known as the "Applegate Mill." One of Mr. Cummings' daughters married William Stewart, a grandson of Galbraith Stewart. He ran the mill for a time, and then Thomas Buchanan, a son-in-law, assumed its management. His daughter, who married Lewis Applegate, inherited the property, and it now belongs to their daughter Margaret, who is a great-granddaughter of Robert Cummings, who died on July 4, 1836.

Isaac Manchester was born Aug. 18, 1762, in Middletown, Conn. In 1796 he left his Connecticut home and traveled into the Western country on foot, looking for a place to make a permanent settlement. He went as far as Kentucky, passing through this section on his way out. After a prospecting tour, Mr. Manchester returned to this township, then Hopewell, and purchased the tract " Plenty" of Samuel Teeter. It contained three hundred and eighty acres. He then returned to the East, and the following spring came back to take possession of his property, bringing his 'wife and five children, and also accompanied by Philip Jenkins, his nephew. There was a house upon the land, built by the former proprietor, and into this they removed, Mr. Teeter at the same time emigrating to Kentucky. Mr. Manchester soon had a large acreage under cultivation. He had a large family of children,—four sons and six daughters. The son Benjamin went to the Western Reserve in Ohio. Ruth, who married Asa Crutchfield, Hannah, who married Pardon Cook, and Isaac Manchester all removed to Holmes County, Ohio. The. daughter Avis became the wife of John Doddridge, and is now living in Wayne County, Ind., at the age of ninety-two years. Col. Asa Manchester, the youngest child, has always remained upon the homestead, where he Mill resides. The house he occupies was built in 1815 by Isaac Manchester. It is located in a pleasant valley, and is one of the most elegant country homes in Washington County. Isaac Manchester lived upon this place for a period of fifty-four years, and .died in 1851, at the age of eighty nine years, honored and respected by all who knew him.

George Plumer came from the State of Maryland to this township when he was seven years of age, and for the first seven years of his stay here lived with an uncle. He then entered the employ of Richard Wells, working in the store at Wells' Mills, and was sent down the river with a cargo of flour from the mills. Mr. Plumer married the daughter of Richard Wells. Mr. Wells then purchased the George Sparks mill property and gave it to his daughter, Mrs. Plumer. Mr. Plumer refitted and remodeled the mills, which were after known as the Plumer Mills. They were in operation until 1870, when the dam washed out and has never been repaired. George Plumer purchased a part of the McDowell tract called " Fallen Timber," also the part of " Shannon Hall" now owned by James Magee. He finally became the owner of the " Flower Garden" tract. He died in 1877. His son, Jerome Plumer, still lives. in Independence township.

Dennis Dorsey was a native of Maryland. In 1807 he came to Wellsburg, Va., then known as Charlestown, with his wife and six children. In 1809 he moved across the State line and located on a portion of the Widow Wells' farm, near the Forks, which is now the village of Independence. He remained there until the year 1813, and then removed to Fowlertown. His daughter, Mrs. Martha Leech, has been a constant resident of this township. since her father came here in 1809, and she still lives in the village of Independence. She is now seventy-nine years of age, and possesses a remarkable recollection of the early people and early history of Independence township.

In the year 1800 there were living in that .part of Hopewell township which is now Independence (as shown by the Hopewell assessment-roll of that year) the following-named persons, who followed vocations other than that of farming, viz.: James Brown and Robert Cummins, millers ; John Crutchfield, cooper; William McCormick, carpenter; John Brown, mason; Benjamin Anderson, William Stewart, Jonathan Buchanan, and Benjamin Stewart, blacksmiths; John Buchanan and Robert Wilkins, inn-keepers; John Cuthbertson, physician.

James Boyd, who was a resident within the territory of Independence township for fully three-fourths of a century, and was one of its best known as well as most respected citizens, was the son of David Boyd, who settled in Hopewell township, three miles east of West Middletown, in 1787, from which place his son David removed in 1805, and settled in the west part of Hopewell, which afterwards became the township of Independence, where he lived to the day of his death, Oct. 8, 1880, in his S ninety-ninth year. He was born in the year 1782, in Cumberland County.


His first farm was about three miles from West Middletown, in Independence township. He had a great taste for horses. David Craig furnished him the money to buy the team which he used when he started wagoning, and this team he paid for in silver on his return from the war of 1812. He first bought forty or fifty acres of ground, and after some years bought a larger farm. He was not brilliant or quick, but had good judgment, a clear memory, and robust health. Three weeks before he was taken sick he recalled events of recent occurrence as vividly as he did those of seventy-five years ago, showing that his mind was still unimpaired.

He was married three times, and had nine children. The last time he was married he was over eighty years of age. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church of Upper Buffalo for nearly fifty years.

In 1819, Joseph Brownlee, a son of James Brownlee, who lived near Washington borough, came into what is now Independence township, and purchased one hundred and eighty-one acres of the John Doddridge tract, called " Lexington," upon which he lived until his death. He, died Nov. 16, 1867, aged seventy-six years. Of his children, Paul B. Brownlee lives in Richmond, Kan. ; Joseph W. Brownlee lives in Cross Creek township ; David A. Brownlee lives on the homestead; and Rev. John T. Brownlee lives in West Middletown, in charge of the Mount Hope Church. The daughter Jane married R. Y. Melroy, and Esther became the wife of Samuel Moore. Both still live in this township.

The property of Thomas Swearingen was a tract of four hundred and four acres, called " York," adjoining the tract of Thomas Shannon, and was granted to him on a Virginia certificate, dated Dec. 7, 1795. It was located in the southwest part of Independence township, touching the three lines of the township, county, and State.

Physicians.—.Of physicians resident in that part of the old township of Hopewell which has since become the township of Independence, the earliest one of whom any knowledge has been obtained (and no doubt the first of his profession actually located within the bounds of the present township) was Dr. John Cuthbertson, who lived and practiced here several years before the beginning of the present century. He lived on and owned the beautiful farm now owned and occupied by Mr. Robert Vance. He was known as a man' of large intelligence and influence in the community. His medical practice, which was large and laborious, continued for a period of not less than thirty years. He lived unmarried, his sister Sarah, or, as she was known in the community, " Sally Culbertson," being his faithful 'housekeeper till his death, which took place about the year 1828. The sister survived a few years longer, and at her death the estate passed into the possession of friends in the East. Another physician not less famed than Dr. Cuthbertson, who began the business of his profession in Independence township about ten years after the death of the latter, is Dr. Joseph Parkinson, who is still engaged in the practice of his profession in Independence township. He commenced the practice of his profession in the village of Independence on the 1st of April, 1838. For a period of almost forty-four years he has now continued in the same field of labor, and has had all the while a measure of practice as large as he desired. With a sufficiency of wealth to assure for himself and household a comfortable subsistence, living in a beautiful home, made doubly attractive by the aesthetic taste and culture of himself and wife and daughter, he might retire from the toil of his profession without bringing censure upon his head from any source. But he loves his profession and still perseveres in its practice. His enjoyment is rather in well regulated labor than in ease. At a time of life when most men incline to lay the harness off he still inclines to keep it on, and seems to have real pleasure in ministering to the bodily .relief of any, and more especially when called to minister to the relief of those who were his friends and patrons in years long gone by.

Dr. Smith, of Brooke County, Va., had a large practice in this township from 1820 to about the time of Dr. Parkinson's settlement here.

Dr. Ramsay was a physician who settled at Independence about the year 1836, but after a short period of practice removed to West Middletown, where he soon after died.

Dr. Robert Hartman, a native of Alsace, France (now Germany), studied medicine there and in Germany, and came to America in 1856, having previously practiced a short time in Europe. He came to Independence in 1859, and has been in practice here from that time until the present.

Dr. J. P. Johnston is a native of Canton township, Washington County. He studied medicine two years with Dr. David Crise, and afterwards with Dr. A. S. McElree, of Washington, for one year.. He attended two seasons at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, and graduated in 1879. In April, 1880, he located at Independence, where he has continued in practice to the present time.

Independence Village.—The land upon which the village of Independence has been built was a part of the two tracts "Pembroke" and "Shannon Hall," patented and improved by Thomas Maguire and Thomas Shannon. The first purchase for this purpose was made by William McCormick, who on Sept. 26, 1798, bought three acres of the "Shannon Hall" property, which was described as "beginning at a post on the south side of the road leading from Washington to Charlestown, crossing the road, and running along the line of the late Thomas McGuire. . . ." On Dec. 14, 1801, William McCormick bought fifty acres of land of Francis Maguire, which was adjoining the land of William Harvey. This fifty-acre tract was located just south of the


village site, and was conveyed to Mr. Maguire by Charles Wells, son of Benjamin Wells, and executor of his estate. Again, Oct. 14, 1802, William McCormick purchased fifty acres of the " Pembroke" tract of William Maguire. In the following year (1803) Mr. McCormick laid out the plat of the village, and on October 5th of that year an article of agreement with prospective purchasers was filed in the recorder's office by him, pertaining to the sale of the lots in the village he had laid out. The article was signed by William McCormick, with John Cuthbertson and David Buchanan as witnesses, and provided that the lots should be 60 by 110 feet in size, and each contain one-fourth of an acre.

The prices for these village lots at the first sale ranged from $8.50 to $20. The names of the earliest purchasers and the numbers of their lots were as follows: Philip Everhart, No. 11; Patrick Fowler, No. 9; Benjamin Stewart, Nos. 6 and 8 ; William Maguire, Nos. 13, 31, 32, 33 ; James Sellers, No. 25 ; James. McMurray, Nos. 19, 21; Caleb Wells, No. 12.; John Crutchfield, No. 10 ; Alexander Irwin, No. 26 ; John Cuthbertson, Nos. 3, 20; James Carr, No. 13; Samuel Davidson, No. 5 ; Robert Cummings, No. 18. Soon after making these preliminary arrangements Mr. McCormick died, and his plans were carried out by his widow, Margaret McCormick, John Buchanan, and Galbraith Stewart, who were the administrators of the estate. The original name of this place was "The Forks, given it from the junction of two roads at this point, but where the village was platted it received the name of Williamsburg, retaining it until 1836, when it was changed to Independence.

Robert Harvey, a son of William Harvey, who owned the " Flower Garden" tract, married the widow of William McCormick, and for many years kept a tavern at Williamsburg. He finally became deranged, his wife left him, and he was taken to his sister, Mrs. David Archer, in Ohio, and died in 1840, while in her care. The first store in the village was opened here by William Gilchrist, who lived on the same side of the road that Robert Harvey did, and also kept a tavern. In 1816 he removed to Ohio, and died there. Some of the village lots changed hands several times. No. 20 was disposed of by John Cuthbertson to Robert Harvey, and Jan. 17, 1825, he sold it to Richard Carter. He, in partnership with his cousin, James Bell, built upon it, and opened a store near the Harvey tavern, where Jehial Carman now lives. A little later, John Bell, a brother of James, built a store on the hill where Mr. Leggett at present resides. In 1812 a man named Gregory started a blacksmith-shop on the main road, below the site of the present tannery. The log house he lived in was the one built by Dennis Dorsey, and, having since been repaired and weatherboarded, is now occupied by Miss Katy Baker. William Waters, a hatter, who came from east of the mountains, kept a shop in the field south of Jerome Plummer's present residence.

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In 1830, Richard Carter purchased the tannery then in operation near the village of Williamsburg. He opened a store in connection with the business of the tannery, and carried cm a very flourishing trade. Mrs. Leech, who retains a most accurate knowledge of the events and incidents of those days, says she has carried many pounds of butter to this last-mentioned store of Richard Carter, which she sold " at a fip-penny bit a pound." Robert Shaw kept a tavern in Williamsburg from 1833 to 1836, when he sold out to James McCreery. McCreery kept this tavern about a year, when he purchased the hotel property and store now owned and occupied by William Leggett. This was the first brick building put up in the village, and was built by Thomas Potts, of whom McCreery bought it in 1837, and opened a tavern there at that time. He remained in that place and business for several years, when he sold out to Jesse Litton, from whom Samuel Leggett obtained the property, which has descended to his son, William Leggett, who is now proprietor of the .hotel and store, and also holds the office of justice of the peace. Mr. McCreery died, but his widow still lives in Independence village, and his son, William S. McCreery, is postmaster at Woodrow, Mount Pleasant township. A man named Ephraim Johnston also kept a tavern in Independence in 1837, at the lower end of the village, and continued to live there until after the war of the Rebellion, when he died.

The post-office was established here in 1836, and at that time the name of the village was changed front Williamsburg to that of Independence. Richard Carter was the first postmaster; holding the position for several years, and was succeeded by John Lane. James K. McConaughy took charge of the office in 1864, and is still postmaster. Independence village has, beside the post-office, two stores, several other places of business, three churches, and a fine schoolhouse. A lodge of the Masonic Order, No. 448, was organized here, but has been removed to Patterson's Mills.

Lower Buffalo Presbyterian Church.—The earliest mention of the existence of this congregation is in the records of the Redstone Presbytery, which met at Chartiers on the 25th of May, 1789, at which time " Mr. Hughes declared his acceptance of the call from Lower Buffalo and Short Creek." A congregation had been gathered at Lower Buffalo before this time, but no minister had been settled. James Hughes, the pastor above referred to, was a native of York County, Pa. He came to this county in 1780 with his parents, and in 1782 entered the academy of the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, at Ten-Mile. Upon the suspension of that school in 1785 he went to study with the Rev. Joseph Smith, with whom he completed his course. He was licensed by the Redstone Presbytery April 18, 1788, and soon after received a call from the congregation of Short Creek and Lower Buffalo, Donegal, Fairfield, and Wheatfield, and New Providence


and South Fork of Ten-Mile. He accepted the former, as before stated, and was ordained on the 21st of April, 1790, and served in that capacity. until the 29th of June, 1814, when he resigned. Upon the erection of the Presbytery of Ohio in October, 1793, this church became one of the constituent churches. Mr. Hughes, after his resignation, removed to Urbana, Ohio, and became a member of the Presbytery of Miami. In 1818 he was chosen president of the Miami University, which position he held till his death in 1821, at the age of fifty-six years.

