there were five children, two of whom died in infancy. Those living are Mary Minerva, married to Stephen J. Day, a merchant in Sparta; Henry Spencer, a druggist of Waynesburg, Greene Co., Pa.; and Dr. Oliver L., married to Anna Sherrard, daughter of Rev. John Sherrard. They have one son, Stephen Lindley Blachly. Sarah (Lindley) Blachly died Nov. 25, 1857, and the doctor was married July 28 1859, to his present wife, Maria Wade, daughter o James and Margaret Wade, of Fayette County, Pa.


ALL the territory now embraced in Mount Pleasant township was originally comprehended in the townships of Smith, Cecil, Hopewell, and Canton. The erection of Chartiers from Cecil on the 12th of March, 1790, and of Cross Creek from Hopewell in the same year brought a part of this territory in those townships. In January, 1806, a petition of citizens of this section was presented to the grand jury of the Court of Quarter Sessions, praying for the erection of a new township. This body passed upon it favorably, and the matter was brought to the notice of the court at the May term, and on the 12th of that month the action of the grand jury was confirmed, and decree ordered for the erection of a township to be called Mount Pleasant. A slight addition was made to the township from Chartiers in 1831.

The territory comprehended in this township has been at different times in the early years included in election districts Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6. It was erected into a separate election district March 28, 1808, but for some reason did not so remain, and continued to be included in districts with other territory till 1838, when it became independent. The names of justices having jurisdiction here prior to that time will be found in the lists of Smith, Cecil, Peters, Chartiers, and Cross Creek townships. Those elected for Mount Pleasant since that time are here given, viz. :

James Hughes, April 14, 1840.

John Reed, April 14, 1840.

John Reed. April 15, 1845.

James Hughes, April 15, 1845.

James Hughes, April 9, 1850.

A. B. McKeever, April 9, 1850.

James McCloskey, April 13, 1853.

James Hughes, April 10, 1853.

John Reed, May 10, 1858.

Thomas McCarron, April 10, 1860.

James Hughes, May 5, 1863.

John Reed, Sept. 25, 1863.

James B. Buchanan, Nov. 24, 1869.

John M. Miller, April 15, 1873.

James B. Buchanan, Jan. 17,1874.

John M. Miller, Jan. 31, 1874.

James B. Buchanan, March 7, 1875.

John M. Miller, March 27, 1879.

James B. Buchanan, March 30, 1880

Early Settlements.—Daniel McGugin, a native of Ireland, came to this county in 1770, and in 1775 his son David was born. He took up and afterwards settled on the farm adjoining the one to which he first moved. Tile land was not warranted until Dec. 4, 1816, and then to David, the son of Daniel McGugin. The following note is attached to the survey : " The above described land has been improved since the year 1770, and a continued resident settlement kepi up ever since." In 1791 the land was assessed t( Ann McGugin (widow of Daniel), in Cross Creel township, and in 1817 in Mount Pleasant. David lived on the homestead till his death in 1861. He was an early advocate of abolition principles, anc lived only to see the fight for the downfall of slavery commenced. Daniel removed to West Middletown, where he kept a hotel many years, and died in 1852. James went to New Orleans in a flat-boat and on his return to New York by sea died of fever on shipboard. A daughter married John Cloud, an elder in Raccoon Church ; their son, John Cloud, Jr. was a missionary to Africa, and died in 1834. The homestead of Daniel McGugin is now in possession of Alexander McGugin, a grandson. On this farm an experimental oil well has been sunk. A depth o eighteen hundred feet was reached when there commenced a very strong flow of gas which accidentally took fire, and has not yet (July 1, 1882) been extinguished. The light from it can be seen at night distance of twenty miles.

John McCarty emigrated to what is now Washing ton County about the year 1773. He located on tract of land at the head of Cherry Run Valley. The farm is now owned by Robert Farrar. He was an energetic, hard-working pioneer, and in the course o a few years had made an extensive improvement. I was not until Feb. 13, 1786, that Mr. McCarty tool out a warrant for his land, which was surveyed to him the 10th of June the same year under the name of "Rhodes," and contained three hundred acres. Thy first cabin was built a little east of where the dwelling-house of Mr. Farrar now stands. He lived hen all his days and died here. He had five sons,—Timothy, John, James, Samuel, and Robert, and a daughter Cassia, who married William Elder, and settler on the west part of Midway village. He died, am the property was sold to J. M. Clark, Esq. She is now living at Butler, Pa.

Timothy, the eldest son of John McCarty, Sr., was born on the homestead in 1775, and when he arrived at maturity his father gave him one hundred am seven acres, part of the Rome tract. He married


daughter of Thomas McConnell, of Robinson township, and lived on the place till his death. John, his only son, inherited the place. John, the second son of John McCarty, settled on one hundred acres of the home tract also given him by his father. He sold it to John, the son of Timothy, in 1835, and removed to Ohio. James, the third son, never married, but lived with his father and brothers, and died there. Samuel lived on the homestead, and later sold to Robert Farrar, who still owns it. Robert, the youngest son, died in 1819.

A military warrant of thirteen hundred and seven acres lying on the waters of Chartiers Creek was granted to Barton Lucas for military services. A patent from Virginia, dated July 28, 1780, was issued to Matthew Ritchie and William Bruce, as assignees of Lucas. On the 17th of October, 1797, Ritchie and Bruce conveyed one hundred and nine acres of the tract to John Hammond, who occupied it and lived there till his death, when it was sold to Nicholas White. Mr. Hammond left nine children, who all went West except .Martha, who married James Thompson, and Jane, who married Samuel Wilson and lived on a farm adjoining her father. McClure White now owns the property.

Robert Guthrie was one of the pioneers of the county, and settled on a tract of land in the township which was patented to him Sept. 25, 1788. It lay about three miles from Hickory, on the road to Canonsburg. On the 15th of June, 1793, he conveyed seventy-nine acres to James Guthrie. Other portions were sold to Andrew and Robert Wilson. Andrew devised his portion to his brother Robert and two nieces, one of whom married Alexander Gaston, the other Thomas Struthers. Robert Thompson married Joseph Guthrie's daughter, and they own a portion of the original tract.

William Campbell came from York County in 1772, and settled on the farm now owned by his grandson, Napoleon B. Campbell. He was driven away by the Indians, returned about 1778, and became a man of influence in that section of country. He was a commissioner of the county in 1799. He purchased large tracts of land in this and Hanover township. He lived many years and died on the homestead, leaving six sons and one daughter. They all emigrated but two, James and Jesse. The former lived on the homestead, where he died in 1837, leaving the property to his son, Napoleon B. Campbell. Jesse died in 1858.

Charles Campbell came to this township before 1780, and settled on the farm where Moses Lyle now lives on Raccoon Creek. He married Abigail Rankin, who died in 1804. He died in 1819. His children, except one, went to the West. John remained on the homestead, a part of which is now owned by his grandson, John Campbell.

John McCammant, whose father had settled previously in Cross Creek township, came to Mount Pleasant from Lancaster County in 1806, and bought the Zachariah Rankin farm. Later he bought the Tannehill farm, formerly the David Acheson tract. Here he lived till his death in 1860, aged seventy-eight years. His son John also remained on the farm till April, 1872, when he purchased the Samuel Cowen farm, where he now resides. James, the oldest son of John, is living in Robinson township. Alexander is living on the original Zachariah Rankin farm. A daughter, Polly, married John Henderson, a grandson of the Rev. Matthew Henderson, and settled where John Carter now lives. Eliza married Samuel Moore.

Joshua Pyles emigrated from east of the mountains, and settled on a tract of land which was surveyed to him as " Albemarle," for which a patent was granted Aug. 15,1787. He was a carpenter, as was his son James, who now lives in the township.

John Henderson, a son of the Rev. Matthew Henderson, then living in Ohio County, Va., purchased a tract of ninety acres from William McGarrah, and settled on it. It was left by him to his son John, who married Polly McCalmont, daughter of John McCalmont, of Mount Pleasant township. John Henderson, Jr., left the property by will to his brother Robert, a physician, who lived in the West. It is now owned by John Carter.