The church of Lower Buffalo was ministered to only by supplies from 1814 to 1819. At the first meeting of the Presbytery of Washington in 1819, the Rev. Jacob Cosad, who had been acting as missionary for the Bible Society for a year or two previous, received a call from the congregations of Lower Buffalo and Short Creek, which he accepted. He was ordained and installed by the Presbytery of Washington, which met at Lower Buffalo on the 5th of January, 1819. The Rev. Joseph Harvey preached the sermon. Arthur Scott was an elder at that time. Mr. Cosad served' this church till 1827, when, on the 29th of April, he asked a dissolution of the connection, which was granted. At a meeting of Presbytery Dec. 30, 1828, Lower Buffalo and West Liberty applied for James W. McKennan as stated suppply, which was granted. At a meeting of Presbytery July 1, 1829, a call was presented to Rev. J. W. McKennan from the congregations of Lower Buffalo and Short Creek, offering a salary of two hundred and fifty dollars from each church. The call was accepted, and Mr. McKennan was ordained and installed over these congregations Dec. 29, 1829, on which occasion the Rev. John McClusky presided, and the sermon was preached by the Rev. John Stockton. The membership of the church at about this time was reported at sixty-five.

The Rev. James W. McKennan was born in Washington borough, Sept. 2, 1804, being the youngest son of Col. William McKennan, of Revolutionary fame, and brother of T. M. T. McKennan, of Washington. .He was licensed in 1828, and ordained in 1829, and in December of the latter year installed over the congregations of Lower Buffalo and West Liberty, as mentioned, and remained in that relation for five ,years, during which time his health became seriously impaired, and on that account he spent two winters in the Southern States and in Cuba. On the 28th of December, .1834, his pastoral connection with the West Liberty (Short Creek) and Lower Buffalo Churches was severed, and he was dismissed by the Washington Presbytery to the Presbytery of Cincinnati, which included Indianapolis, Ind.; and he accepted a call from the First Presbyterian Church of that place. The duration of his pastorate there has not been ascertained. He was afterwards connected with We preparatory department of Washington College, and adjunct Professor of Languages in that institution. He died in the fall of 1861.

On the 21st of June, 1835, the Lower Buffalo Church extended a call to the Rev. David Hervey, who accepted and became their pastor, in which relation he remained until Oct. 3, 1849. From that time the church was without a settled pastor until 1858. In April of that year a call was extended to the Rev. James Fleming, who accepted and was installed over this church on the 20th of May following. He remained until the 28th of April, 1869, when the relation was dissolved by his resignation. His successor as a settled pastor was the Rev. J. Linn Reed, who was ordained and installed on the 15th of December, 1874, and who still remains pastor of this church.

The first church edifice of this congregation was built of logs, and was situated in Virginia, near the State line. A graveyard was laid out on the church grounds, which is still used. All burials of the members of the church are made in this old yard, which is well inclosed with a stone wall. The second church building was erected of stone, in 1822, on the ridge about one mile south of Independence. This church was used till 1850, when the present frame church was erected in the village of Independence. Among the early elders of this church were Arthur Scott, ____ Green, and John Armspoker. The present board consists of William Patterson, David Buchanan, James McConnaughy, William Leggett, Joseph Scott, and Alexander Adams.

Methodist Episcopal Church.—Methodist preaching was known in Independence township as early as 1808, although they had no church building, no pastor, nor any regularly organized society. In the year mentioned (1808), Mrs. Leech, who was then a little girl nine years of age, remembers a Methodist camp-meeting that was held on the flat by Cross Creek, below the site occupied by Plummer's mill. Thick woods then stood upon the place, and very many people gathered in them to listen to the preaching of Rev. Mr. Harrison, the minister in charge, who is de scribed as a tall, slim man, full of " Methodist fire." In 1840 a church society of the Methodist Episcopal faith was organized in the township. Previous to that date there had been only irregular services of that denomination by the occasional preachers who traveled through this section of country. After the church was formed services were held in the brick schoolhouse, the first preacher in charge being Rev. James C. Taylor, and Joseph Adams the first class-leader. Other preachers of the circuit were sent from time to time, among whom were Samuel Worthington, Mr. McCall, and Dr. Edward Smith. Dr. Smith was a physician, who resided in Virginia, but practiced all through Independence township. A lot was donated to the society by George Plummer, and in 1848 a church edifice costing $800 was erected. The society then numbered seventy-five members. Now there are three churches in the charge, under the Rev. G. H. Hoffman, the three church buildings having an aggregate value of $6000, and the churches a membership


of one hundred and twenty-eight persons. There are also three Sunday-schools in the charge, with an enrolled list of one hundred and seventy-two scholars and thirty-four teachers, and the three libraries have a collection of three hundred volumes.

United Presbyterian Congregation of Mount Hope.¹—The United Presbyterian Congregation of Mount Hope is in Independence township, two and one-half miles southwest from West Middletown, and four miles southeast from the village of Independence.

The date of its organization, if formal organization it ever had, is unknown. Scattered families in connection with the Associate Presbyterian Church had been residing in the territory afterward occupied by the congregation for a period of near twenty years before the beginning of the present century. The place of worship for most of these was with the congregation of North Buffalo, of the same religious faith, in Buffalo township. But they grew weary of their long journeyings, from five to fifteen miles, to Buffalo, and sought and obtained supplies of preaching nearer their homes. In houses or barns, or in "God's first temples, ;he groves," this was furnished to them from 1790 to 1800 at long intervals of time. The earliest recorded notice of the existence of the congregation as an organized body is in the minutes of the Associate Presbytery of Chartiers, which set forth that a call addressed to Rev. Thomas Allison to become pastor of the congregation was accepted by him Nov. 12, 1801. On the 10th of February, 1802, Mr. Allison was ordained and installed as pastor of the congregation. The deed from John McFadden and wife, by which the ground on which the church was built was conveyed to the congregation, bears date Feb. 17, 1804, from which it is evident that the first house of worship was not erected till that year. It was a log building, in the usual form of the early churches of the county, constructed almost entirely without financial cost by the labor of the members. With various renovations from time to time, this house served the need of the congregation for a period. of forty years.

The members of session at the time of the installation of the first pastor were John Templeton, James Dickey, Robert Ferguson, and George Sharp. The first addition to the session consisted of Robert Humphrey, Samuel McEwen, and David T. Archer, who were elected Oct. 30, 106, and soon after duly installed. The congregation grew and prospered during these early years of its history. The members were widely scattered, but they bore cheerfully the hardships of their long journeyings on horseback or on foot to the place of worship. About the year 1817 the names of Messrs. Sharp, Ferguson, and Dickey, no longer appear in the records of the sessions, though no notice is given of how they became separated from it. During this year Mr. David Gibson and Mr. John

¹ By Rev. John T. Brownlee.

Scott were elected and duly installed in the eldership. The service of public social covenanting was conducted in the congregation in the year 1824, in which the pastor was assisted by Dr. James Ramsay, pastor of the church of Chartiers, and Rev. David French, pastor of North and South Buffalo. Mr. Gibson having removed, and others of the session becoming infirm through age, an election was held in 1831, which resulted in the addition to the session of Messrs. John Gilmor, Thomas Hagerty, and Joseph Brownlee.

The pastor of the congregation, having officiated in that capacity for a period of almost thirty-six years, was now no longer young, and feeling that his labors in the future would not be so much for edification as they had been in the past, tendered his resignation, and on the 28th of November, 1837, was released from the charge of the congregation. He continued for some time to minister to the other branch of his charge, to which one-third of his time had been given ; but the infirmities of age increasing, he was soon released from that field of labor also, and passed at length to his final rest on the 6th of April, 1840.

The Rev. Thomas Allison was born, probably, in York County, Pa., June .3, 1771, but removed while still a child with his, parents to Washington County. He prosecuted his classical and scientific studies in Canonsburg Academy, afterward Jefferson College, and having gone through the regular course of theological study, in a class with three others, under the supervision of Rev. Dr. John Anderson, the regularly appointed theological professor of the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania, was licensed to preach in the beginning of the year 1800. He was of medium size, erect and well-proportioned form, aquiline nose, of dignified and solemn demeanor, and of a general bearing calculated rather to elicit respect and admiration than draw those around closely to him. The wife of Mr. Allison was Anne, daughter of Rev. Matthew Henderson, the first pastor of the Associate Congregation of Chartiers, at Canonsburg. They had twelve children, eight daughters and four sons. The daughters and one son have passed away. Three sons still survive. The widow, having survived her husband more than thirteen years, died. Oct. 4, 1853.

During the winter immediately following the release of Mr. Allison the congregation of Mount Hope was supplied for a considerable time by Rev. David Thompson. Some ten or twelve years before he had emigrated from Ireland, arid, traveling alone, found his way to the village of West Middletown, where he had some relatives residing. Possessed of a burning desire to obtain a liberal education, with the gospel ministry in view, and being without means of his own, and without friends on whom he could draw for help, he set himself to work, and by laboring on a farm and on a flat-boat on the Ohio. River, by carrying a pack of dry-goods and notions from

house to house, by teaching school, by one means or


another, he was enabled to graduate from Jefferson College in the class of 1829, and, having gone through the regular course in the theological seminary at Canonsburg, was licensed to preach the gospel March 18, 1834. Having itinerated for some time through the church, he received a call to the pastorate of Mount Hope, which he accepted July 3, 1838. Having been admitted to the communion of the church by the session of Mount Hope in 1826, he was installed as the pastor of that congregation, Sept. 12, 1838.

It is matter of regret that the minutes of the session of the congregation during the whole of the pastorate of Mr. Thompson and up to the year 1860, twenty-one years in all, were lost in the burning of the house of the clerk. The exact date of some events during this period cannot therefore, be given. Near the close of 1838 or in the beginning of 1839, Messrs. William Ralston; Sr., and David Archer were elected and ordained to the eldership in the congregation. The old church building, which for a period of forty years or more had served the congregation as a place of worship, was becoming dilapidated and antiquated in Appearance. It was taken down in the year 1845, and a new structure erected on the same ground. The new building was somewhat smaller than the old, being thirty-eight by forty-five feet. It was substantial and neat, but quite plain, as may be inferred from the fact that its whole cost was but $1060.

The pastorate of Mr. Thompson terminated June 15, 1847. Not long after he removed with his family to the State of Oregon, traveling by the overland route. Remaining there for a few years he returned to the East, and was settled for some time as pastor of the congregation of Clear Fork, in Guernsey County, Ohio. He afterwards removed to the State of Kansas, and located in Arkansas City, Cowley Co., where he still remains.

For a period of four years following the close of the .pastorate of Mr. Thompson the congregation was supplied with some regularity by various itinerating preachers. The call addressed to the present pastor was accepted in the month of May, 1851, and on the last Sabbath of June following, being about the 25th of the month, he formally assumed the charge of the congregation. Its numbers during the period since the close of the former pastorate, according to the usual experience in such cases, had become considerably reduced. Of the session but two members, Mr. Joseph Brownlee and Mr. Thomas Haggerty, were now remaining. An election for elders was soon held, the. result of which was that Messrs. William Smith and Samuel Jamison were ordained and installed on Saturday, Oct. 16, 1851, and Mr. John B. Garrett on the Monday following, October 18th. Of these, Mr. Smith survived only till the 25th of January following, so that the substantial result of this election was only the addition to the session of Messrs. Jamison and Garrett. The union of the Associate and Associate Reformed Churches in 1858, resulting in the formation of the United Presbyterian Church, had its effect on the congregation of Mount Hope, in common with all other congregations in communities where both branches had before existed. A few of its families, who were geographically-nearer to the adjacent congregation of West Middletown, changed their membership to that congregation, but the loss thus sustained was made up by the reception from West Middletown of as many, whose names were now added to the roll of Mount Hope. Partly in view of the increasing age of the two senior members of the session, and in part from a desire that the new element introduced into the congregation should also be represented in the session, an election was held during the month of December following, which resulted in the addition to the session of Messrs. John Meloy, Esq., and William Smith. Mr. Meloy had been for many years a member of the session of West Middletown, and Mr. Smith a member of that congregation. The former was installed and the latter ordained and installed at Mount Hope during the month of January, 1859. Mr. John Jamison, who had been for many years a member of the session of West Middletown, was received into membership at Mount Hope Oct. 27, 1860, and on the same day, on the recommendation of the session, was chosen as an elder, and accepting the position, was at the same time installed as a member of session.

The war of the Rebellion drew its recruits from the congregation of Mount Hope as well as others. Nine young men went forth to the "high places of the field" from its midst who were either communing members of the congregation at the time or became such soon after the close of the war. Their names deserve to be recorded in the history of the congregation, and arc as follows, viz.: Samuel Williamson, William R. Jamison, Thomas B. O'Donald, Alexander Walker McConnel, Samuel Donaldson, Joseph W. Brownlee, Samuel A. Garrett, John F. Gibson, and Thomas J. Zeigler. Though exposed, in common with others, to the dangers of the camp, the march, and the battle-field, it is a noteworthy fact that these young men all returned to their homes at the close of the war, none of them having been even seriously wounded during the progress of the conflict.

The house of worship occupied by the congregation since 1845 was still firm on its foundations and without defect in its walls, but it was small, the number of the pews not quite equaling the number of families in the congregation, and in many respects its appointments were regarded as not quite up to the demands of the times. After the usual -amount of consideration, investigation, and argumentation, it was decided that the old house must give way to something better. The contract for the new erection was made in the spring of 1867, and on the first Sabbath of November in the same year the completed house of worship was occupied for the first time by the congregation. It is a frame, forty-three feet wide by sixty feet in length,


with story twenty feet high, the whole cost to the congregation being about $4500. It is not fine or grand, but fully meets the wants of the congregation, and is a house of worship of which they do not feel that they have need to be ashamed.

Messrs. James M. Welch and Nathan Patterson on the 28th of November, 1870, were elected to the eldership, and a short time afterwards were ordained and installed in the office. The latest addition to the membership of the session is that of Messrs. James H. Welch and David A. Brownlee, who were elected in the month of November, 1880, and ordained and installed Jan. 7, 1881.

The congregation of Mount Hope has never been one of the large and strong congregations of the United Presbyterian Church in Washington County. During the earlier years of its history statistics of its membership do not appear to have been taken, and when afterwards taken give evidence of inaccuracy, and of being corrected only at long intervals from year to year. During the incumbency of the first pastor there is no evidence that the number of members was at any time higher than one hundred and twenty, and at the close of that pastorate was reduced much below that number. During the nine years of the pastorate of Mr. Thompson, when returns began to be more carefully corrected, the whole number of members at no time rose higher than eighty-eight. At the beginning of the present pastorate in 1851 the corrected roll was found to contain but sixty-six names. From this time the increase was slow and gradual till the year 1864, when the membership numbered one hundred and sixteen. There was then a decline, mainly by removals, till 1877-78, when the number was eighty. The tide then turned, and with gradual increase the number is now (February, 1882) one hundred and seven. The whole number of accessions to the membership of the congregation during the present pastorate has been two hundred and seventy-six, of which one hundred and forty-one have been by examination and profession of faith, and one hundred and thirty-five by certification or other attestation of membership from other congregations. The average annual additions from both sources has been nine. The largest accession during any single year is twenty, which is during the year yet to close (April, 1882). Infant baptisms during the present pastorate, one hundred and fifty-six, an average of five each year. Adult baptisms, twenty-two, being less than one each year.

The contributions for charitable and religious purposes, at home and abroad, during the year closing April 1, 1881, were an average of $14.43 to each member. The whole amount of contributions for charitable and religious purposes during the thirty years of the present pastorate has been about $30,000, being an average to each member of about $10 each year. Of those who were members of the congregation at the beginning of the present pastorate but seven continue to be members now. But one remains (Mrs. Jane A. Brownlee) who was a member during the pastorate of Mr. Allison, which closed forty-five years ago.

The officers of the congregation are as follows : Pastor, John T. Brownlee ; Ruling Elders, John Meloy, Samuel Jamison, William Smith, James M. Welch, James H. Welch, and David A. Brownlee ; Treasurer, James M. Welch ; Sabbath-school Superintendent, Samuel Jamison.

The Church of the Disciples was organized in this township in 1865, by Paul Ralston, Mr. Dean, George Armspoker, Mrs. Robert Hartman, Mrs. Robert Buchanan, and others. Services were held in the school-house until 1867, when the present building of the society was erected. The pulpit was supplied most of the time from students of Bethany College, no regular pastor being in charge. The services ceased in 1876, and. the church has been practically discontinued since that time.

The Old Doddridge Chapel.—On the Reeves farm (originally the Doddridge property) is the site of a house of worship that was erected by the Rev. Joseph Doddridge, though the date of its erection is not known. It afterwards came into possession of the Methodist Episcopal denomination, and was by them used for the holding of their services. Later it became the place of worship of the African Methodist Episcopal congregation, who used it for several years, but it was given up by them and abandoned when they purchased the Wesley, a church building in West Middletown, about 1860. It was then taken down, and the logs removed to the McConnell farm adjoining. An old burial-ground, adjoining the site of this old meeting-house, is still inclosed, though not in use for its original purpose.

On the Dr. Parkison farm, in the west part of the township, is an old burial-ground containing many graves, among which may be seen those of Maj. Francis Maguire and his wife Barbara, their tombstones being still standing. Other graves in this ground are marked by rude headstones, but few of them having legible inscriptions. There is a tradition that there once stood on a site adjoining this graveyard an old log meeting-house, in which the Rev. Joseph Doddridge sometimes preached. This is but a tradition, as there is now no vestige of the old building, nor is there any person living who remembers having ever seen it.

Camp-Meeting Ground.—On or near the west line of the township is a lot of about seventeen acres of ground, a part of the tract originally warranted to Benjamin Wells, which, about 1874, was leased of 'Thomas Buchanan by the Methodist Episcopal people, who fitted it up as a camp-meeting ground, and named it " Belle View." At the expiration of the lease the ground was purchased, and is now owned and. used as a place for the holding of camp-meetings by the Methodist Churches of the district.

Schools.—The first school building known to exist


within the territory of Independence township was built as early as, if not before, 1800. This is one that Mr. J. Scott, of this township, remembers very well, as he attended school there. It was situated on the hillside of the farm belonging to James Welch, now the property of his grandson, James H. Welch. Mr. Scott describes it as a log cabin, in the construction of ,which not a nail was used. Yet, rude as it was, this building served its purpose well, and within its walls gathered the pioneer children of its immediate section, to be taught by John Robinson, and after him by Thomas McCready, and again for a time by John Robinson. Lawrence Gardner, who was a noted penman, was also a teacher in this school-house, as was Isaac Sharp and others. In 1810 another log school-house, in which were used the oiled paper windows, was built in the vicinity of The Forks, on the Widow Wells' farm, but not a vestige of the building remains. An Irishman named Moses Hanlan was the teacher in 1810 and 1811. Hugh Maguire taught a school on the property of Cornelius Gist, just over the Virginia line. This was said to be at "the far end of The Forks." In 1820 a school-house was located on a branch of the creek, which was called Witch Run from its banks being lined with witch hazel. Nathaniel Smith, who owned a farm near by, was a teacher in this school-house. His son, William Smith, was a later teacher in the township. This school building was succeeded in 1830 by what is known as the Cuthbertson school-house, built on the farm of Dr. Cuthbertson, and which is still standing, but unoccupied. Among the teachers in the Cuthbertson house were William Smith, Joseph Baker, awl/Thomas Patterson. In 1833 a log schoolhouse stood about twenty rods east of the site of the present Mount Hope Church, and Joseph Baker and George Vasbinder were among the teachers.

In 1836, under the operation of the school law of 1834, eight new school buildings were erected. One of them stood about one-fourth of a mile east of Mount Hope Church. In 1840 a brick building for school purposes was put up in District No. 5, known as Scott's District. In 1874 the present frame structure replaced it.

In 1834, after the enactment of the school law, a .brick addition was made to the school-house then in use in Williamsburg. At that time Paul Ralston, David and Robert Buchanan were school directors. In 1855 or 1856 the first frame building was put up, the site on the hill, which belonged to the village, being exchanged with George Plummer for the one now occupied by the school buildings.

In 1863 Independence township comprised six school districts, in which six teachers were employed, and two hundred and forty-five pupils were enrolled. The amount of money received from all sources for school purposes was $914.92 ; the State appropriation was $97.20; and the expenditures for the year were $777.51. In 1873 there were six districts, six teachers employed, and two hundred and twenty-eight pupils enrolled in the township. The amount of tax raised for school funds was $2411:13 ; amount received from the State was $144.46 ; cost of schools for that year, $2496.40. In 1880 the township had still six districts, which were supplied with six teachers ; number of pupils enrolled, 257; $1424.37 was raised by tax; $330.30 received from the State ; and the expenditures for the schools were $1550.42.

Justices of the Peace.—The names of persons appointed and elected to the office of justice of the peace in and for the territory now forming Independence, prior to the time of its erection as a separate township, are included in the list of justices in Hopewell township. The list of those elected for Independence since it became a separate township is given below, viz.:

Jefferson Wells. April 16, 1856.

James K. McConuaughy, May 18, 1858.

John Jeffrey, April 10, 1860.

R. McConnaughy, April 14, 1863.

John Jeffrey, July 12, 1865.

Thomas Boyd, April 14, 1868.

David Buchanan, March 29, 1870.

Lemuel Leggett, Nov. 30,1870.

David Buchanan, Jan. 31,1874.

Robert Y. Meloy, March 17,1875.

W. C. Leggett, March 21,1877.

Robert Y. Meloy, March 30,1880.



Dr. Joseph Parkinson, the eleventh and only living child of Thomas and Margaret (Latimer) Parkinson, was born in 1807. The Parkinsons were of English ancestry, having come to this country in the early part of the last century. Afterwards William Parkinson, grandfather of Dr. Joseph Parkinson, settled near Carlisle, Cumberland Co., Pa. He had a large family, most of whom were sons. Of these, Benjamin, Joseph, and Thomas came to Washington County at an early date. Joseph owned and kept the ferry on the Monongahela River, then called "Parkinson's Ferry," now Monongahela City. He and Thomas were also engaged in the mercantile business at that place. Thomas was enterprising and energetic, taking an active part in all the efforts of the time in the material development of the county. He was strictly temperate in his habits, and opposed to the " Whiskey Insurrection," in which his brother Benjamin was one of the leaders. In 1777, Thomas Parkinson bought a farm of three hundred acres from John Decker, on Pigeon Creek, near Parkinson's Ferry. Subsequently he built at this place the first mill on Pigeon Creek, where he carried on the business of milling and farming for a number of years. In 1792 he sold this property to James McFarlane, and the next year he moved to Fayette County, Pa., in the immediate vicinity of Connellsville, where he owned a mill and farm. He also owned five hundred acres of land in Huntington township, Westmoreland Co., Pa. In 1804 he sold his farm and mill in Fayette County, Pa., and bought


a farm in Brooke County, Va., adjoining the farm on which the college and village of Bethany were afterwards built, and to which he removed with his family in 1805 or 1806. About the year 1783, Thomas Parkinson was married to Margaret Latimer, whose parents lived in the Ligonier valley, Westmoreland Co., Pa., not far distant from Hannastown, then the seat of justice for the county. The Latimers were of English descent, and came from Philadelphia to Ligonier valley in the exciting times of Indian warfare. In the days of their early married life, Mr. Latimer and his wife, with their infant child, were taken captives by the Indians, and subjected to a five days' march across the Ohio River into the wilderness. The parents, with their child, finally managed to escape, and after undergoing many hardships reached their home. Mr. Latimer was also badly wounded by the Indians while carrying a message from one fort to another in the Ligonier valley. They lived when the dangers to which they were exposed developed strong points of character. In her girlhood Margaret, with her only sister, Martha, would follow the reapers in the harvest-field, carrying loaded rifles for their use in case they should be attacked by the Indians.

Thomas Parkinson had lived at his Brooke County home but a short time when, in May, 1807, he became ill, and September 39th of the same year he died. At this time Dr. Joseph Parkinson was but seven months old, so he never knew a father's care. This loss, however, was in a great measure supplied by the affectionate care and good training of a kind mother. She was an excellent woman, largely endowed with common sense; intelligence, prudence, and strong will power, but of quiet and gentle manners, and of more culture than the women of her time in the Western country, having been educated in one of the girls' schools of Philadelphia. While she had strong affections for her children, she never allowed that affection to control her better judgment, and believing that the future development of the man or woman depended largely upon the early training of the mother, she taught her children to be industrious, persevering, and energetic, and warned them against indolence and vices. Her chief desire was that her children should become good and useful members of society.

Dr. Joseph Parkinson was sent by his mother at a very early age to a school kept by Alexander Campbell, afterwards the celebrated Bishop Campbell, whose home and school were upon the farm adjoining the home of the Parkinsons. The school was called Buffalo Seminary. In it were taught the English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, together with the higher mathematics. Dr. Parkinson took a six years' course in this school, and holds a certificate signed by Bishop Campbell, certifying to his proficiency in the branches taught therein. For one year after leaving school he taught Latin; Greek, and the higher mathematics in a-school in Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio. He then returned to his home, where he remained for some time, and finally decided to study a profession, and chose that of medicine. In 1831 he entered the office of Dr. John C. Campbell, a distinguished physician of Wellsburg, Brooke Co., Va., and while there was enabled to pay his boarding by working two hours daily as transcript clerk in the recorder's office. He remained as a student with Dr. Campbell for two years, and in 1833 went to Philadelphia, and matriculated in Jefferson Medical College, and attended the lectures of 1833 and 1834, under Granville Sharp Pattison, George McClellan, John Revere, and their associates.

Upon his return home his funds were exhausted, and he concluded to seek a place in the office of some eminent physician in one of the cities. He obtained the position sought for in the office of Dr. James R. Speer, of Pittsburgh, a gentleman of fine attainments in his profession, in full practice, and with a large and well-selected library. Dr. Speer had a high reputation as an operator in general surgery, and as an adept in surgical and medical treatment of the eye, and of the treatment of diseases in general. Dr. Parkinson entered the office of Dr. Speer, where, as an equivalent for the use of the library, instruction, and boarding, he kept the books, made out bills, compounded medicines, put up prescriptions, etc. After remaining with Dr. Speer for three years, he decided to begin practice upon his own account. He accordingly settled at the village of Independence, Washington Co., Pa., April 1, 1838, where he still continues to practice. In six months after commencing he had as much practice as he could attend to properly. During the forty-three years which have since elapsed it may be said he has lived in the saddle. He has rarely been absent from his post, except a few flying visits to some of the 'Western States, and the winter of 1870 and 1871, spent in the South for recreation and rest. During that visit he availed himself of the opportunity to attend the lectures and surgical operations in the medical colleges of Nashville and New Orleans. In the spring he returned home and resumed the active duties of his profession. Some years after he settled in Independence he bought the farm which is now his home. After buying this farm he married Elizabeth Pogue, a lady of Scotch-Irish ancestry, eldest daughter of the late David Pogue, of Jefferson township, Washington Co., Pa. They have one child, Margaretta E. Parkinson.