Robert Montgomery took out a warrant for a tract of land Oct. 7, 1786, which was surveyed for one hundred and ninety-two acres, and named " Greenville." He sold forty-eight acres to Sarah Chapman, March 4, 1809. Richard Chapman, the husband of Sarah, built a log tavern in the fields near this property in 1796. Custom was good, and they were soon enabled to move up to the road, where they built a better house. James Miller and Robert Thompson each had stills, and they each gave him ten gallons of whiskey to start with. The tavern was first called " Blue Ball," and later "Cross Keys." Richard died on the place, and his wife Sarah at Pittsburgh. They accumulated considerable property, and remained there till about 1815. Alexander, a son, and Joel Lambum, a son-in-law, removed to Claysville. Robert, the oldest son, went to Burgettstown, and opened a tavern, but soon failed. Andrew prospered, purchased a farm in Buffalo township, and married a sister of Alexander Campbell.

Lodowyck McCarroll, of Bladensburg, Md., married Martha, daughter of John Leman, of Canton township, and on the 6th of November, 1797, purchased one hundred and five acres of land of Arthur and John Patterson, sons of Thomas Patterson. It was situated in the southern part of Mount Pleasant township, and was a part of a tract termed " Complaint." On the 31st of August, 1803, he purchased two hundred and thirty-eight acres of land of John Ritchie, executor of the estate of Matthew Ritchie, and David Bruce, attorney for William Bruce. This was part of the Virginia patent of thirteen hundred and seven acres granted by Lord Dunmore to Barton Lucas. On this


last purchase Mr. McCarroll lived and died, leaving four sons—John, Thomas, Leman, Andrew—and two daughters. John removed to Beaver County and died there. Thomas lived on part of the homestead. He was elected an associate judge of Washington County, June 3, 1862. He had six sons, of whom three became physicians,—Dr. John McCarroll, now of Wellsville, Ohio, Dr. James McCarron, of Allegheny City, Pa., and Dr. David McCarron, of Hickory. Leman McCarroll settled on the homestead, and still resides there. Lodowyck McCarron is a lawyer, residing in Washington. Rev. Alexander McCarroll is pastor of a church at Stewart's Station, Westmoreland Co. Of the two daughters, Margaret became the wife of Joseph Cowden, of Cecil township, and Martha resides on the homestead with her brother Leman.

Andrew McCarron, son of Lodowyck, is now living, at the age of seventy years, on a part of the homestead. Leman, brother of Andrew, was a tanner, and settled at Canonsburg, where he lived and died. Of the daughters of Lodowyck, Elizabeth became the wife of John Cockins ; the other daughter married Judge Isaac Hodgins.

James Ridgeway came to this country when the territory on which he took up land was in Hopewell township. A warrant was taken out Aug. 28, 1789. The tract he purchased was named " Forest." James Ridgway married Mary, daughter of John Leman, and widow of one Stewart, by whom she had a daughter Mary. In the will of John Leman, dated June 28, 174 Mary Ridgeway is mentioned, and on the 15th of September, 1796, James and Mary Ridgeway signed a release with the other heirs of John Leman to Mary, the wife of John Leman, and Aug. 19, 1796, James Ridgeway and Mary, his wife, conveyed to Joseph Irons thirty-seven acres of land adjoining the land of the heirs of Thomas Patterson. From the above facts it is evident that Mary Leman was the widow not only of Stewart, but of Thomas Patterson also, and as Thomas Patterson died soon after, it is quite possible she was his wife for a short time. Mr. Ridgeway in 1792 was assessed in Canton township on two hundred and twenty acres of land, and in 1807 in Mount Pleasant township on one hundred and seventy acres. The place on which he lived in 1796 was then in Cross Creek township, now Mount Pleasant. The Washington Telegraphe and Western Advertiser of Sept. 6, 1796, gives the following account of a tragedy which occurred at his house:


"On the evening of Sunday, Sept. 4,1796, Mary Stewart, a little girl of nine or ten years old, was found murdered in the house of her stepfather, James Ridgeway, on Cross Creek, in this county. It seems the deceased was eft in charge of the house while the rest of the family were at meeting, and in their absence some person committed the above horrid murder or dashing the child's brains with an axe, and afterwards robbed the louse of a suns of money, amounting to near one hundred dollars, together with several other articles. A man calling himself sometimes James Stewart, and at other times Brown, who was seen loitering about he neighborhood a few days before, is strongly suspected. Several per sons are in pursuit of him, and it is hoped he will be shortly apprehended, and, if guilty, meet that punishment which the perpetrator of so horrid a crime richly deserves."

The verdict of the coroner's jury (one of whom it David McGugan, father of A. V. McGugan, was "that she came to her death by the hand of some one to the jury unknown."

"Suspicion did indeed rest¹ on a young man named S--, the son of a pious father, but himself not above the suspicion. But there was a proof, not even circumstantial evidence sufficient to justify his arrest But the eye of suspicion was closely upon him, and he soon disappeared from the community. Years after, John Brownlee, Sr., the cousin wh was with the Ridgeways the Sabbath evening of the murder, while fellowing Isis vocation as a New Orleans trader,' met with this man in: bar-room on the bank of the Ohio River. They were only so far acquainted as to enable them to recognize each other. In the course of brief interview the matter of the murder of Isabel S. came up. They to were alone in the room, when S. proposed to B. the question, 'Did yo ever hear my mime connected with the guilt of that murder?' Feel is, that it was an occasion for plain dealing, after a pause B. responded, Yes I have so heard ;' and, looking him straight in the eye, he added,' I believe that you were the murderer of my cousin, Isabel S,' The man: S., without a word in response, arose, and passing from the room, as seen no more. The name of Mr. Ridgeway, the step-father of babe was also connected, in the judgment of some, with the guilt of the murder. The reasons for the suspicion were, first, the matter of his return for his tobacco after all had started to the church ;² second, the fact that the life of Isabel was all that stood in the way of his joint ownership with his with of the farm on which they lived. But while the circumstances furnished a seeming basis for these suspicions entertained by some, the whole makeup of the man was such as, in the judgment of those who knew him best, and in the judgment of the extensive cinch of the relationship of the murdered Isabel, entirely precluded the thought of his guilt. He died at an advanced age in West Middletown about the year 1834. The afflicted mother survived her bereavement number of years, bearing all the while near to her heart the great some of her life. It was almost literally true in her experience that 'sh never smiled again.'"

Matthew Atcheson's name appears first on record in a bill of sale made by David Rankin to him on the 10th of April, 1778, in which Rankin sells "unto Matthew Atcheson, of said county, a tract of land situate on the head-waters of Raccoon Creek, adjoining lands of William Rankin, Thomas Cherry, and John Reed." Matthew Atcheson was a native of Ireland, who emigrated to this country with his wife and four sons, David, Matthew, Humphrey, and Robert. Matthew Atcheson, Sr., died about 1814, leaving sons, David, Matthew R., Humphrey, John, and a daughter, Jean (Mrs. Moses Cherry). The original farm is now owned by Robert and Matthew Atcheson and John Henderson.

David Atcheson, the oldest son, had part of the estate, and lived and died there.

Matthew Reed Atcheson, the second son of Matthew, Sr., lived on part of the tract, which his father gave him by deed Dec. 10, 1803. He was justice of the peace many years, and died on the farm, leaving five sons, who all moved to Ohio except Samuel, who

¹ From an account of the murder by the Rev. John T. Brownlee. It will be noticed that be gives the name Isabel to the murdered girl, white the account in the newspaper has it Mary.

² Mr. Ridgeway had started for church, and proceeded some distance, when he recollected he had left his tobacco behind, and returned to the house for it, when there was no one in the house but the child who was afterwards found murdered.


lives on the old homestead. Humphrey, the third son of Matthew, took out a warrant for three hundred acres of land, " including an improvement on the head-waters of Raccoon •Creek," on the 8th of September, 1785. He was a school-teacher, and taught in the township. He gave to his sons David and John all of the land covered by the warrant except one hundred and nineteen acres, which was the homestead. John sold his portion to David and went West. Humphrey went West after a few years. Humphrey Atcheson, Sr., died about the 1st of December, 1814. John McCammant, Jr., now owns the homestead.

John McCalmont was a blacksmith and farmer. He had a distillery on the farm now owned by Alexander McCalmont, his son, on the road from Hickory to Burgettstown. He bought the farm of Robert Atcheson, and lived there till his death. James, his eldest son, lives near Raccoon Church. John lives in the township, southwest of Hickory.