During his long and active life Dr. Parkinson has uniformly had good health, which he attributes to his constant exercise in the open air and his temperate habits in eating and drinking. His patrons in the community where he has lived so long decide that his life has been been a successful one.


JEFFERSON township is bounded on the north by Hanover, on the east by Smith and Cross Creek, on the south by Independence, and on the west by the State of West Virginia. The township is watered by Cross Creek (which forms its southern boundary against Independence) and its branches, and by the waters of Harmon's Creek on the north.

The territory now within the limits of Jefferson township was included in Hopewell, one of the thirteen original townships formed in 1781. On the 1st of September, 1789, the township of Cross Creek was formed by action of the Court of Quarter Sessions, confirmed by the Supreme Executive Council, and then embraced the territory that is now Cross Creek, Jefferson, and part of Mount Pleasant. The territory now Jefferson remained within the jurisdiction of Cross Creek until 1853. During the winter of 1852-53 a petition of citizens of Cross Creek township was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions praying that the western portion of Cross Creek be formed into a separate township. Viewers were appointed who made an examination, and at the June term of court of 1853 they made a report, which was confirmed, and on the 16th of June of that year the court ordered the territory mentioned in the petition to be formed into " a township to be called Jefferson township."

Settlements.—The following list, gathered from the assessment-roll of Cross Creek township for the year 1791, embraces the names of property-holders at that time in that part of Cross Creek which afterwards became and is now the township of Jefferson,





Edward Brown

John Brown

Caleb Brown

Joshua Brown

James Cresswell

John Crist

Nicholas Crist.

James Clark

William Clark

David Davie

James Dunbar

John Gardner

John Leeper

260 200 84 180










Ann Levens

Samuel Leeper

William McGarmgh.

Robert McCready

John Morrison, Sr

Joseph Morrison

Hugh Newell

John Pough or Pogue 

Robert Robb

Elisha Robinson

Thomas Robinson

James Watson













Robert McCready, whose name appears on this preceding list of property-holders .in 1791, and who was one of the earliest settlers within the limits of thi present township of Jefferson, was a native of Scotland, who came to this country in 1772, and after working for a time in New Jersey, went to York County, Pa., where he became a school-teacher. Or

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the opening of the Revolution he entered the service with a York County battalion, and with it joined the body known as the " Flying Camp," under Washington. He served several months, then returned to York County, and in 1776 came to Western Pennsylvania, and made location on a tract of land of three hundred and thirty-two acres, called "Good Will," situated on Scott's Run, a branch of Cross Creek, about one mile east of the State line, in what is now Jefferson. township, it being the same that is now owned and occupied by his grandson, Robert William McCready.

Mr. McCready was married soon after making his location on the tract mentioned, and he became a school-teacher here, as he had been in York County. He taught school in Richard Wells' fort, which was one of the earliest schools in all the region west of the Monongahela. He was present when the first sermon was preached at that fort by the Rev. J. Powers in September, 1778. He was the first person who signed the " religious agreement" originated by Judge Edgar, and he selected the site of the edifice of the Cross Creek Church, of which he was elected an elder in 1792. He was elected county commissioner in 1797 ; was adjutant in the militia for many years, and served ,in that capacity under Col. John Vance, in what was called the "Lisbon campaign," in 1812. He was a large, fine-looking officer, with an unusually powerful voice, well adapted for military command. In politics he was a Federalist, and a leading spirit in that party in his section. He died Aug. 10, 1846, at the age of ninety-four years, his death being immediately caused by a cancer on his right hand. He was buried in the Cross Creek graveyard, where his resting-place is marked by a modest monument. His son David settled in the vicinity of his father's farm. The homestead came into possession of his son William, who occupied it till his death, which occurred on the day of the first election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, Nov. 6, 1860. His son, Robert W. McCready, is, as before mentioned, the owner and occupant of the farm on which his grandfather settled in 1777.

John Criss and Nicholas Criss, brothers, were early settlers, both taking up land on Virginia certificates. That held by Nicholas was dated Nov. 3, 1779,'and described the tract granted as "in Yohogania County, on, Harmon's Creek, to include his settlement 'bade in, ye year 1775, and also aright in preemption to


one thousand acres adjoining thereto." This land was adjoining that of James Barr, Joseph Fawcett, and others. Nicholas Criss also owned land on the Monongahela River. John Criss had a tract of three hundred and forty-nine acres of land called " Hermitage," which he willed to his son William. It was afterwards sold, and became the property of Charles and Grant Havelin, and they now own it. John Criss had a family of six sons,—William, Jacob, Henry, Nicholas, Jr., John, Jr., and George. William Criss, son of John, settled first where John Melvin now lives, but some years after his father's death bought the homestead and removed to it. Jacob Criss bought one hundred and twenty acres of his father's land, on which he settled, and where he died in 1845 at, the age of sixty-eight years. His son Rittenhouse now occupies the same farm. Henry, third son of John Criss, lived on a farm adjoining the homestead, but died at the house of his nephew, Levi Criss, a son of William. Nicholas and John Criss, sons of John, emigrated to Carroll County, Ohio. Their brother George settled on Yellow Creek, and died there.

Edward Brown came here and took up two hundred and seventy-six acres of land on a Virginia treasury warrant, dated March 23, 1780, the title given to the tract being " Fair Hill." This property he sold again, April .1, 1796, to Daniel Henderson, who in turn sold it, April 1, 1798, to David Walker. It is located east of Eldersville and adjoining the Cross Creek line. Creigh Walker, a grandson of David, lives on the "Fair Hill" farm. Of the other descendants, James lives in Cross Creek village, Norris in Cross Creek township, Samuel in Jefferson township, adjoining the homestead, and David is dead. Joshua Brown took up three hundred and sixty-nine acres of land in this section, which was warranted to him Jan. 9, 1788, as " Brownfields." A part of this tract is now owned by William Jackson, who lives in Hanover township, and the remainder by his son, James Jackson, and John Anderson, his son-in-law.

John Stephenson came into possession of four hundred and two acres of land in this section on a Virginia certificate, dated June 24, 1780. The tract was called " Wild Roe," was situated on Cross Creek, .and was surveyed as " Stephenson's Choice." This property is in Jefferson, near Hanlon Station, and it belongs to Cyrus and Samuel Stephenson, sons of Robert and grandsons of John Stephenson. John Stephenson•. died in 1825, near Eldersville, leaving three sons,—Andrew, Thomas, and Robert. Andrew was at one time postmaster at Burgettstown, and afterwards lived in this township. Thomas lived and died upon the homestead, and Robert also had a portion of the old farm.

James Clarke came from Maryland, and took up land bn a Virginia certificate dated June 24, 1780. The tract was three hundred and fifty-one acres, located near Eldersville, and was patented to Mr. Clarke Sept. 16, 1786. His daughter Rachel married William Wells, of Wellsville. Mr..Wells owned a large tract of land at that place, upon which they went to live, and both died there. The daughter Nancy married Samuel Leeper, who settled upon a tract of land about two miles from Eldersville, in Jefferson township. Robert Pogue now lives upon the property. Elizabeth Clarke became the wife of John. Gardner, who came from Maryland and bought four hundred acres of land near Eldersville. Some of it he purchased of James Clarke, his father-in-law, and the rest included the property called " Greathouse Castle." John, and Elizabeth Gardner had five sons,—William, John, James, Samuel, and David. William made his home near New Lisbon, and John settled in Virginia. James, went to West Virginia in 1820, and still resides there. David's farm adjoins the home-farm. Samuel remained upon the homestead, which has now been divided, and is occupied by his five sons. His five daughters all removed to other States. The old homestead and the farm of David Gardner are underlaid with coal, which is mined by the Keystone Coal Company.

Hugh Newell, a native of Connecticut, came to this county and settled before 1781 on the farm where William Archer now lives. He was an elder in the Cross Creek Church, and during his life a noted and active laborer in all that advanced its interests. He married a relative of Shesbazzer Bentley, of Somerset township, and they reared a large family of children. Hugh Newell died in 1810, and the home farm passed to the son George, who remained upon it until his death, in 1840. George Newell married a daughter of Rev. Thomas Marques. They had two sons,—Thomas Bentley and George Bentley Newell,—who both became ministers. The older members of the family of Hugh Newell were widely scattered, several of them removing to Virginia and Ohio.

Robert Stewart was a native of Ireland. He came to this country and served in the Revolutionary war, after which he came to this county, settling on the property now occupied by James Stewart, Sr. He had a family of six children. James lives on the home farm, Robert on the Robinson tract, and John has the David Brown property, in Smith township. Eliza married David Kidd, and lives on the Kelley farm, near Eldersville.

George Miller came from Donegal, Ireland, to this county in 1792. For two years he lived with Robert Wiley, near Washington, and the next year with Samuel Taylor, of Taylorstown. In 1795 he came and settled in Jefferson township. His children all moved to Ohio and died there save George, who is still living on his father's place.

John Pogue came from Ireland to this section and lived on a tract of eighty-seven acres which he bought of Thomas Marshall, Oct. 5, 1791. It was a part of " Happy Retreat," which was patented to


James Marshall, Sept. 26, 1786. John Pogue lived upon this land until his death, about thirty years ago. He had six children,—Robert, David, Samuel, James, George, and Sarah. The daughter married John Curry, and settled with him near Claysville, where both died. Robert bought a portion of the " Leepersburg" tract, upon which he lived and died. David passed his life upon the homestead. Samuel died here, as did James, who was a school-teacher and only lived to middle age. George went to Ohio. The name Pogue was changed to that of Pollock in after-years by some of the family.

William Boyd purchased of James Fulton, Oct. 26, 1793, eighty acres of land, which was a part of the four hundred and twenty-two acres called " Raccoon Den," which was patented to Charles Stewart, July 10, 1788. On March 18, 1801, this land was conveyed by William Boyd to his son, John Boyd, who lived on the north side of Cross Creek.

The property purchased in this section by Harmonius Cole embraced three tracts—" Fallowfield," containing two hundred and twenty-three acres, "Sugar Tree Run," having three hundred and ninety-six acres, and " Black Walnut Thicket," three hundred and sixty-eight acres. The last-named piece of land was sold by Mr. Cole to his son Samuel, Oct. 7, 1809. The other sons were Peter, Harmon, and John. Peter and Harmon went West, and John remained here on It part of his father's property. Mrs. Ann Cole, wife of Samuel Cole, is yet living.

Benjamin Beabout came here from New Jersey in 1795, and bought of Ulrich Huffstater one hundred and forty-six acres of land, which was a portion of " Nancy's Fancy," patented to William Wells, Nov. 29, 1794. Mr. Beabout lived upon this farm fifty years, then removed to Paris, and there passed the rest of his life. He died at the age of one hundred years. His family of children was quite large, several of whom, after their marriage, settled in Ohio. Israel, Mary, and Nancy all live in Paris. Hannah and Rizpah both settled in Paris and died there.

John Sharp came here from New Jersey, buying the two hundred acres of land now occupied by James Jackson, and near the lands then belonging to Isaac Van Ostran and Benjamin Beabout. He lived upon the farm for many years, and died there. John Sharp's family numbered eight children,—John, Levi, Edward, Polly, Ruth, Hannah, Nancy, and another daughter. John settled and still lives in Jefferson township ; Edward went to Indiana; Levi was killed in a railroad disaster at Steubenville, Ohio; Polly married James Gardner, and settled in Paris; Ruth married Samuel Gardner, and lived upon the Gardner homestead ; Hannah married John Steen ; and Nancy became Mrs. Wheeler, her home being upon the place now owned by her son. The other daughter married Alexander Walker, and lived upon the father's farm, which has now passed into other hands.

Nathan Gillespie was a native of Ireland who came to what is now Jefferson township about the year1801. He purchased the tract of land known as " Black-Walnut Thicket," containing upwards of three hundred acres, of Harmonius Cole, the transfer being made May 6, 1813. He lived and died here, and the property is now in the hands of Nathaniel and William Gillespie, his grandsons. In the year 1827 two nephews of Nathan Gillespie came here from Hopewell township, where their father had lived and died. They each bought a piece of property, —Nathaniel, of his Uncle Nathaniel, and John, of James Carmichael, —and are still living here.

Samuel and William Melvin, brothers, came from Ireland in 1790, settling first in Cecil County, Md. 41 In 1803, Samuel came to Irish Ridge, in what is now Jefferson township, and purchased land next to that of Steen and Cassidy. He lived there until his death in 1821. He left six children,—four sons and two daughters. William lives on the home farm, Henry died in Wellsburg, Va., James in Pughtown, and John at home at about the same time- his father died.

William Melvin followed his brother to this township in 1808, and lived for a few years near him, then he went to Brooke County, Va. In 1846 moved to Burgettstown, where he worked at his trade of cooper until his death in 1856. John Melvin, a son of William, moved to Burgettstown in 1833, and worked in the woolen-factory until 1869. In January, 1877, he went to Wellsville, Ohio, and died there two years later. His son "William was born in Burgettstown, and lived for years in the old David Bruce house. He has taught school since 1855., and is now teaching in Smith township.

Elisha Robinson came from Ireland to Washington County, and on June 3, 1809, was granted a patent upon the tract of land called " Remainder." He had three sons,—Elisha, Abel, and Samuel. Elisha went to Virginia, Abel became a Methodist minister and went to Ohio, and Samuel settled upon his father's farm. This farm was afterwards sold to Robert Irwin, and his son now occupies it. Elisha Robinson was an active member of the Methodist Church. He lived to a very advanced age, and at his death was buried in the Bethel churchyard.