Before the year 1800, John Cloud lived on a farm adjoining that of William Hughes, where he remained a number of years. He was an elder in the Raccoon Church during the pastorate of the Rev. Moses Allen, and later moved to Beaver County, Pa., and still later to Ohio, then to Salem, Beaver Co., Pa. He was an elder in the churches where he lived. His son, afterwards the Rev. John Cloud, was born Dec. 9, 1801, on the farm in Mount Pleasant (then in Cross Creek township). He graduated at Jefferson College in 1830, and entered the Allegheny Seminary, and prosecuted a full course of theological study. He was ordained by the Presbytery of New York, in the Brick Church (Dr. Spring's), on the 11th day of October, 1833, with a view to foreign missionary work. He entered upon these duties at once, and sailed for Africa on the 6th of November the same year, with the Rev. Matthew Laird and wife. A few weeks after reaching Monrovia (the place of their labors) he was prostrated by the African fever, which so reduced him that a commencement of active duty in the spring brought on dysentery, from which he died April 9, 1834. Two sons and a daughter of John Cloud, Sr., still reside at Hookstown, Beaver Co., Pa., where the father lived in his latter days.

William Patterson, before 1788, owned one hundred and fifty acres of land, and later owned three hundred and fifty-five acres on the road from Canonsburg to Hickory. He lived here many years. He finally sold to David Huston, of Canonsburg, and he and his sons went West. He lived here for a time, and his son David now owns it.

William Hughes, a native of York County, Pa., was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. He emigrated to this county and settled in 1778, in the lower part of Cross Creek township (now Jefferson). He returned East and married, and in the spring of the next year came out to what is now Mount Pleasant township, with John and Elias Cowen. Mr. Hughes built a tannery, which was in operation until about 1835. He was elected a justice of the peace and served several terms, and was an elder in Upper Buffalo Church. He died in March, 1831, aged seventy-six years. A son, Dr. John Hughes, was a surgeon, and died in the war of 1811 at Lower Sandusky. James remained on the homestead. He was elected justice of the peace in 1840, and held the position for several terms. Was an elder in Mount Prospect Presbyterian Church, active in all good works, and died in 1872, highly beloved and respected by all.

Robert Lyle, a native of Northampton County, Pa., and a brother of Aaron and John Lyle, came to this township with his wife and one child in 1784, and bought one hundred and forty acres of land of David Decker, and also the eighty acres of John Brown, and on which he settled. Four years later, Oct. 31, 1789, he purchased a tract of one hundred and forty acres adjoining of David Decker, and sold the first tract to his brother, John Lyle. On this last tract he moved and lived till his death, Nov. 25, 1843. He was an elder at different periods in Cross Creek, Upper Buffalo, and Mount Prospect Churches. He had four sons,—Samuel, David, John, and William. Samuel was a teacher, and died in West Middletown in 1813. David died on the home farm in 1863, a bachelor. John and William married and removed to Belmont County, Ohio. The former died in 1851, the latter in 1854. Of the seven daughters, Ann married Robert Simpson in 1820, and in 1827 lived in Cross Creek township on land now owned by their son, James Simpson. Isabel married John White, and lived in Hopewell township. Their son, R. Lyle White, was an editor, and for a time .edited a paper in Conncllsville, Fayette Co. Margaret married James Dinsmore, and settled in Cross Creek township. She still lives on the place where they settled. Mary married William' Smith, and settled near Mansfield, Ohio. Their son, Dr. William Smith, was a lieutenant in the Mexican war, a lieutenant-colonel in the late Rebellion, and is now an eminent physician in Van Wert, Ohio. Rosanna became the wife of William Reed, of Cross Creek township, and settled in Ashland County, Ohio. Their son, Joseph R. Reed, is now judge of a district embracing ten counties in Iowa. He resides at Council Bluffs.

John Lyle was a native of Northampton County, and brother of Aaron and Robert Lyle. He was a lieutenant in the Revolutionary war, and was at the battle of Long Island. He came to the county with his brothers, and about 1876 purchased of his brother Robert the one hundred and forty acres he first purchased of Decker and Wilson, where Miller now lives. Here he lived, and died in 1826, aged seventy-four years. His children were David, John, and Joseph, Elizabeth and Nancy. David married a daughter of Peter Kidd, and moved to Ohio. John lived on the homestead, a bachelor, and died in 1853. He was county commissioner in 1822. Joseph lived on a farm


adjoining the homestead, and died in October, 1881, aged eighty-four years. Elizabeth became the wife of John Proudfoot, and moved to near Burgettstown, where their descendants still live. Nancy became the wife of William Rankin, and remained in the township. She died in 1870.

James Simpson, a native of Ireland, emigrated to Delaware in 1768, was in the Revolutionary war. In 1779 he married Margaret Conier, and in 1783, with two others, made a tour of the Western country with a view to the purchase of land. There were no public roads, but the trail (supposed to be the old Mingo path) was marked by blazed trees. At that time but three cabins were at Burgettstown; the millwrights were placing the burr-stones in Burgett's mill. He settled first in Chartiers township, between Pigeon Creek and Chartiers Creek. On the 10th of April, 1797, he purchased fifty acres of land of George Stephenson, adjoining Hugh Patton, John Woods, George Stephenson, and Francis Andrew. It was part of two tracts on the head-waters of southwest fork of Chartiers Creek, one of which was called " Hillsbury," the other " Walnut Bottom." His wife died in 1815, and his death occurred in September, 1819. They left four sons—John, James, William, and Robert--and four daughters, who all married and removed to Ohio. John and James also went to Ohio and settled. William and Robert remained on the homestead, now owned by William Simpson, the son of William. Robert, in 1827, purchased a farm in Cross Creek township, where he lived till his death, April 22, 1875, aged seventy-eight years. James, the son of Robert, now lives on the property in Cross Creek. There is no person living who is as well informed as James Simpson on all matters pertaining to the history of the western and northwestern part of Washington County, and it is from him that most of the facts given in this work in reference to the northwestern townships of this county have been obtained.

Robert and Thomas Thompson, on the 24th of February, 1790, purchased twenty acres of land on the north fork of Chartiers Creek, in Chartiers township (now Mount Pleasant), including a water-mill, horse-mill, with dam and tail-race. This land was purchased of Hugh McKnight, and is now owned by Owen McKnight. The mill has long since been torn down. Later they purchased an adjoining fifty acres of James McElroy. On this farm they lived. Robert died in 1799, and left six children,—Joseph, Andrew, Alexander, James, and Robert and Lydia. The latter were twins, and born the year their father died. Joseph, the oldest, settled in Mount Pleasant township, where Alexander Gaston now lives. His sons—Joseph, Alexander, and James—were all ministers of the United Presbyterian Church. Joseph was born Sept. 15, 1823, graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, in 1848, was licensed to preach in 1851, and was called to a mission church in West Twenty-fifth Street, New York City, and the same year received a call from a church in Baltimore, Md., and from the congregation of Mount Pleasant, his native township. The last call he accepted, and was ordained and installed April 25, 1853, and remained pastor of the church till his death, Dec. 16, 1861.

Alexander, a son of Joseph Thompson, Sr., was born Dec. 16, 1816, taught school for a time in Cross Creek. Entered junior class in Jefferson College, Canonsburg, in 1843. He entered the ministry and labored in New York City and State, and finally was given charge of a mission in Wilkinsville, Mass., where he died Nov. 12, 1854. James, also a son of Joseph, became a minister of the United Presbyterian Church, and labored in New York City and died there. John, another son of Joseph, lived and died at Canonsburg.

Andrew Thompson, a son of Robert, married Elizabeth Bell, settled on part of his father's homestead, and died in 1859. His son Robert now owns the farm. James Thompson, a son of Robert, lived for a time with John Dawson, at the tavern called "Cross Keys," about half a mile south from Hickory. It was the old Chapman tavern stand. He married Martha Hammond. Her father, John Hammond, settled there in 1807. James Hammond and his wife are now living at Woodrow, he at the age of eighty-eight, and she at seventy-six years. Robert married Nancy Guthrie; and settled in Bloomfield, Ohio. Lydia, the twin sister of Robert, became the wife of Alexander McCall, and settled in Iowa.

Thomas Cherry emigrated from near Bristol, England, with his wife and three children, in 1770, and settled in Frederick County, Md. In 1774 he came to what is now Mount Pleasant township. He built a cabin about one hundred rods west of William P Cherry's present residence. At this place he lived but a short time after making his entry. He was found dead at a spring near the place, with a bullet hole through his brain and his empty gun beside him His scalp was not taken. His own gun was discharged, and the character of the wound led to this conclusion that his death was accidental. The ilex. year his son John was killed by the Indians. Two hundred acres of the tract which was patented a Fairfield, April 12, 1788, was left to Moses Cherry He married Jane Atcheson, daughter of Matthew Atcheson. In addition to this he took up a tract ad joining and east of the home farm. He was in the war of 1812, and died soon after, on the farm, in 1815 aged forty-five years. His children all went West No descendants of this branch now live in the town ship. The farm passed from the heirs of Moses Cherr; to John McBirney, whose sons now occupy it.

Edward, the youngest son of Thomas Cherry, married Rebecca Perrin, of Hopewell township (now In dependence). He purchased the homestead of the heirs, and was born, lived, and died on the homestead His death occurred July 1, 1854, at the age of seventy eight years. He had ten children, of whom William P. is the eldest, now in his seventy-eighth year. He


with two sisters, Maria and Sarah, all unmarried, are living on the homestead. Rebecca, also unmarried, lived with them until her death, Oct. 8,1881. Of the other children, Aaron removed to Tuscarawas County, Ohio, where he died. Edward is settled on a part of the home farm, where he still lives.

The Cherry Fort was situated on this farm a few yards northeast of William P. Cherry's present residence, and consisted of three log buildings, one twenty-five feet square, the others smaller. They were arranged in a triangular form and inclosed with a stockade. This fort was built in the summer and fall of 1774, and was the residence of the Cherrys, and where in time of danger the McCartys, Ranking, and others fled. The large building was two stories in height, with a half-story above, and was built to withstand a formidable attack. Edward Cherry, the youngest son of Thomas, occupied this house many years after, and William P., his oldest son, was born there.

William Rankin, in the fall of 1773, came to what is now Mount Pleasant township, and purchased sixteen hundred acres of land, a part of which had been improved, and returned to his home in Winchester, Va. In the following spring some of his sons came out, cleared land, and planted corn. One or two cabins were erected on the place. In the fall of that year, 1774, William Rankin, with his wife and seven sons and two daughters, moved out to the new plantation, leaving at the old home two sons, David and William, who were married and settled there. October 31st, William and his family moved into a cabin which stood on the hill above the barn in the rear of James Rankin's present residence, and near a fine spring. Here they lived for several years, when 'William Rankin built a hewed log house, larger and more commodious, north of the old cabin, where he lived till his death.

Zachariah Rankin, a son of William, took up a tract of land near his father's on a Virginia certificate. It was surveyed in 1785 as " Black-Oak Ridge," containing three hundred and thirty-seven acres, adjoining William Martin and John Lyle, on the waters of Raccoon Creek. In the October following he was bitten by a mad wolf, and died three months afterwards of hydrophobia. He was married, and a daughter was born after his death. She inherited the property, and became the wife of Jesse Woods. In 1806 they sold the property to John McCammant, whose son, Alexander McCammant, William and Zachariah Rankin took out a Virginia certificate for four hundred and two acres of land February, 1780, that was surveyed as "Chestnut Ridge."

Thomas Rankin, also a son of William, received a tract of land of his father, containing two hundred and fifty acres, a part of two tracts patented by his father,—" Chestnut Ridge" and "High Spring,"—and Feb. 15, 1790, he received a patent for a tract adjoining Samuel Rankin. He lived on part of his lands many years, and sold to John Cunningham, and moved near Cadiz, Ohio, where he died. Samuel Rankin, also a son of William, settled on land left him by his father. James, his son, now owns one hundred and twenty-five acres of it, and the heirs of David own a part. He died July 10, 1820, and left ten children. William and John settled where James now lives. After his father's death he purchased their interest, and has since lived there. The old mill was built as a saw-mill, in 1806, by Samuel Rankin, and in a few years was changed to a gristmill, and is still used in that work.

The Farrar family of this county are descended from James Farrar, who resided at the beginning of the Revolutionary war in Hunterdon County, N. J. He had six sons—James, John, Peter, Richard, Andrew, and Samuel—and several daughters, of whom all trace has been lost by reason of their marriage and change of name. The oldest son, James, was an army blacksmith, and with his father worked for the American army during its operations in New Jersey. The sons John and Peter were soldiers in Washington's army and were both killed at the battle of Long Island, Aug. 27, 1776.

After the close of the war, Andrew, who is the immediate ancestor of the family, married Margaret Moore, the daughter of one James Moore, a Scotch-Irishman, who resided in what was known as the Craig settlement, in Northampton County, Pa., and removed in 1785 with his brother-in-law, Aaron Lyle (who had married Ellen Moore); across the mountains to Western Pennsylvania, and settled in Mount Pleasant township, where he died Nov. 5, 1832. His family were James, who married a McFarland, and removed to Guernsey County, Ohio, where he died in 1862; Polly, who married John Corey, and removed to Marion County, Ind., where she died in 1872. Nancy, who married first John Gillespie, and after his death ___ Alcorn, and removed to Indiana, where she died; John, who married a Dunlap, and died at Midway, this county, in 1842; Samuel, who married a Simanton, and died at Mount Pleasant township in 1867 ; Thomas, who married a McFarland, and went to California, from where he never returned ; Andrew, who married a Buchanan, and died at Buffalo, in Hopewell township, in 1867 ; Aaron, who married a Griffith, and died at Buffalo in 1846 ; Eleanor, who married Thomas Johnston, and died in 1821; and Joseph, who removed to Ohio in 1834, where he married Isabella Elliott, removed to Iowa in 1854, and died in 1859.

The Simantons are descended from one Robert Simanton, who prior to the Revolution lived in Northampton Co., Pa. His children were John, James, Ephraim, Robert, Peter, Benjamin, Jane, Margaret, Esther, and Polly. The oldest son, John, was a soldier in the patriot army, and died on an English prison-ship in New York harbor. James and Peter were also in the Continental service, and about 1810 removed across the mountains, and settled in Washington


County, the former one mile west of Briceland's Cross-Roads, where he died in 1819, and the latter in Mount Pleasant township, on Cherry's Run, where he died in 1836 at the age of seventy years. James left one son, who never married, but removed to Ohio and died years ago; he also left a number of daughters, who cannot now be traced.

Peter Simanton married a McFarren ; his children were, first, Jane, who married Samuel Farrar, and died in 1881; second, John, who married first a Ramsey, and second Eliza Allen, granddaughter of Rev. John McMillan, and died in 1871; and, third, Isabella, who married Robert Johnston, and died 1830. Jane left a number of descendants, who reside in Mount Pleasant and Smith townships. John left one son, Harper Simanton, who resides on the old homestead in Cherry valley, and two married daughters, Mrs. William Campbell, of Midway, and Mrs. Robert Patterson, of Westmoreland County, Pa.

James McElroy, a native of Scotland, emigrated to this country, and purchased a tract of land on Virginia certificate. He lived on the place the remainder of his days, and died at an advanced age. He had three sons, Alexander, James, and John. Alexander later owned the, farm ; Nancy, a daughter of Alexander, married James Cotton, who now owns the farm. They live in Washington. Eliza J., also a daughter of Alexander, married Joseph Rea, and settled in the neighborhood. James, an only son, was a farmer, and settled in Allegheny County. James, son of James McElroy, Sr., settled in Jefferson County, Ohio ; John, also a son, settled in this township on a farm on the head-waters of Chartiers Creek, now owned by Mrs. Robert Maxwell ; he lived and died there, and left four sons, James, John, Ebenezer, and Alexander, and seven daughters, Susan, Margaret, Eleanor, Mary Elizabeth, Tabitha, and Jane. James settled on his father's farm, and died in Cross Creek township; John and Ebenezer moved to Ohio, and died there. John McElroy, of Washington, is a son of John. Alexander, son of James McElroy, Jr., lived on a farm near the home farm. Dr. Joseph McElroy, of Hickory, is a son. Eleanor married James Canon, a son of John Canon, of Canonsburg, and lived near the homestead of her father. Margaret married — Smith, and lived near the home farm ; the other daughters married and settled in Ohio.

Alexander McConaughy, an Irishman, came to this county and purchased a farm of one hundred and eighty acres, now owned by his great-grandson, Alexander McConaughy. He had a son David, to whom his father left the farm. David had three sons, John, David, and Alexander. He died in October, 1827. John sold his portion of the farm to David and Alexander, and purchased a farm below. Hickory, now owned by James White. He later moved to Ohio, where he died. David went to Ohio, and Alexander lived on the home farm, and died about 1870. His son Matthew now owns the farm.

The Washington Lands.—In the section of country lying between Raccoon Creek and Miller's Run, in Mount Pleasant township; lies a large body of lands, which are among the richest and most productive in the county. These lands, drained on the east by Miller's Run and on the west by Raccoon Creek, include more than two thousand eight hundred acres, which have been known and mentioned for more than a century as "the Washington lands," having been at one time owned by George Washington, of Mount Vernon.