Thomas McCarroll, a native of County Down, Ireland, emigrated to York County, Pa. About 1790. he came to this county with his wife and children, and settled on a tract of land abjoining Abraham Barber, of whom he purchased, and where he lived till his death in 1835. He left two sons. Samuel, the eldest, settled in Hanover township, lived there all his days, and died in June, 1881. His children were the Rev. Alexander McCarron, for many years pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Claysville, and who died in May, 1881 ; Samuel M., who settled at Ryerson's Station, in Greene County, and died in 1852 ; Dr. J. F. McCarroll, a resident physician of Jefferson township, living at Eldersville ; and L. F.


McCarroll, the youngest son, who occupies the homestead of his father in Hanover township. Elizabeth, a daughter, is living with her brother at the homestead. Another daughter, Mary E., lived to maturity, graduated at the Washington Seminary, and died in 1862. Thomas McCarroll, the second son of Thomas McCarroll, Sr., settled in Jefferson township, on the homestead of his father, where his widow and children still live.

In 1819, Charles Scott, a lay preacher who came from Ireland, was living on Scott's Run, in this township, about one mile from the mouth of the stream, at which point he bad a mill. He died there, and his son Charles inherited the mill property. He sold it to Samuel Criswell, and went to Ohio. After that the property passed through several hands. An oil company from the East purchased it from one proprietor and sunk a well eight hundred feet deep, but that proving unsuccessful they sold it to Nathaniel Gillespie, who sold it to George Chalmers Miller, the present owner.

The "Pleasant Hill" tract originally contained three hundred and ninety-eight acres of land. James Steen, who came from Ireland, bought a portion of it. At the death of James Steen the property was divided between his sons, William E. and John. William afterwards purchased John's share, and now owns the whole.

Churches.—The Bethel Church (Methodist Episcopal) was the first religious society of Jefferson township, and was organized early in the present century, but the building of a house of worship was impracticable until the year 1813, when by voluntary subscriptions a building fund was secured.¹ A lot was donated by Stephen Perrine, and upon it in 1814 a frame building was put up, in which for more than sixty years the members of the Bethel Methodist Episcopal Church gathered for religious services. During that time it was once or twice remodeled, and is still standing, but in 1875 it passed into disuse, and most of the members now attend services in Independence township. Some of the clergymen who had charge of this society in its long term of existence were Revs. George Brown, — Jamison, Archibald McElroy, Andrew Coleman, and George W. Robinson. Rev. George Hudson was the last regular Minister.

In 1829 a church of the Methodist Protestant denomination was organized in Jefferson township, the services being held in the Methodist Episcopal house until 1834. In that year they built a stone church, and at the time the society numbered among its mem-

¹ The subscription paper, dated Oct. 16, 1813, and signed by Elisha Robinson, John Patterson, Richard Wells, and ninety-one others, was headed with this agreement:

"For the sole purpose of erecting a Methodist Episcopal Chapel near John Elliott, we promise to pay unto Charles Scott, Alexander Leslie, James Patterson, John Patterson, and John Elliott, trustees of the same, or to their successors in office, the sums set opposite our names as annexed." The sum raised was $379.75.

bers Charles Scott, James Patterson, John Patterson, John Cassidy, Robert Cassidy, and Andrew Johnston. The first pastor in 1829 was Rev. Josiah Foster. He was followed by Revs. john Wilson, John Clark, Enos Woodward, James Porter, William College, William Dunlap, George Hughes, Cornelius Woodruff, William Miller, John Huntsman, John Beatty, George Brown, William Ross, John Herbert, John Cowl, A. W. Porter, R. Simontown, John Scott, J. B. Roberts, J. W. Bischer, William Reeves, John Cowl, William H. Doe, Samuel Dorsey, R. H. Sutton, J. W. Rutlege, James Robinson, D. I. K. Ryan, Henry Lucas, William Ragg, James Lucas, William T. Wilson, and William Wallace, who is the present pastor. The stone church was replaced by a new frame building, put up on the same site in 1874, which was dedicated in the following winter, Dr. J. J. Murray, of Pittsburgh, preaching the dedicatory sermon. The society now numbers about seventy members. A graveyard is in the same lot with the Methodist Episcopal and Methodist Protestant Churches, wherein lie the remains of many of Jefferson's early settlers.

Pine Grove Presbyterian Church, of Jefferson township, was organized in 1852 with twelve or fifteen members, among the number being John Leeper, Enoch Hays, John Barber, and George Miller. This society, which belongs to the Washington Presbytery, erected a house of worship on a rise of ground on Scott's Run, not far below Miller's Mill, at a cost of eight hundred dollars. Among the pastors who have presided over this charge are Revs. David Hervey, James Fleming, Joseph Pomeroy, and W. I. Brugh, D.D. The present membership is fifteen.

A society of the Methodist Protestant denomination was organized in 1829 at the village of Eldersville. A church was built the same year, but was replaced in 1849 by a new brick edifice on the same site, and the old one was removed and remodeled into a dwelling-house. The society was organized by Rev. Josiah Foster, the pastor of the Bethel Methodist Protestant Church, and he continued to officiate upon both charges. In 1875 the brick building was remodeled, at a cost of two thousand five hundred dollars, and was rededicated in 1876, Revs. William Collyer, of Sharpsburg, and Alexander Clark officiating. A parsonage was built many years ago for the use of the pastor of this church.

In 1844 about twenty members seceded from the Methodist Protestant Church, formed themselves into a society, and built a frame church in Eldersville in which to hold their services. The first pastor was Rev. Mr. Selby. The church is still standing; the society has a membership of fifteen or twenty of the residents of Jefferson township who adhere to that faith, and the pulpit is supplied by Rev. Mr. Magee, of Carroll County, Ohio.


Schools.—The history of the early schools of the territory now within the limits of Jefferson township is largely embodied in that of Cross Creek township, of which Jefferson was at one time a portion. A Mrs. Laird, in 1795 or 1796, taught a school in her own house on what was then known as the Robb farm, now owned by the estate of John Lee. There was a Mr. Creighton who about that time -followed teaching. A school was taught in 1811 in an old log cabin in the Miller district, and situated on the waters of Cross Creek, down on the bottom by the creek, on the site of the log house afterwards built by Frederick Cline, now standing there unoccupied. The teachers were John Neager, Richard Freeborn, and Andrew McCullough. Later a school was taught on the McCrea Hill, the property now owned by George Cunningham. The first frame school building was built in the township in 1813, on the west side of a branch of Cross. Creek, upon land now owned by Hampton Walker, but then the property of Mrs. Jane Smith, a widow. This house remained in use until the enactment of the school law in 1834, and in the first year of its occupancy (1813) Mr. Israel Bebout, at present a resident of Cross Creek township, was a student within its walls. Among the teachers in this school were Andrew McCullough, who taught three years, Elder McDermott, who taught two years, and Cornelius Barber, who also was an instructor for two years: James Campbell, son of Launcelot Campbell, of Smith township, taught several terms in Lee's school-house, beginning in 1820. He was considered a good teacher, but teaching and study brought him to an early grave. Among the first terms taught by ex.-Superintendent Douthett, of Allegheny County, was one at the same place. The Hon. Robert Curry, of the Nebraska State Normal School, taught his first term in Jefferson township.

The first school buildings in Jefferson township erected under the school law of 1834 were at Eldersville and in the Melvin district. School districts were then formed throughout the township and numbered as follows: Miller District, No. 1; Melvin, No.; Eldersville, No. 3 ; Coles', No. 4 ; Lee, No. 5 ; Gardner, No. 6. In the year 1863 the schools in the 'township numbered six, the teachers employed were six, with an aggregate enrollment of two hundred and fifty-six pupils. The amount of tax levied for school purposes was $885.42 ; State appropriation, $92.80 ; amount received from other sources, $885.42; and the expenditures for the year, $887.18. In 1873 there were six schools in the township, six teachers were employed, and two hundred and ten scholars in attendance. The amount of tax levied was $1439.57 ; State appropriation, $155.62; amount received from other sources, $1533.82; and the amount expended during the year, $1493.38. In 1880 the districts in Jefferson township were six, the number of teachers six, and two hundred and ten pupils' names were enrolled. School tax levied was $1167.31; amount received from the State, $208.32 ; from all other sources, $1663.03 ; and the total expenditures for the year were $1410.85.

Physicians.¹—Concerning, the early practice of medicine within the limits of what now comprises Jefferson township but little is known at the present time. Tradition, however, informs us that the first settlers were principally of Irish and New England extraction, and that they carried with them to their new homes in this township many of the peculiar and superstitious ideas of their ancestors. Probably owing to the sparseness of population and consequent difficulty of obtaining qualified medical aid, they relied to a great extent on their own efforts for treatment, and this treatment was generally administered by the most illiterate portion of the community, such as old ladies and men who were considered incompetent to pursue any other vocation. Many of those ancient pretenders of medical knowledge claimed supernatural powers to overcome disease. Witchcraft and enchantment entered largely into their practice. The seventh son or daughter was considered qualified by nature for medical . practice. Laying on of hands, uttering senseless words to the sun, blowing breaths on sick persons, and many other foolish thoughts were called into action in this dreadful fight of our ancestors with disease. Others relied on what were supposed to be more potent remedies,—poultices made from black cat-skins, brains of black chickens, dried and pulverized snakes, potatoes carried in the breeches pocket, liquefied fishing-worms, oil of white dogs, etc., covered themselves with glory by discomfiting the enemy disease, and, strange to relate, tradition has handed down from father to son those superstitious vagaries, and many of them retain a strong foothold among a very few of our most illiterate population at this late day. The onward march of knowledge was not long in expelling those foolish ideas of our fathers, and as early as 1790 or 1792 they began to realize the necessity of medical aid based on the higher plane of educational qualification, but as there was no resident physician prior to 1810, they were compelled to look abroad for• that aid. Amongst those non-resident physicians, eminent in their day, who are entitled to honorable notice, and who labored in this region between 1790 and 1810, are the following, viz.: Dr. John Cuthbert-son, of Hopewell; Rev. Joseph Doddridge, M.D., of Wellsburg, Va.; Edward Smith, M.D., of Franklin, Va.; — Adams, M.D., of West Middletown, Pa.; Dr. Perry, of Burgettstown, Pa.; and Drs. McClain and Pittszer, of Florence, Pa.

In the year 1810 two physicians located in or near the present site of Eldersville and opened offices here, but time has erased their names from the memory of the oldest inhabitants, at least so far as the writer can discover, and almost their memory ; the only trace left is the recollection of our older inhabitants hearing

¹ By Dr. T. F. McCarroll.


their parents refer to the year 1810 as the year when the doctors first settled in Eldersville. In the year 1817, Dr. David Pierce opened an office and practice here. In 1819 he removed three miles west of town, purchased the property now owned by W. Wells, and continued the practice of medicine with honor and distinction until death called him from the field in the year 1842. His remains rest in the village cemetery, and a plain marble slab perpetuates his vocation and the date of his death.

Dr. W. English in 1826, but only remained a few years, hence little is known concerning him at the present day.

Dr. McCabe settled here in 1837, and remained a short time, and has been lost sight of since his removal.

Dr. H. K. McClelland commenced the practice of medicine in Eldersville in the year 1842, and was eminently successful. As a practitioner he was bold and fearless, and always expressed his convictions plainly, regardless of feelings or results. He succeeded in amassing considerable wealth. His qualifications were of the highest order, and he made himself •felt in the affairs of both State and church. He died in September, 1860, and his remains rest in the cemetery at Cross Creek village, this county.

Dr. Chalmers settled here A.D. 1848, and remained a numbers of years, but failed to secure a very large practice, and has long since removed to some other field of labor.

Dr. J. K. McCurdy settled here in 1855. He afterwards removed, but returned at the close of the war, and continued practice until 1872. He is now a resident of Cardville, this county.

Dr. J. L. Ray settled in Eldersville A.D. 1861, entered the army as assistant surgeon in 1863, returned to Eldersville and resumed practice in 1865. He removed to Cross Creek village in 1869, where he died in 1872.

Dr. A. C. McCollough commenced practice here in 1861, removed from here to Wellsburg, W. Va., in 1868, and from there to Newark, Ohio, in 1874, where he continued practice until his death in 1879.

Dr. J. W. Donan located here in 1872, and practiced until 1875, and then removed to South Pittsburgh, where he is now pursuing the vocation of his profession.

Dr. J. F. McCarrell located in the village of Eldersville A.D. 1865, and has continued the practice of medicine until the present time, and is at this time (Feb. 22, 1882) the only resident physician within the limits of Jefferson township.

Coal-Mining.—The Keystone Coal Company, of Pittsburgh, now owns about two thousand acres of coal rights in this section, leased of William Boles, Alexander Smith, Thompson Crise, David Stephenson, John Anderson, James Jackson, William Wort, George Crise, and others, as well as of some parties in West Virginia. They also own about fifty acres of land at Hanlon Station, which gives them shipping and storing advantages. They have already sixty men in constant employ, have a large company store for supplying the wants of' their help, and are rapidly increasing their operations.

Village of Eldersville.—The land in this township upon which Eldersville has been built was originally owned by Thomas Ward. He took up a tract of four hundred acres, which was surveyed Sept. 15, 1784, and again March 7, 1785, and a patent granted April 6, 1792, under the title of " Ward's Ward." In September, 1814, the plat of the village was laid out and surveyed by James Henry for Thomas Ward, and the name first given to the place was Wardsville. Fifty-three lots were laid out, and the first store was built in the year the village was platted, John Miller being the proprietor. The tavern was kept by Thomas Elder, who purchased two acres of land of Ward. The old tavern building has but recently been torn down. Thomas Elder's tavern licenses extended from 1809 to 1818, and through him the name of the village was changed from Wardsville to Eldersville.