In 1767, before the trans-Allegheny region had been ceded by the Indians, Washington, who had seen it in 1753-55, wrote from Mount Vernon (September 21st) to his friend, Capt. William Crawford, who had settled at Stewart's Crossings on the Youghiogheny, "to look me out a tract of about fifteen hundred or two thousand or more acres somewhere in your neighborhood, meaning only by this that it may be as contiguous to your own settlement as such a body of good land can be found. It will be easy for you to conceive that ordinary or even middling lands would never answer my purpose or expectations so far from navigation and under such a load of expenses as these lands are encumbered with. No, a tract to please me must be rich . . and, if possible, level. Could such a piece be found, you would do me a singular favor in falling upon some method of securing it immediately from the attempts of others, as nothing is more certain than that the lands cannot remain long ungranted when once it is known that rights are to be had. . . ."

Under this arrangement and as soon as application could be filed in the land-office for lands in the " New Purchase" of 1768, four tracts of land, aggregating sixteen hundred and sixty-one acres, in what is now Perry township, Fayette Co., were taken up, warranted to George Washington, William Athel, John Bishop, John Paty, and Thomas Jones. These warrants were all dated April 3, 1769. They all passed soon after to George Washington, for whom they were originally intended, and were patented to him Feb. 28, 1782. The next year after these lands had been secured Washington made a tour through the section now Washington County, and having formed a favorable opinion of it, he instructed his agent, Capt. William Crawford, to select and purchase lands for him in this section. Thereupon Capt. Crawford examined the great tract owned or claimed by George Croghan, but made no purchase from them. In a letter to Washington, dated April 20, 1771, he said,—

" Agreeable to your request I went to view Col. Croghan's land, but before it could be done the line was to be run, which I attended, and viewed the whole, but I could not find the quantity of land you wanted, nor one thousand acres such as you would like, or such as I would have.

. . . . What laud is worth anything is already taken by somebody, whose survey comes within the line we run. But the colonel is not content with that line, as he thinks it does not include lands enough. I am afraid he has not a proper title to what he is now claiming; but I will avoid giving him any certain answer about the laud as long as I can


possibly do so. I have found some good tracts of land on the head of Chartiers Creek and the head of Raccoon Creek. It is good level farming land, and good meadow, but not that quantity you wanted: I believe I can procure you a tract in one body of three thousand acres, which is very good, well watered, and about fifteen or twenty miles from the fort. I have not told him where the line lies, and I am afraid to tell him till he runs the line, for I think if he knew of it he would run it on purpose to have the selling of it to you, as he prides himself much upon it and makes It a handle to all bargains he is making with other people."

In another letter dated Aug. 2, 1771, Crawford says, "I have done nothing with Col. Croghan in regard to the land •you want of him as yet, as I could see none of his land in his line now run that will answer to be laid off as he wants it laid off. I have found some at about fifteen or sixteen miles from Fort Pitt, which is very good farming land, and as good meadow land as any. The upland is level, or no more hilly than is necessary to make the ground dry." The tenor of subsequent letters from Crawford to his principal show that he had succeeded in finding and selecting lands suitable in quality and extent; also that Croghan, on ascertaining this fact, claimed that the lands so selected by Crawford for Washington were within the limits of his (Croghan's) grant, and used every means in his power to induce settlers to locate on the lands Crawford had selected, and promising them assistance to hold their claims against Col. Washington. In the summer of 1773, Crawford wrote his principal,—

" Your lands on Chartiers are safe yet, but how long they may continue so I do not know, as the people that were going to settle on them at the time we come down were driven off, but attempted to return in the spring. I shall settle some man on them if possible, and hope by that means to secure them. Everything in my power shall be done. They must be stronger than I and my party are if they take them. . . ." And again, in a letter dated Spring Garden, Nov. 12, 1773, he said, "The reason these people sat down upon your land was that Colonel Croghan told them the officers and soldiers could never hold one foot of the laud, and he further told them that I heel [no] orders from the Governor to survey any land on the Ohio, that it was only a scheme between you and myself. The only chance you have to get land settled is to get some of your people near where you live to settle, . . . or bring up some hired men, set them to work, and clear some land, and their you may rent it for something. I believe that will be the surest way to improve your land, and with the least expense. Several persons are waiting for your land to relapse, who intend to fall on it immediately thereafter."

Again, in a letter dated Dec. 29, 1773, he said,—

"Some people, about ten or twelve in number, have gone on your Chartier's land within these few days, and there is no getting them off, except by force of arms. They are encouraged by Major Ward, brother [in-law] to Colonel Croghan, who claims the laud and says he has a grant of it from the Crown. He will indemnify them, if they will move in any house where no person is living. He also offers the land for sale, warranting the purchaser a lawful title. Ho further adds that Colonel Croghan says you and I have used his brother very ill, in pretending to buy his land and did not, but went and took the best of it, and would nut agree to pay him. That was the reason offered for selling the land to any person who should choose to buy. . . . Those men have not bought of hint but took your land, and say they will keep it. I could drive them away, but they will come back immediately—as soon as my back is turned. The man I put on the land, they have driven away, and 'built a house so close to his that ha can not get in at the door. . . . Your land is two miles and better from the utmost limits of his land, as you will see by the way it is laid down on the stream called Miller's Run. When Thompson run the land and made out the draft and delivered it to him, Colonel Croghan said it was not run right. Then he employed Mr. Campbell and told him that the river must be twisted up to the mouth of Peter's creek, as that was the bounds of his lands. When Mr. Campbell had run the line as marked, and delivered the draft to him, Colonel Croghan said he not run the land right; he should have allowed him ten degrees for variation of the compass. Then he got Mr. Hooper arid run this last line as you see marked. He then employed Mr. [Dorsey] Pentecost to run thirty thousand acres on the head of Chartier's Creek and Cross Creek. This still left you out; but since then Major Ward takes you and myself and Lund Washington in, and says Colonel Croghan has a grant from the Crown for the land and has given him that part, as low as the mouth of Wheeling."

Capt. Crawford, in a letter dated Jan. 10, 1774, advised Washington to take out a patent (from Virginia) for his lands on Chartiers Creek and Miller's Run, as that would be sure to prevent further dispute and trouble. Thereupon Washington, as a preliminary to the procuring of a patent, directed a survey to be made, which was done, and Crawford, in a letter dated May 8, 1774, says, "Sir,—Inclosed you have the drafts of the Round Bottom Lands, and your Chartiers land, agreeable to Mr. Lewis' direction."

On the 5th of July, 1775, a military patent for these lands was issued to Col. George Washington by Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, describing them as "being in Augusta County, Vir., on the waters of Miller's Run, one of the branches of Char-tiers Creek, a branch of the Ohio."

Crawford again wrote to Washington, Dec. 20, 1776, as follows : " Your land on Chartiers Creek is well cultivated, ready to your hand, the men on it thinking you have no patent for it, or if you have, that you will lease the land on reasonable terms, etc. . . . Some I understand have been trying to sell their rights to your land, but I have had an advertisement printed and set up forewarning any person not to purchase those lands, setting forth your titles, etc."

The settlers still remained in possession of the tracts on which they had located within the limits of the Washington patent. On the 10th of August, 1779, Col. Crawford wrote from Fort Pitt to Washington, who was then in the field as commander-in-chief of the patriot armies, saying, " Dear General,--Agreeable to my promise the last time I had the pleasure of seeing you, I advertised your lands on Chartiers that are settled by those men I formerly informed. you of. They still remain on the land. . . ." And they so continued undisturbed until after the close of the Revolution.

In the fall of the year 1784, after the close of Gen. Washington's military career and before he was called to the Presidency, he made a tour of exploration and inspection through this section of country, and kept a diary of the principal events of his "Journey over the Western Mountains,"¹ covering the time from

¹ This journal has hitherto been unpublished, resting in the original manuscript in the State department at Washington, D, C. The presence of Gen. Washington in Washington County in relation to his lands here has been doubted by many, but that fact, as well as the authenticity of the journal quoted, is established by the following:


"THE HONORABLE W. S. SHALLENBERGER, House of Representatives.

"SIR,—The letter of Mr. Boyd Crumrine, of Washington, Pennsylvania, under date of the 20th ultimo, transmitted by you, has been received. In compliance wits your request I take pleasure in sending


Sept. 1 to Oct. 4, 1784. From that journal the following extracts are made as having reference to his lands in this county. The transcript comprises the entries from September 18th to 21st inclusive, viz.:

"September 18th. Set out with Doctr. Craik for my Land on Miller's run (a branch of Murton; Creek)—crossed the Monongahela at Deboirs [Devorete] Ferry, 16 miles from Simpsons; bated at one Hamilton is, about 4 miles from it, in Washington County, and lodged at a Cole. Cannon's on the waters of Shurtees Creek, a kind, hospitable man; and sensible.

" Most of the land over which we passed was hilly; some of it very rich; ethers thin; between a Colo. Cook's and the Ferry the land was rich, but broken; about Shurtee, and from thence to Colo. Cannon's, the soil is very luxuriant and very uneven.

"September 19th. Being Sunday, and the People living on my Land apparently very religions, it was thought best to postpone going among them till tomorrow; but rode to a Doctr. Johnson's who had the keeping of Colo. Crawford's surveying records; but not finding him at home, was disappointed in the business which carried me there. . . .

"September 20th. Went early this morning to view my Land, and to receive the final determination of those who live upon it. Having obtained a Pilot near the Land I went first to the plantation of Samuel McBride, who has shunt 5 Acres of Meadow, and 30 of Amble Land under good fencing; a logged dwelling house with a 'midden roof, and stable, or small bare, of the same kind; the laud rather hilly but good, chiefly white oak ; next James McBride; 3 or 4 Acres of Meadow 28 Do of Arable Land, Pretty good fencing; Land rather broken, but good; white and black oak mixed; a dwelling-house and barn (of mid-ling size) with Puncheon roofs. Thomas Biggart ; Robert Walker living thereon us a Tenant. No meadow; 20 Acres of Arable Land. A dwelling House and single Barn; fences tolerable, and Land good. William Stewart; 2 and 1-2 Acres of Meadow, 20 Acres of Arable Land; only one house, except a kind of building adjoining for common purposes; good Land and midling fences.

"Matthew Hillast; his within my line about 7 Acres of Meadow, 3 besides; Arable; also a small double Burn.

"Brice McGethen ; 3 Acres of Meadow, 20 Acres Arable: under good fencing; a small new Barn, good.

"Duncan McGechen ; 2 acres of Meadow 38 do Arable Land. A good single Barn, dwelling House, Spring House, and several other Houses,—the Plantation under good fencing.

"David Reel; claimed by the last mentioned (Duncan McGeechen), 2 acres of Meadow, 18 do Arable Land; Nobody living on this place at present—the dwelling House and fencing in bad order.

" John Reed, Esquire; 4 acres of meadow, 38 Do arable Do; a small dwelling House, but logs for u large one, Still House; good laud and fencing.

" David Reed ; 2 acres of meadow, 17 Do amble ; a good logged dwelling House with a bad roof; several other small Houses and au indifferent Barn, or stable; bad fences, but very good Land.

" William Hillas; 20 acres of arable Lund no Meadow. But one house, and that indifferent; fences not good.

"John Glen ; 2-or 3 acres of Meadow within my line; his plantation and the rest of his Land without.

"James Scott; Placed on the Land by Thomas Lapsley ; has 17 acres under good fencing; only a dwelling House (which stops the door of a Cabbin built by Captn. Crawford)—white oak Land; rather thin, but good bottom to clear for meadows.

"Matthew Johnson; 2 acres of Meadow, 24 Do. arable Land; a good Logged house, materials for a dble Barn; very good Land, but indifferent fences.

"James Scott; a large Plantation—about 70 acres of arable Land, 4 Do. of improved Meadow; much more may be made into meadow.—the Land very good, as the fences al do are. A barn, dwelling House and some other Houses.

"The foregoing are all the Improvements upon this Tract which con-talus 2813 .acres. The laud is leveller than is common to be met with in

you a transcript of a portion of the Journal of Washington, being the record of his visit to Washington County, Pennsylvania, September 18th-21st, 1784, which is all that has been found in relation to the subject of Mr. Cruunine's letter.

"I have the honor to be, sir,

"Your obedient servant,


this part of the Country, and good ; the principal part of it is white oak, intermixed In many places with black oak;, and is esteemed a valuable tract.

"Dined at David Reeds, after which Mr. James Scott and Squire Reed began to enquire whether 1 would part with the Land, and upon what terms; adding that though they did not conceive they could be dispose amused, yet to avoid contention, they would buy, if my terms were moderate. I told them I had no inclination to sell; however, after hearing a great deal of their hardships, their religious principles (which had brought them together as a society of Ceceders) and unwillingness to separate or remove, I told them I would make them a last offer and this was:—the whole tract at 25s per acre, the money to be paid at 3 annual payments with Interest ;—or to become Tenants upon leases of 999 years, at the annual Rent of Ten pounds pr. C pr. Ann. The former they had a long consultation upon, and asked if I wd. take that price at a longer credit, without interest, and being answered in the negative they then determined to stand suit for the Land; but it having been suggested that there wets among them some who were disposed to relinquish their claim, I told them I would receive their answers individually; and accordingly calling upon them as they stood, James Scout, William Stewart, Thomas Lepeley, Semi. McBride, Brice McGeechen, Thomas Biggar, David Reed, William Hillas, James McBride, Duncan McGeechen, Matthew Johnson, John Reed, and John Glen, they severally answered, that they meant to stand suit, and abide the issue of the law.

"This business being thus finished, I returned to Colo. Cannon's in company with himself, Colo. Nevil, Captn. Swearingen (high sheriff and a Captn. Richie who had accompanied me to the Land.

"September 21st. Accompanied by Colo. Cannon and Captn. Swearingen who attended are to Debore's ferry on the Monongahela which separates the counties of Fayette and Washington, I returned to Gilbert Simpson's in the afternoon; after dining at one Wickerman’s [Wickerham's] Mill near the Monongahela.

"Colo. Cannon, Captn. Swearingen and Captn. Richie all promised to bunt up the evidence which could prove my possession and improvement of the Land before any of the present occupiers ever saw it"

Concerning tile interview between Washington and the settlers, the story has been told and retold for almost a century that the general declared he would have the land, and accompanied the declaration with an oath, for which Squire Reed promptly fined him five shillings, which the commander-in-chief as promptly paid, and accompanied the payment with an apology for his violation of the laws of God and man. This is represented to have occurred at the house of John Reed, Esq., but it appears from the diary that the interview was held at the house of David Reed. Mr. Joseph Reed, still living, and son of David, says he has often heard his father relate that on that occasion Washington declared most emphatically that he would have the land, but that he never mentioned the circumstance of the oath and fine, and it is, therefore, more than probable that that part of the story is a mere fabrication. The story is related that after the dinner was over the business for which they had met was considered. Squire Reed, on behalf of the settlers, presented their case, spoke of the hardships they had endured, the improvements made, and the increased value of the lands by reason of their labor and claimed that inasmuch as they preferred a peaceable settlement of the matter, and there were grave doubts as to the validity of Gen. Washington's title, the occupants would expect liberal terms from the distinguished claimant. Gen. Washington replied with dignity and some warmth, asserting that they had been forewarned by his agent, and the nature of his claim fully made known ; that there could be no doubt of its validity, and rising from his seat and


holding a red silk handkerchief by one corner, he said, "Gentlemen, I will have this land just as surely as I now have this handkerchief," and that he proposed to sell to them at eight shillings per acre cash. Then Mr. Reed, on behalf of the occupants, replied they neither could nor would accept such terms, and thereupon the conference ended. This story agrees very well with the diary, except as to the price at which he offered them the land.

Soon after this visit Washington secured the services of Thomas Smith, Esq., of Bedford County, leading attorney (afterwards a justice of the Supreme Court), to commence suits of ejectment against the parties. Suit was brought at the December term, 1784. Hugh M. Brackenridge represented the defendants. No claim was made on the part of the settlers to priority of title, and as the rights of Washington by the Virginia patent were well authenticated, the suit was successful against the settlers. The claim brought by them was that the lands were purchased by Col. Washington of Col. George Croghan, who obtained his rights by Indian purchase, which rights were not recognized by either the States of Virginia or Pennsylvania.

The names of the settlers who had located on the Washington lands and against whom ejectment suits were brought were Samuel McBride, James McBride, Thomas Biggert (Bigger), William Stewart, Brice McGehan, Duncan McGehan, John Reed, Esq., David Reed, John Glen, James Scott (the elder), William Hillis, and Matthew Johnson. Possession was given to Gen. Washington, some of the parties remaining on the land as tenants, others on lands adjoining. Thomas Bigger removed to the land on which he settled in 1773 in what is now Robinson township.