The place now contains two churches, three stores, a hotel, a post-office, two blacksmith-shops, and a hall.

A post-office was first established at Eldersville during the administration of President Jackson, George Elliott receiving the appointment of postmaster. He was followed by Andrew Cassidy and James Patterson. Hugh Patterson was appointed during the presidency of Harrison, John Effingham served under James K. Polk, and Hugh Patterson again under Zachariah Taylor. Then came George Hopkins, William Cosgrove, Thomas Cosgrove, Margaret Moore, and Robert Osborne, who have officiated as postmasters in the order given, Mr. Osborne at present holding the office. For the space of three years the office at Eldersville was discontinued, but upon the completion of the Panhandle Railroad it was re-established, and for the last four years a daily mail has been run. The merchants in Eldersville at the present time are J. and H. C. Cooper, R. C. Osburn, and George Effingham.

Societies and Orders.—On May 24, 1872, a lodge of Odd-Fellows was instituted at Eldersville, in Jefferson township, called Cynosure Lodge, No. 805, with' Dr. J. S. McCarroll as Noble Grand. In 1876 this society, in conjunction with the society of Grangers and a few private individuals who took shares in the project, built a town hall at Eldersville, at a cost of one thousand dollars. The upper rooms were fitted up for the use of the orders, and the first floor was converted into a large ball for public purposes. The present officers of the Odd-Fellows' lodge are James Martin, N. G.; G. C. Miller, V. G.; Albert Elliott, Secretary; David Martin; Jr., Treasurer. The lodge now comprises forty-five members, and is in a very flourishing condition.

The Patrons of Husbandry are represented in Jef-


ferson township, owning a part interest in the town hall at Eldersville. Under a dispensation' granted Aug. 13, 1874, Jefferson Grange, No. 314, was instituted, the charter being received Nov. 24, 1874, William L. Archer, Master.

Justices of the Peace.—The following is a list of justices of the peace of the township since its organization. The justices who held jurisdiction prior to that time will be found in the history of Cross Creek :

Robert Smith, April 11, 1854.

Josiah N. Scott, April 10, 1855.

William Kidd, April 12, 1859.

James A. Stewart, April 12, 1860.

David Gardner, April 20, 1864.

James A. Stewart, June 3, 1865.

Samuel McGough, April 21, 1869.

James A. Stewart, March 24, 1870.

Samuel McGough, April 26, 1873.

William Cassidy, Sept. 15, 1873; Jan. 30, 1874.

Samuel McGough, Jan. 30, 1874; March 25, 1878.

A. E. Walker, March 27, 1879.



Robert Stewart was born in Ireland in 1795. He was the son of James and Elizabeth (Hemphill) Stewart, who came to America in 1812, and settled in Mount Pleasant township, near the village of Hickory, in Washington County, Pa. They had four sons and two daughters. The sons were John, James, Robert, and Thomas. Robert married Anne McGough. They had six children, —John, married to Tamar McClurg, died Aug. 10, 1881; Eliza J., the widow of David Kidd, of Guernsey County, Ohio; Robert, who has had three wives, Sarah J. Elliott, Eliza Orr, and . Rebecca H. Provines ; Sarah, who lied when a young woman ; James, married to Susanna Andrews; Andrew, who died in infancy. Robert died April 25, 1875. His wife, Anne McQough, died about the year 1858. Robert was a member of the Seceder Church, and a Democrat in politics. He left a handsome fortune, the result of his own labors. Hundreds of acres of the finest agricultural lands are pointed to as testimonials of his industry, progress, and great business capacity. His successful career was the result of his unwavering faith in the ultimate triumph of industry, energy, prudence, and probity.


David Perrine, farmer, was born upon the farm where he now resides, of which he became the owner in 1847. His father, Stephen Perrine, a Revolutionary soldier, who served during the entire struggle for independence, was the son of Peter Perrine, an Englishman by birth, and was born April 14, 1759, in New Jersey, where be married, in 1793, Anne M. Wort-man, a native of the same State, born April 25, 1773. They settled in Washington County, Pa., about the year 1793. Stephen died in 1847. His wife died in 1861. Their children were Peter, born Aug. 26, 1794 ; Lydia, born June 2, 1796 ; Margaret, born Dec. 15, 1798; Anne, born Dec. 27, 1800; Stephen, born April 14, 1803; William, born Feb. 22, 1805; David, born April 4, 1807 ; Sarah, born Nov. 12, 1809 ; Catharine, born April 26, 1812; Mary, born Nov. 6, 1814. But two of the above-named children, Anne, the widow of Samuel Cole, and David, are now living.

David's life has been chiefly occupied in quietly tilling the soil of the farm where he now resides, and the management of the stock which good farming has enabled him to prepare for the market. His parents were Presbyterians, and he, although not a member, attends the same church. He has been a man of frugal, steady, and industrious habits, has traced out his own course, and owes his success to his own efforts.


MORRIS is one of the southern tier of townships of Washington. County, being bounded on the south by Greene County, on the west by East Finley township, on the north by Franklin, and on the east by Amwell, which last-named township originally included the territory which afterwards became the township of Morris.

At the September term of 1788 there was presented to the Court of Quarter Sessions a petition, signed by David Dille, Thomas Axtell, and thirty three others, Inhabitants of the west and southwest parts of Am-well township, representing that they " labour under great Inconveniences from the Intolerable length of the township; that many are obliged to travel near twenty miles to work on some of the publick highways . .; that the township is so large as renders it Inconvenient and oppressive as well to a great number of the Inhabitants as the Officers thereof in the discharge of their respective, duties; that a division of said Township will tend to the ease and Conveniency


of the Inhabitants, . . ." and for these and other reasons set forth, praying that such division be made, and a new township erected from the western part of the township of Amwell.

The petition bears the following indorsement, showing the action of the court, viz.: " September, 1788, Petition for the division of Amwell township. To be called Morris township. Granted by the court. Certificate sent up." The township of Morris retained its original territory until Aug. 13, 1855, when the northern portion was set off by order of the court to form the township of Franklin, thus reducing Morris to its present limits.

The township from its erection in 1788 was an independent district until 1803, when it was embraced with Amwell in District No. 10, and so remained till 1838, when it again became a separate district. The names of justices who had jurisdiction over its territory while it was a part of District No. 10 will be found in the list for Amwell township. The list of justices for Morris for the periods from 1788 to 1803 and from 1840 to the present time is here given, viz. :

Ebenezer Goble, March 12, 1793.

William Lindley, April 14, 1840.

Cracroft, April 14, 1840; Sept. 15, 1845.

William Lindley, April 15, 1845; April 9, 1850.

Abraham Hinkin, April 9, 1850; April 10, 1855.

Thomas Hanna, April 16, 1856.

William Sanders, June 23, 1857.

William Conklin, March 9, 1861.

Timothy Ross, May 10, 1861.

Thomas Hanna, April 14, 1863.

William Conklin, April 17, 1866.

Matthias Minton, April 14, 1868.

William Parcel, April 11, 1871.

Matthias Minton, April 15, 1873; Jan. 9, 1874.

William Parcel, Feb. 16, 1874.

Matthias Minton, March 25, 1878.

M. W. Wood, April 9, 1881.

Demas Lindley with his family came in 1773 to settle west of the Monongahela, in the section of country which afterwards became Washington County, and with him came about twenty other families, all from New Jersey, and nearly all from the county of Morris, which had been Mr. Lindley's home before his emigration. Four of the families settled on the south fork of Ten-Mile Creek, near Jefferson, Greene Co. The others settled at different points on the north and middle forks of the same creek. Demas Lindley located upon four hundred acres of land situated on the middle fork of Ten-Mile, adjacent to the lands of Caleb and John Lindley, James Draper, and J. McVaugh. This property was warranted to him Feb. 5, 1785, and surveyed December 6th of the same year, receiving the title of "Mill Place," its location being very near the present village of Prosperity. Mr. Lindley became the owner of another tract of land called " Headquarters," which was warranted to him April 18, 1796, as containing three hundred and sixty-eight acres.

Demas Lindley and Jacob Cook were the two most prominent and influential men among the early settlers along Ten-Mile 'Creek. They were very active in the frontier movements against the Indians, and a fort was early established upon the property of Mr. Lindley called Lindley's Fort, and was the rendezvous r the residents in this part of the county.

Mr. Lindley built a grist- and merchant-mill on his property soon after his settlement here, and mills which are known as " Lindley's Mills" still occupy the same site. Both Mr. Lindley and Mr. Cook, mentioned above, had much to do with the organization and establishment of the Upper and Lower Ten-Mile Churches.

Demas Lindley's sons located about him, and all owed their prosperous start in life to his influence and assistance. They were Zenas, Joseph, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. When Demas Lindley died, in 1818, his will was found to have been made Dec. 20, 1802. It devised the whole of his estate to his son, John Lindley (as the only one who had not been previously provided for), with the provision that he pay to each of his sisters-Joanna, Sarah, and Abigail Lindley-twenty pounds in produce.

Among the families who emigrated from New Jersey in 1773, or shortly after, were those of Caleb, John, and Levi Lindsey, brothers, and relatives of Demas and Naphthali Lindley. Caleb located land adjoining Naphthali, to which was given the name of " Potato Hollow," containing four hundred acres. He also purchased a part of the tract " Fox Chase," of Naphthali Lindsey, who had previously warranted and patented it. On the 23d of February, 1796, Caleb Lindley sold to Naphthali Lindley forty-six acres, part of " Potato Hollow," and on the 5th of June the next year fifty-seven acres of the same tract to Abigail Loveridge, and on the 16th of June, 1815, one hundred and nine acres to his son Lewis. This also was from the " Potato Hollow" tract. Mr. Lindley had three wives, by whom he had four sons-John, Lewis, Samuel, and William-and two daughters, Sarah (Mrs. Minton) and Cassandra (Mrs. Larimore). To John and Lewis he had given farms before his death. He died in 1836, his last wife, Elizabeth, surviving him. His son William died before his father, and left two sons-John and Caleb-and daughters, Keziah, Mary, Jane, and Nelly.

John Lindley, who came in the county with the others, obtained a warrant in April, 1786, for a tract of land on Ten-Mile Creek near the others. This was surveyed to him under the name of " Linsey-Woolsey." On the 28th of November, 1796, he purchased a large tract of Caleb Lindsey. He died about 1806, and left a wife (Martha), seven sons,-Samuel, Robert, John, William; James, Thomas, and Joseph, and two daughters, one of whom was named Martha. Their descendants are numerous in the township.

Levi Lindley, who came with Caleb, John, and the others, purchased a tract of land called "Bucks' Flat" of Benjamin Ryce. Mr. Lindley lived here but a few years, and died in 1801. A part of the property which he then owned came to him from his wife. This was left to his son William. There was devised to Benjamin all the land lying south of Ten-Mile Creek, and the use of the sugar-trees on the north side op-


posite the sugar-trees on the south side. The land of which he was in possession in Virginia, near the waters of Dunkard Creek, was divided between his sons, Ziba, Timothy, Benjamin, and William.

David McCollum was an Irishman by birth, who emigrated to America before the commencement of the Revolution. He entered the service in the Revolution, and continued until the close of the war. Having married a lady of Scotch nativity, he came into Washington County, and took up a tract of land containing sixty acres, situated on the north fork of Ten-Mile Creek, in the territory now included in Morris township. From this very small beginning Mr. McCollum rapidly advanced to prosperity, and in 1810 had a handsome farm of five hundred and eighty acres. The family of David McCollum were three sons and seven daughters,—Samuel, Asa, Daniel, Lucy, Annie, Sarah, Lydia, Abigail, Mary, and Melinda McCollum. Many of their descendants are living in Morris township.

Samuel Rutan, from Sussex County, N. J., established his home in this township soon after the close of the Revolutionary war. He married Miss Eleanor Beadle, and their eight children were Jacob, Abraham, John, Sarah, Elizabeth, Catharine, Annie, and Fanny Rutan. Several of these emigrated with their families to Ohio.

Matthias and Philip Minton were brothers who emigrated from Morris County, N. J., to Morris township, Washington County, in 1786. They purchased a part of the tract "Fox Chase," warranted by the. Lindley family, and Matthias Minton married Sallie S., a daughter of Caleb Lindley. The children of Matthias and Sallie Minton were ten,—Caleb, Mary, Matthias, Josephus, Kezia, Rachel, Cynthia, Phebe, Eliza, and Matthias. The first son named Matthias died when but an infant of one month ; the second of the name grew to manhood, married Margaret Hanna, and resides in the village of Prosperity, where he holds the office of justice of the peace. The son Caleb died at the age of three years, Josephus was drowned when of the same age, and Rachel, who remained single, died in 1825. Mary became the wife of Leonard Vail, of Vermont. Kezia married Rev. Stephen Winget, and resided in the village of Prosperity. Cynthia became the wife of C. C. Kaine, the editor of a journal called Our Country, and died in Harrisburg, Pa. Phebe married Henry Wilson, and still lives in Washington. Eliza, who became the wife of Dr. J. W. Blachly, is a resident of Prosperity village.

Caleb Winget was a native of New Jersey, and lived there until he had become a man of family. Some time before 1786 he removed with his family to Washington County, Pa., where the tract of land he located in Morris township was warranted in the name of his son, Daniel Winget.

Caleb Winget had six children,—Reuben, Ziba, Stephen, Daniel, William, and Hannah. William Winget's wife was Nancy Hampton, and the number of their children was ten,---Moses, John, Reuben, Stephen, Elizabeth, Hannah, Margaret, Sarah, Ann, and Phebe Winget.