Matthew Ritchie acted as the local agent for Washington, and on the 1st of June, 1796, he purchased the entire tract for twelve thousand dollars. Shortly after the purchase he advertised the lands for sale, and says of it, " There are thirteen farms cleared and cultivated. The soil is of excellent qualify, rich, level, well timbered, and well watered." No deeds are on record to show that Matthew Ritchie ever sold any of the tract. He died in the spring of 1798. By his will made on the 25th of February, 1789, and probated in March of that year, he devised this land to Alexander Addison, as follows: " My lands on Miller's Run, bought from Gen. Washington, I give to Alexander Addison and his heirs and assigns, subject to account for the profits after payment of the purchase-money." The executors of the estate were John Ritchie and Alexander Addison. The records do not show any settlement of account by them, nor is there any release on file to Addison, or settlement by him for profits on sale of land.

In the month of March, 1802, Absalom Baird, then sheriff of Washington County, advertised the two thousand eight hundred and thirteen acres of land for sale, they being " The Lands and tenements of Col. Matthew Ritchie, Deceased, in my Bailiwick." He was ordered to levy on the land, "as well as a certain debt of $6409.20, being the two last instalments due upon a mortgage which is held by Bushrod Washington, William Augusta Washington, George Steptoe Washington, Samuel Washington, and Samuel Lewis, Executors, and Martha Washington, Executrix, of Gen. George Washington." In pursuance of this order, the premises were exposed at public vendue on the day advertised, and were sold to Alex-der Addison for sixty dollars, he being the highest bidder. The sheriff's deed bears date May 4, 1802.

Judge Addison commenced the sale of lands after this purchase, and on the 3d of April of that year conveyed three hundred and one acres to James Scroggs, one hundred and forty acres to John Cowden, and one hundred and ninety-four acres to James McDowell.¹ On the 8th of September the same year ninety-nine acres were sold to Matthew Hillis. Two hundred and fifty-one acres were conveyed to John Berry, Aug. 15, 1804 ; one-hundred and fifty acres to Robert George, April 10, 1805; and three hundred and nine acres to Samuel Scott on the 4th of May the same year. Judge Addison died Nov. 27, 1807, and Mrs. Addison, his widow, was the executrix of the estate. She appointed John Johnston her attorney. He purchased two hundred acres of the remainder on. the 1st of April, 1810, and on the 5th of April the same year Jane Addison, as executrix, sold all the residue or remainder of the two thousand eight hundred and thirteen acres yet unsold at this date, which was about thirteen hundred acres, to John Johnson.

Of the settlers on these Washington lands, James McDowell, in addition to his first purchase from Addison, bought of John Johnson one hundred and forty acres (also part of the Washington lands), Jan. 23, 1812. This tract he sold two days later to James Campbell. The land he bought of Judge Addison was sold by his executors, Feb. 5, 1828, to William Crawford, who left it by will with other lands, Feb. 27, 1846, to his sons James, Thomas, and Robert. The one hundred and ninety-four acres first purchased by James McDowell was sold by James Crawford to John Reed.

James Scroggs, who bought three hundred and one acres, lived to a ripe old age, and left two sons, James and Reynolds. The land now belongs to John Reed.

John Cowden, who bought in 1802 one hundred and forty acres, lived on this place until his death, when the land was sold to William Crawford. He left several children. Isaac, a son, settled near Hickory, where John McBirney now owns.

John and David Reed, brothers, and sons of David Reed, were natives of Lancaster County. They came

¹ This last tract had been conveyed Jan. 3,1799, but by reason of error was perfected in this deed of April 3d.


to this county in 1777, and induced by the representations of agents of Col. George Croghan, and the offer of settlement rights by the State of Virginia on compliance with certain conditions, they settled on these lands, clearing off a small portion, and building each a cabin. In the fall they returned to Lancaster County. John was already married, and David was married on his return home. In the spring following they with their wives moved to their new homes. They lived several years undisturbed. Soon after the organization of Washington County in 1781, John Reed was chosen justice of the peace of the district which afterwards in 1787 became the Fourth, and justice of the peace of the Court of Common Pleas, and was reappointed in November, 1788. On the 2d of October, 1783, he purchased of David Lindsey " all that tract or parcel of land lying and being on the waters of Miller's Run, within the county and State aforesaid, containing four hundred acres," adjoining James McCormick and others. After the ejectment suit was decided he removed to his land in Cecil township, now owned by Mrs. Cubbage, where he died in 1816, leaving a son, David, and daughters, Catharine, Ann, Jane, and Mary. David settled on the farm. His son John lived there many years, and sold to a party in Pittsburgh, who sold to John Cubbage. Catharine became the wife of the Rev. Daniel McClean, who settled at Chenango, Pa. ; Ann married Robert Story ; Jane became the wife of the Rev. David Emery, and settled at Darlington, Beaver Co.; Mary married the Rev. Alexander Murray, and settled at Slippery Rock, Pa. David Reed, the brother of John Reed, Esq., lived here till the ejectment suits were decided, and purchased in Cecil township. It was at his house that Washington dined when he came up to these lands on the 22d of September, 1784.

Matthew Hillis was a settler here before these lands were sold. He had taken up a tract of land on a Virginia certificate, one hundred and thirty acres of which he sold Dec. 5, 1803, to John McKibbins. He died in 1803. He left a wife, Elizabeth, and seven daughters,—Elizabeth (Mrs. Hugh Dobbins), Martha (Mrs. John McKibbins), Eleanor (Mrs. Abraham Boyd), Rebecca (Mrs. Ebenezer R. Donaldson), Jane (Mrs. -- Glass), Agnes (Mrs. — Smith), and Mary, There were in 1780 a Richard and William Hillis; the latter was one of those ejected in 1784.

Robert George, who purchased one hundred and fifty acres in 1805, lived here until his death. His son John now owns the homestead. Jacob, a son, lives northeast from Hickory. David, also a son, bought one hundred and five acres of Thomas Cherry, March 28, 1835, about one mile from Midway, where his son Samuel now lives.

John Berry, a native of Ireland, came to Mount Pleasant township, and purchased two hundred and fifty acres of the Washington lands of Alexander Addison on the 15th of August, 1804. He lived on this farm till his death, and left two sons, John and William. John remained on the original tract. His son William now owns it. John, a son of John, had four sons,—Jonathan, who went to Ohio ; John, who settled in Steubenville, Ohio ; William, who settled on the home tract; and Samuel, who became a Presbyterian minister. Of the daughters, Eliza became the wife of Alexander May, of Cecil township; Mary married Robert Riddle. William, the son of John Berry, Sr., moved to Venice, purchased a farm and mill property, and in 1834 purchased a farm in North Strabane township, where. he settled, and where his descendants still live.

Samuel Scott, on the 4th of May, 1805, purchased of Alexander Addison three hundred and nine acres of land, where he lived till his death. Of his sons, John settled on the homestead and died there. His son John now owns the farm. J. P. Scott, of Cecil township, married a daughter of Robert Cook, and now lives on the Cook farm in Cecil. Joseph Scott, a son of Samuel, was a soldier in the war of 1812, and settled in Mount Pleasant township, where his sons John and Joseph now reside. R. D. and J. L. Scott, of the township, are also sons of Joseph. Mrs. Joseph Scott is still living at the age of eighty-six years.

Of the lands John Johnson purchased of Mrs. Addison, Vincent Cockins bought two hundred and sixty-five acres, Aug. 1, 1817, on which his son, John Cockins, now lives ; Dr. James Irwin purchased one hundred and four acres, May 7, 1810 ; John Hog-seed, one hundred and eighty acres, April 1, 1813; David McConehey, one hundred and eighty acres, Sept. 10, 1817, and others later. Matthew Johnson was one of the ejected in 1784. He purchased, March 7, 1783, of David Long, a tract of land " supposed to contain two hundred acres, situated on the waters of Shirtee Creek."

Mount Prospect Church.¹—The history of this congregation really begins before the church had an organized existence. As early as the summer of 1824 the people began to congregate in or near this place for the purpose of holding public worship. The object in holding these first meetings in this place doubtless was to accommodate with the preaching of the gospel many people who were at inconvenient distances from their respective places of worship. The nearest Presbyterian Churches were those already named,—Buffalo, Cross Creek, Raccoon, and Miller's Run,—each distant about six miles.

Meetings were at first held in private houses, and afterwards in the grove just south of the church. These meetings led to the organization of Mount Prospect Church. Prominent among those who were specially accommodated by these services were the fol-

¹ Taken chiefly from a historical sermon by the pastor, the Rev. T. R. Alexander.


lowing persons, with their families: William Hughs, John Cowen, William Simpson, Robert Marshall, Robert Wallace, Samuel Moore, Charles Campbell, David McGugin, Simeon Haynes, Archy Stewart, Hugh McConaughey, David Lyle, George Campbell, John White, and Samuel Jewell.