Hugh Hanna, a native of Ireland, moved into Morris township about the year 1790, and purchased the farm on which Henry M. Conklin at present resides. Upon this place he passed the remainder of his days, and at his death left a family of eight children. They were John V., James, Hugh, Thomas, Nancy, Elizabeth, Martha, and Rebecca Hanna. John V. Hanna married Lydia McCollum, and settled upon a farm near that of his father, where he lived for many years. He afterwards purchased and resided upon another farm, remaining on it until his death. Of his children, the son Thomas lives upon the farm where his father died, the daughter Matilda became the wife of John Braden and lives in Rankinville, and Margaret, who became the wife of Matthias Minton, resides in the village of Prosperity. James Hanna, the son of Hugh Hanna, Sr., removed to Ohio ; Hugh, Jr., went to Connelleville, in this State, and Thomas died young; the daughter Nancy married Jacob Hathaway, and lived on the home farm; Elizabeth became the wife of Samuel Clutter, of Hopewell township; Martha married Dr. Spencer Blachly, of Waynesburg, Pa., and Rebecca died unmarried.

About the year 1790, Arthur Langdon removed from the vicinity of Baltimore, Md., to Morris township, bringing his family with him. His children were John, Nimrod, Sarah, and Nancy Langdon. Nimrod Langdon married Mary Huston, and resided all his life in West Finley; Sarah Langdon became Mrs. Moses Braddock; Nancy Langdon married John Brooks, and died in this township; John Langdon married Mary Miller, and lived and died in Morris township. His sons, Gibson and Hiram Langdon, reside in Ten-Mile village. Daniel, Isaac, and Francis Langdon, the sons of Nimrod Langdon, are residents of Washington and Greene Counties.

Bethuel, Luther, and Daniel Day were three brothers who came from their native State, New Jersey, to 'Morris township, accompanied by five or six sisters. Luther Day's wife was Mary Vankirk, and their children were seven, four sons and thre3 daughters. The daughter Priscilla married Benjamin McVay, Lavina married Demas Lindley, and Maria married Ira Dille. The son, William Day, married Sarah Patterson, and still lives in this township. Daniel married Lavina Clutter, and also resides in Morris township. Arvidi married Elizabeth Baldwin, and lives in the village of Prosperity. Artemas married and removed, to Ohio.

William Ringland emigrated from Ireland in the year 1795, coming almost directly to Morris township. He located upon the property now owned by Joseph Ringland, Esq., a grandson. The children of William and Prudence Ringland were George, Thomas, James, William, Margaret, Eliza, Molly,


Jane, Catharine, and Nancy. The homestead of William Ringland was situated on Ten-Mile Creek, and upon this place he resided until his death. William Ringland, Jr., married Mary Bane, George married Miss McGuire, and James married Miss Sarah Stockdale. Joseph Ringland, who now owns and occupies the old homestead, is a son of James Ring-land, and the only male representative of the family in Washington County.

James Connit, whose home was in Bound Brook, N. J., came to Morris township in 1802. His wife was Jane Powell, a native of the State of New York. Their family numbered thirteen children. Of these Sarah, John, Milton, Joseph, Jane, and Lydia Connit all died single. Melissa is still living unmarried. James Connit married Rebecca Cary. He is still living on the Demas Lindley tract of land, near Prosperity, and is eighty-six years of age. He has but one child, Isaac N. Connit. Eliza Connit married Daniel Ferrell, and lived and died in East Finley township. Priscilla became Mrs. Norman Powers, and is now a resident of Greene County. Isaac Connit, Sr., married Abby French, and removed to Ohio. Spencer Connit died in Greene County.

George Harris, a Revolutionary soldier, who fought at Monmouth and Princeton, settled in the township very early, and died Feb. 3, 1822, at an advanced age, leaving a numerous family and descendants.

A four-hundred-acre tract of land was warranted in this township, July 17, 1785, by Samuel Parkhurst. It adjoined the lands of Caleb Lindley, Daniel Parkhurst, and Jacob Rude. He was one of the constituent members of the Ten-Mile Baptist Church, which was organized in 1772, and was the clerk of the church in 1773. He married a daughter of the Rev. David Sutton.

Village of Prosperity.—The village plat was laid out in 1848 by Robert Wallace, who built the first house, which is still standing, owned by John M. Day, and occupied as a store. The first postmaster was T. D. Minton. Arvidi Day is the present postmaster, and has occupied the position twenty-six years.

The town contains at present fourteen dwelling-houses, a school-house, and the Upper Ten-Mile Presbyterian Church. The business places are the store of Miss Mary E. Brownlee; shoe-shop of Nathan Daley; blacksmith-shop, A. L. Hayden; drug-store, David Dille; Matthias Minton, justice of the peace; two physicians, and a lodge of Odd-Fellows, viz.: Morris Lodge, No. 936, which was organized on the 10th of August, 1876, with the following officers : Samuel Houghland, N. G. ; Silas Young, V. G. ; Isaac Mankey, Sec.; and William Miller, Treas. The present officers are Joseph Dunn, N. G. ; James B. Allison, V. G. ; M. Minton, Sec. The society has a membership of forty-five. Nineveh Lodge, No. 583, of Greene County, was consolidated with Morris Lodge in 1881.

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Upper Ten-Mile Presbyterian Church. — The churches of Upper and Lower Ten-Mile were organized Aug. 15, 1781, as one church. Prior to that time, however, services had been held by these people in different places, the first time upon the visit of the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd in the spring of 1777. He was a graduate of Princeton College, and had been licensed by the Presbytery of New York. He remained with this people, preaching in private houses in the forest, and in the different forts or block-houses in this section of country, till August of that year, when he returned to the East, and was ordained by the Presbytery of New York in the early part of October, 1777. He visited this place again later in the year, and returned home after a short stay. He was prevailed upon by Lindley, Cook, and. others to come out to this people and become their pastor. This he promised to do. After his return home he preached in Maryland and Virginia, and had strong inducements to remain, but he had given his promise, and in the September of 1779 he arrived at Ten-Mile with his wife and two children (one of whom, Cephas, became a minister and pastor over the church his father organized). Services were held at different places, but no distinct effort was made towards a permanent organization until August, 1781, when twenty-three persons gathered at the house of Jacob Cook and organized a church, of which the following named were the constituent members, viz.: Thaddeus Dodd, V.D.M., and Phebe, his wife ; Demas Lindley (elder) and Joanna, his wife; Jabez Baldwin ; William Leonard and Mary, his wife; William Hays and Anna, his wife ; David Dille and Elizabeth, his wife; Jacob Cooke and Phebe, his wife; Daniel Axtell and Ruth, his wife ; Joseph Coe and Abigail, his wife; John Eddy and Mary, his wife ; Daniel Dodd and Charity, his wife ; Abner Brown and Paul Brown ; and Jacob Cook, Joseph Coe, and Daniel Axtell were chosen elders. " After this," says the church record, "we set several times when we should have the sacrament of the Lord's Supper administered, but could not compass our designs on account of the incursions of the savages." The next entry is as follows : " Wednesday, April 30, 1783. The session met at Mr. Lindley's fort. Present : Thaddeus Dodd, V.D.M., Demas Lindley, Joseph Coe, Jacob Cooke, Daniel Axtell, elders. At this session twenty-two persons joined."

The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was first administered¹ on the third Sabbath of May, 1783, by the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, their pastor, assisted by the Rev. John McMillan. The meeting was held in Daniel Axtell's barn.

The church increased in numbers under Mr. Dodd's efforts, and became strong. Mr. Dodd died of consumption May 20, 1793, after a ministry of nearly

¹ Much of the following history is taken from a historical sermon delivered the Rev. Dr. E. C. Wines, Aug. 28, 1879.


sixteen years. The funeral discourse was preached by the Rev. Dr. McMillan from Rev. xiv. 13. From the record of the Redstone Presbytery it is found that in October, 1793, this church, then styled the United Congregation of Upper and Lower Ten-Mile, presented a call to Mr. Thomas Marques, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Redstone. This call was not accepted. On the 10th of April, 1794, the society presented a call to Mr. Thomas Moore, a licentiate of the association of Bristol, Mass., who had been taken under the care of Redstone Presbytery. Mr. Moore accepted the call on the 19th of August, and was ordained and installed in September or October, 1794. Mr. Moore continued pastor of this people ten years. The years 1799, 1802, and 1803 seem to have been signalized by an abundant increase. The two latter years embrace the period known as the "Falling Revival." Rev. Cephas Dodd, a son of Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, succeeded Rev. Moore. The same meeting of Presbytery dismissed Mr. Moore and ordained and installed Mr. Dodd, 14th December, 1803, and though it was midwinter, all the services connected with them were held " in Joseph Riggs' sugar-camp, with the open canopy of heaven for a temple, the snow for a carpet, and the wind whistling through the leafless branches of the trees as an accompaniment to the solemn music, as it pealed forth from a choir consisting of hundreds of voices." Mr. Dodd was dismissed from his double charge April 15, 1817, and thenceforward the two congregations became distinct bodies.

The Rev. Thomas Hoge, of Washington, succeeded the Rev. Mr. Dodd as stated supply, and served the people for about two years. His successor was Rev. Andrew Wylie, D.D., president of Washington College, from about 1819 to 1821. Next was the Rev. Boyd Mercer, long an associate judge of the county court, who supplied this church for two years. Next was Rev. Ludovicus Robbins, supply for one year.

A period of several years elapsed before the congregation were again under the charge of a regular pastor. In December, 1827, the Rev. Cornelius Loughran was installed as pastor of the congregation of Upper Ten-Mile. In the fall of 1830, Rev. Jacob Lindley, a member of the Presbytery of Washington, became the stated supply of this congregation. Loughran had been dismissed, tried, and convicted by the Presbytery of Washington on charges preferred by the congregation of Upper Ten-Mile. Chagrined and exasperated by this rebuke, he and his friends wrote to the Cumberland Presbyterians in Tennessee, inviting a visit from them. This invitation was accepted, and the next year (1831) five of their ministers, among the ablest in their body, came on. Before their arrival Mr. Lindley preached a sermon in this pulpit, in which he exhorted the people to give them a generous welcome. In the course of the summer and autumn these ministers held camp-meetings at different places, preached with zeal and fervor, producing great excitement, and numbered their converts by hundreds.. A joint session of this new church with the Presbyterians was held Sept. 11, 1832. Sixty-two persons were received; only thirteen joined the mother church. A Cumberland Presbyterian Church was Immediately organized. Rev. Lindley was about to be tried for his disloyalty to the interests of his church when he withdrew from that body. His name was stricken from the list of Presbyterian ministers. "The whirlwind of 1831 swept with a desolating fury over this fair and lovely Zion, prostrating towers and battlements, and in one brief hour laying in ruins the whole stately structure. When, in 1832, Presbytery sent a committee to inquire into the condition of things here, only seven individuals in a concourse of hundreds gathered upon the occasion were found willing to rise in their places and declare themselves old-fashioned Presbyterians. Five members of the session bent to the storm, and five stood firm to their post. These latter were Jacob Hathaway, James Reed, Reuben Sanders, Zenas Condit, and Lewis Dille. The condition of the church became a by-word. It remained without a pastor for many years. The venerable Dr. Elliott, of Washington, preached here twice in 1832. In the year 1838 Rev. James M. Smith was ordained and installed pastor of this long-vacant congregation. Mr. Smith was dismissed in 1841. Two years again pass without a regular pastor. The supplies were Alfred Paull, Mr. Miller, Rev. John R. Dundas."

In the spring of 1846 the Rev. Nicholas Murray, a professor in Washington College, received and accepted a call. Murray continued with this church until his decease, March 23, 1853.

Rev. Cyrus Braddock, then a licentiate, supplied the church for a season, when the Rev. E. C. Wines took charge.

In 1854 the third house of worship was erected upon the site occupied by its two predecessors. The house was paid for by the congregation. A handsome communion-service was presented by a kind Methodist brother of Morris County, N. J., whence the original settlers had emigrated. The pastorate of Dr. E. C. Wines having terminated, the people of Ten-Mile, early in the spring of 1859, called as their pastor the Rev. N. B. Lyons. He was installed by a committee of the Presbytery of 'Washington on the second day of June in that year.

In January, 1860, the congregation was called to suffer the loss of. their almost new church by fire.

Services were held in the mean time in the public school-house, and during fair weather in the grove. A brick church was erected on the site of its three predecessors in 1860, and dedicated to the worship of God.

Rev. Mr. Lyons asked to be released from this church in the year 1868, to assume the labors of another congregation. He preached his farewell sermon to the congregation Jan. 26, 1868. His successor was Prof. Henry Woods, of Washington and Jefferson college.


Rev. Mr. Lyons died May 19, 1868. Rev: Henry Woods remained in charge during two and one-half years, until the fall of 1870. Rev. William Ewing then preached one year. In the fall of 1871 the Rev. S. M. Glenn was invited to take the pastoral oversight of the church.

The pastoral relations were again broken September 1, A.D. 1878, when the Rev. S. M. Glenn took charge of another field,—Sandy Lake, Pa. The present supply (1882) is the Rev. J. H. Sherrard. A parsonage, with four acres of land, was purchased for two thousand nine hundred dollars, and first occupied by the pastor in 1872.

The first house of worship was erected in 1792 on land donated by Demas Lindley " for the occupancy and use of a Presbyterian church and for no other purpose whatever;" The second house—a frame building forty-five by fifty feet in size, with twenty-five feet posts, and with a gallery on two sides and one end—was erected in 1818. The erection of the third house of worship in 1854, its destruction by fire in 1860, and the building of the present brick edifice have already been mentioned.

There is a Sabbath-school (organized in 1825) connected with the church. It has one hundred and thirty pupils, sixteen teachers, and A good library.

Mount Zion Methodist Episcopal Church.—The house of worship of this congregation was erected in 1856, about two miles west of Prosperity, on the farm of Robert Andrews. The church is united in the Claysville charge of Washington district, with Claysville, Stony Point, and Liberty Chapel. It has at present seventy members. The pastor in charge is the Rev. Thomas Patterson, who succeeded the Rev. G. W. Sheets. The names of earlier pastors will be found in the history of the Claysville Methodist Episcopal Church..

Physicians.—About the year 1794 one Dr. William Blachly moved to this county and settled in Morris township, at what is now known as Lindley's Mills Station. He practiced medicine in that region of country for some twelve or fifteen years, after which he moved to the State of Ohio. He was the first physician located in the township. It is said of him that he was more remarkable for his energy and boldness of character than learning and skill in the profession. He was succeeded by Dr. Henry W. Blachly, son of Dr. Ebenezer S. Blachly, of Paterson, N. J., and a distant relative .of the aforesaid Dr. William Blachly.

Dr. Henry W. Blachly received his medical education in New York City, and practiced one year in copartnership with Dr. William Budd in that .city before coming to Morris township, where he settled near the village of Prosperity in 1806. He had an extensive practice for over forty years, and ever held a first rank in the profession. He was also a surgeon of much skill, and kept himself in readiness to operate when necessary. He had a number of medical students under his tuition, and left four sons and two sons-in-law in the profession at his death. His end was sudden and unlooked for, having attended his patients until within a few hours of his death, at the age of sixty-three. His widow still survives, at the great age of ninety-three.

Dr. Stephen L. Blachly, son of Henry W., succeeded his father, having been his partner in the practice for twelve years. He still continues in the practice. A more extended biographical sketch of Dr. Blachly is given elsewhere in the history of this township.

In the year 1849, Dr. Joseph Warren Blachly, also son of Henry W., located after his father's death in the village of Prosperity, and continued the practice of medicine for some ten years in that vicinity. His health failing him he removed to Washington, and engaged in the drug trade.

For the last five years Dr. Oliver L. Blachly, son of Stephen L., has been associated with his father in general practice. He graduated in his scientific course at Waynesburg College, and in his medical course at Jefferson College, Philadelphia. He is a member of the County Medical Society, also of the State and United States Medical Associations, and the Alumni Association of Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. Thus have the Dr. Blachlys administered to the wants of suffering humanity in Morris township for a period of eighty-seven years successively.

In the year 1865, Dr. Ezra Cary, formerly of New Jersey, located in the village of Prosperity. Dr. Cary was associated with the medical corps of the army for some time during the war of the Rebellion, after which he took his degree from the Jefferson College, Philadelphia. He is a member of the County Medical Society. His practice has been remunerative and honorable.

Concord is a hamlet situated in the southwest corner of the township, and contains three dwellings, a grocery-store, a blacksmith-shop, a post-office, of which T. W. Minton is postmaster, and the old Concord Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The history of this church (the first of this denomination in the county) will be found in an article on Cumberland Presbyterianism in the general history, contributed by the Rev. Azel Freeman.

Sparta.—The old village (if it could properly be so termed) of Sparta was laid out in 1816, as is shown by an advertisement found in the Washington Reporter of January in that year, as follows :


"The Subscriber informs the public that he has laid out a town on the waters of Ten Mile, Morris Township, Washington County, 11 miles from Washington, 14 from Waynesburgh, and 16 from Alexandria. Said town lies between the Middle and North fork of Ten Mile, and in a beautiful Situation; being on the public road that leads from Washington to Mason's Station, and surrounded by a rich country. There are five Grist-mills and five saw-mills adjacent thereto. Also a Fulling-mill within one mile of this town, and there is a great abundance of building stone and stone coal-banks. The lots will be laid out in a paral elo-


gram square, so as to contain one-fourth of an acre of land. Good spring-water in abundance to be had very convenient. Any persons desirous of purchasing lots in this beautiful situation may have the terms of sale made known by application to the proprietor.

"P. S.—This town is adjacent to places of public worship and schoolhouses.

"Jan. 29, 1816."

The town, so magnificent in its location and advantages, was evidently all on paper. It does not appear that any of its lots were sold, nor is there found in any records anything to show that John Brooks ever bought, sold, or owned any lands in this township. But that there was a post-office located there at that time or not long afterwards appears from an advertisement of Aaron Kerr, postmaster, dated "Sparta, Washington Co., Aug. 17, 1818," in which he requests "all wishing mail sent to this office to notify him." Mr. Kerr opened a store and remained as postmaster till 1822. A notice in the Reporter of June 1st of that year says, "John Lindley is appointed postmaster of Sparta, in place of Aaron Kerr, removed." Mr. Lindley at this time lived on the adjoining farm. About 1830, , Leonard Vail, who also lived near, opened a store at Sparta and did a thriving business for several years in wagoning, buying cattle, and selling goods. He was appointed postmaster in 1835. At this time there were two other post-offices established on the route from Washington to Waynesburg, —one at Van Buren, two and a half miles north of where Sparta post-office was then kept, and another three miles east of Sparta, called Lindley Mills post-office. The growth of the country by this time demanded another post-office westward from where Sparta was then located. The citizens of this region petitioned for the removal of Sparta post-office westward two and a half miles, which gave about equal distances between the three post-offices above named, and after a vigorous contest the department granted the removal and appointed Dr. S. L. Blachly postmaster in 1842. That removal settled the location of Sparta up to this time. It has for many years been a business point for the accommodation of the surrounding country, and now is furnished with a daily mail. Sparta is situated twelve miles a little west of south from Washington, and fourteen miles north of Waynesburg, on a branch of Middle Fork of Ten-Mile.. Sparta at present contains six dwellings, a smith-shop, store, post-office, grist-mill, and two physicians, Dr. S. L. and Dr. O. L. Blachly.

Lindley's Mills.—This village (also post-office and railway station of same name) is situated in the southeast part of Morris township, and contains eight dwellings, a store, blacksmith-shop, mill, and the depot of the Waynesburg and Washington Railroad. The post-office at Lindley's Mills had been established before the removal of the office from old Sparta three miles up the Middle Fork. The present postmaster of Lindley's Mills is John Nickerson. The site of Lindley's Mills was included in a tract taken up in 1788 by Joseph Headley, who erected a mill of logs, which he afterwards replaced by a frame building. Later the mill was rebuilt by Adam Weir. The mil property is now owned by John Clutter, Sr.



Dr. Stephen L. Blachly traces his paternal ancestry nearly two and one-half centuries to one Thomas Blachly, who was of Hartford in 1640, New Haven in 1643, and Branford in 1645. He signed the agreement with those who migrated from Branford to settle in Newark, N. J., but did not go with them, and did not receive a part of the division of lands set off to him. His children were Aaron, Moses, Miriam, and Abigail.

Aaron Blachly married Mary Dodd, of Guilford. They had nine children,—Mary, Thomas, Dr. Ebenezer, Hannah, Daniel, Joseph, Benjamin, Sarah, and Susanna in uncertain order. He sold his land in Newark, and was of Guilford in 1683.

Dr. Ebenezer Blachly, the first, lived at Dix Hills, Huntington township, L. I. The children were Elizabeth, Dr. Ebenezer, Joseph, Benjamin, and Daniel.

Dr. Ebenezer, the second, was born in 1709, and died at "The Ponds," N. J. He married Hannah. Miller, and had eight children,—Frances, Zophar, Dr. Ebenezer, Miller, Sarah, Cornelius, Mary, and Marcy.

Dr. Ebenezer Blachly, the third, was born in 1735, and died April 19, 1805. He married Mary Wickham, and lived and died near Mendham, N. J. He was one of the founders of the New Jersey Medical Society in 1766, and was a surgeon in the Revolutionary war. He had twelve children in his family,— seven sons and five daughters. Five of his sons, viz., Ebenezer, Henry W., Absalom, William, and Cornelius C., were physicians, and his oldest daughter, Mary, married a physician, Dr. Hezekiah Stites Woodruff.

Dr. Ebenezer Blachly, the fourth, was born in 1760, and died Aug. 20, 1812. He entered the American service under age in the Revolution as surgeon's mate to a North Carolina regiment which was encamped near the old Raritan bridge in the winter of 1778. He also acted as a volunteer assistant surgeon to a regiment in the Pennsylvania line. He vas at the battle of White Plains in 1776, in winter-quarters at Valley Forge in 1777, and in the battle of Monmouth in 1778. After the war he married Elizabeth, daughter of Col. Oliver Spencer, and settled in Paterson, N. J., where he enjoyed an extensive and successful practice. He had nine children,—Nancy, Dr. Ebenezer S., Dr. Henry Wickham, Mary J., Juliana, Bayard P., a druggist of New York City, Eliza, Jo-


seph W., and Oliver, wholesale dry-goods' merchants of Cincinnati.

Dr. Henry Wickham Blachly was born April 17, 1786, in Paterson, N. J. He read medicine with his father, and after finishing his medical studies in New York City, practiced there for a short time with Dr. William Budd. He then 'settled in Washington County, Pa., where he practiced for forty years. He was devoted to his calling, and was very successful. He married Hannah Loveridge, Jan. 9, 1806. They had twelve children,—Ebenezer S., Milton, Eveline, Maria J., Stephen L., Eliza, Oliver B., Joseph Warren, Lucilla Caroline, Harriet Newell, Henry W., and Hannah Louisa, named in the order of their births.

Dr. Ebenezer S. Blachly completed his medical course in Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. He was twice married. His first wife was Martha Hanna, who was the mother of his children, five in number, and after her death he married Elizabeth Alison, who is still living. But one of his children, Bayard Milton Blachly, grew to maturity. He was a physician, and practiced for about thirty years in Waynesburg, Greene Co., Pa., the scene of his father's professional labors.

Milton Blachly died when sixteen years of age. Eveline Blachly married Dr. William B. Porter, of Fayette County, Pa. They died leaving three children,—Maria, who married Francis Braddock ; Louisa, who married William Carter; John Henry, who married Hannah McAfee. He was a physician, and died soon after completing his medical studies.

Maria J. Blachly married Dr. Lutellus Lindley, of Connellsville, Fayette Co., Pa, She died leaving one son, Dr. Henry B. Lindley, of Perrysville, Allegheny Co., Pa.

Eliza Blachly married John Milton Lindley. He died leaving three children,—Bayard, Colin, and Sarah.

Oliver B. Blachly married for his first wife Ellen Cracraft, by whom he had five children, —Byron, Henry, Oliver, Mary, and Howard. His second wife was Ella Hunt.

Joseph Warren Blachly was a physician who practiced successfully in his native county for a number of years. He married Eliza Minton, by whom he had four children,—Maria ; Ella, who is dead ; Joseph Warren, who is dead ; and Frank, who married Hannah Post. He is a physician, and practices at Good Intent, Washington County, Pa.

Lucilla Caroline Blachly married I. N. Day, a farmer of Morris township, Washington County, Pa. Their living children are Henry B., married to Alice Vail ; Homer, married to Nettie Donahey, is a physician practicing in Smyrna, Ohio ; Cora L.

Harriet Newell Blachly married Harvey Lindley. Their children are Henry B., who married Sarah Vankirk, and diet at the age of thirty-three years ; Ann Eliza, married to. Samuel Cozad; Oscar, Howard, and Abraham Lincoln.

Henry W. Blachly is a .physician practicing in Cavette, Ohio. He married Caroline Cracraft, and has two children,—Mary, married to Dr. Emrick, of Dowds' Station, Iowa ; and Henry W., who is a lawyer in Van Wert, Ohio.

Hannah Louisa Blachly, the youngest of the family, never married.

Dr. Stephen L. Blachly, of this family, so remarkable for its medical proclivities, was born in Sparta, Washington Co., Pa.,. Dec. 11, 1815, and has spent all of his professional life in the locality where his father so long wore the wreath of medical honor. Having completed his preparatory education at Washington College, in his native county, he read medicine under the direction of his father, and afterward entered Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, from which institution he received his degree. He was associated with his father in the practice of his profession until the death of the latter in 1849, practiced alone until 1877, and since that date has associated with him his son, Dr. Oliver L. Blachly. While engaging in a general practice, he has given special attention to surgery, and for a number of years has attended all of the surgical cases in his vicinity, performing amputations, etc., sometimes using in his operations a case of surgical instruments now in his possession, and once owned by his great-grandfather, Dr. Ebenezer Blachly the third, and used by him during his service as a surgeon in the Revolutionary war.

Dr. S. L. Blachly is one of the oldest practitioners in the county, and one of the oldest members of the Washington County Medical Society, of which he has been president at various times. He is a member of the State Medical Society of Pennsylvania, of which he was elected first vice-president in 1873, and by which he was appointed censor for the Eighth District in 1874, which position he has held by annual appointment ever since. He is also a member of the American Medical Association and of the Alumni Association of Jefferson Medical College. His practice, extending over a large district, has involved much hard labor, and has been fairly remunerative. During the late war he served as a volunteer surgeon after the second battle of Bull Run, and after the battle of the Wilderness. He has been a diligent student of medical journals, and occasionally a contributor to the same. His intelligent discharge of his professional duties and his careful observance of the rules of medical ethics have secured for him the confidence of his neighbors and the good will of his professional brethren. He is likewise esteemed as a man and citizen. He has been a member of Upper Ten-Mile Presbyterian Church for over forty years, and an elder in the same for twenty-five years. He was married Jan. 9, 1840, to Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Lindley, who was a descendent of Francis Lindley, Who came to this country with his Puritan brethren from Holland in the " Mayflower." By this marriage