This new mission succeeded so well during that summer that it was thought practicable to continue and perhaps perpetuate it in an organized form. To this end a petition, signed by a part or perhaps all those whose names are above mentioned, was presented to the Presbytery of Washington on the 29th day of December, 1824, asking Presbytery to form a new congregation at this place. For reasons that cannot be discovered now this petition was not granted. In the light of the next minute that appears on the Presbyterial record it is inferred that this first petition was denied until it should be made to appear that a place of worship would be provided; this was done at the next meeting of Presbytery, as appears from the fact that a petition was laid before the Presbytery asking permission to build a house of worship on the farm of Simeon Haynes, half a mile west of Mount Pleasant, now Hickory. This request was granted on the 20th of April, 1825; and this, beyond question, implies also a grant of the former petition. Hence it appears that the history of Mount Prospect as an organized church begins April 20, 1825.

Until the settlement of the first pastor the pulpit was supplied as regularly as could be expected. The following is a list of the supplies, to which, of course, others should be added whose names have been lost : Revs. McCluskey, Mercer, Anderson, Elisha McCurdy, Nesbit, William Smith, John Hamilton, Vincent, Hoge, James Stockton, and David Hervey, who afterward became pastor. The price paid to supplies at that time was three dollars. The first sacrament of which there is a record was administered on the fourth Sabbath in May, 1827, by Dr. Anderson and Elisha McCurdy. But the time soon came when Mount Prospect no longer contented herself with only an occasional sermon, and that coming as it were by accident. Accordingly in the fall of 1828 a call was presented to the Presbytery for the pastoral services of the Rev. David Hervey, and that he might be free from worldly cares and avocations, they promised and obliged themselves to pay him the sum of $350 annually. The call was accepted, and on the 3d of December, 1828, he was installed the first pastor of this church, Dr. Wylie having preached the sermon and Dr. Anderson delivering the charges. This pastorate continued a little over six years, and was dissolved by Presbytery April 23, 1835. After the resignation of Mr. Hervey the congregation was without a settled pastor for about two years. The following is a partial list of the supplies during the vacancy : Revs. Knox, Sloan, Weed, Elliot, McCartney, Boggs, Kennedy, Moore, and Stockton.

- 55 -

In the spring of 1837 the congregation presented a call to Presbytery for the pastoral services of the Rev. James Moore, promising to pay him the sum of $450 annually, which sum was reduced to $400 after four years. The call was accepted, and Mr. Moore became pastor of the congregation about the 1st of April, 1837. His was the longest pastorate ever enjoyed by the congregation, having continued till the third Wednesday of 'April, 1845, a little more than eight years. After his release followed another vacancy till the fall of 1849, during a part of which time the congregation had Prof. Snyder (then a teacher at Canonsburg) as a stated supply.. In addition to this the following names occur in the list of supplies for that period : Revs. Newell, Millet, Moore, Hastings, Nesbitt, Hare, and Todd. The church determined to call back one of her own sons to occupy her pulpit. Accordingly, at the fall Presbytery of 1849 a call was presented for the services of the Rev. David Campbell at a salary of $450, which after the first year was raised to $470. This .call was accepted, and before the close of that year be was installed as pastor. Mr. Campbell's pastorate continued about six years, and he was released about Nov. 1, 1855.

The vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Campbell continued till December, 1858, when the Rev. William B. Keeling was installed as pastor. The following names occur among the supplies during this vacancy : Revs. John Stockton, J. P. Fulton, J. L. Pomeroy, Alexander McCarrell, Loyal Young, James Fleming, O. M. Todd, and. D. R. Campbell. Mr. Keeling's salary was fixed at $600. His pastorate was the shortest thus far in the history of the church, ending with the September meeting of Presbytery in 1863. His successor, the Rev. J. C. Caldwell, was installed about September, 1864, leaving a vacancy of only one year. During that year mention is made of the following supplies : John Stockton, D.D., C. V. McCraig, and John Eagleson, D.D. Mr. Caldwell accepted the call at a salary of $600, which was subsequently increased to $700, then to $800. His pastorate ended Aug. 1, 1868, being one month less than four years.

The vacancy following the resignation of Mr. Caldwell was a short one, less than six months. During this time mention is only made of the Rev. Frederick Wotring and David W. Miller as having supplied the pulpit. In December, 1868, the Rev. R. T. Price, having accepted a call from the congregation, became its pastor at a salary of nine hundred dollars. He was released from the charge by Presbytery in January, 1873, having served the congregation as pastor for four years and about one month. Then followed a short vacancy of about four months, till the beginning of the present pastorate. The Rev. T. R. Alexander was elected by the congregation in April, 1873, and began to preach regularly on the 1st of June, but was not installed until October 10th, after the fall meeting of the Presbytery: At his installation the


Rev. J. T. Fredericks presided, and preached the sermon. The Rev. J.H. Stevenson charged the pastor, and the Rev. Samuel Forbes the people. This pastorate still continues.

The congregation has been particularly fortunate in its elders. There first appear the names of William Simpson, John Cowen, and William Hughes ; these were elected elders at the organization of the church in 1825. William Simpson was 'an elder in the church of Miller's Run, and John Cowen and William Hughes were elders in the church of Upper Buffalo when the organization was effected here. In transferring their connection to this church at its organization they were at the same time elected and installed ruling elders, being the first to hold that office in this church. The changes in the session since that time have been as follows : In 1828, Charles Campbell, Hugh McConaughey, and Andrew Farrar were elected elders. William Hughes died April 17, 1831; Charles Campbell died June 4, 1832; Andrew Farrar died Nov. 5, 1832 ; and John Cowen died Aug. 11, 1833. In 1832, Robert Lyle was elected ruling elder. About the close of 1833, Samuel Moore and Dr. John White were elected elders, but the latter declined to act. In 1842, James Hughes was elected. William Simpson, the last of the original elders, died March 20, 1848. Samuel Moore died soon after. In the fall of 1848, William M. Campbell and Samuel Cowen were elected, and in February, 1851, James Lee was added to the session. Jan. 26, 1857, all the members of the session resigned, and February 9th of the same year James Lee, James Hughes, Hugh McConaughey, and William M. Campbell were elected elders.

The session of four continued till March 9, 1859, when James Rankin, James F. Hill, and James McElroy were elected. The session was again reduced by the removal of James McElroy and W. M. Campbell, about April 1, 1861. No further change occurred in the eldership until Jan. 25, 1867, when Andrew Donaldson and A. V. McGugin, who had been previously elected, were ordained and installed. James Lee died June 12, 1867, and James F. Hill removed from the congregation in January, 1869. On the 17th of December in that year J. R. Lyle and A. E. Walker were ordained, and they, together with W. M. Campbell, who had returned to the congregation, were installed as elders of the church. The next change was that occasioned by the death of James Hughs, March 12, 1872, and the next that which took away the venerable Hugh McConaughy, after having faithfully served as a ruling elder in his church for forty-six years. He died on the 14th of November, 1874. The next addition was made to the session by the ordination and installation of John H. Miller on the 6th day of November, 1875. James F. Hill, having returned to the congregation in the summer of 1877, was reelected and installed as elder. The session was decreased in 1880 by the death of Andrew Donaldson, who died July 12th of that year, having served faithfully in the office for eighteen years and four months. The session also lost a member by the removal of A. E. Walker. It at present consists of William M. Campbell, James Rankin, Esq., A. V. McGugin, J. R. Lyle, James H. Miller, and James F. Hill.

There does not appear to have been a building of any kind until upwards of a year after the church was organized. Early in the summer of 1826, however, a board " tent" was erected in the grove just south of the church, which was occupied as a place of public worship during that summer. The first church building was built during the latter part of the summer and autumn of 1826, and was occupied by the congregation the following winter. The building was a frame one, and was erected by Hugh McConaughey. It occupied about the same site on which the present building stands. This building was never formally dedicated, but was simply occupied by the people. With some additions made to it afterwards, it remained the only house of worship for the congregation until the year 1861. In that year the old church building, which had been occupied for thirty-five years, was taken down, and in its stead a brick structure erected, at a cost of a little more than $4000. The first service was held in it Dec. 28, 1861, and it remained until March 23, 1871, when it was destroyed by fire. During the summer of that year the present building was erected at a cost of $9307, and on the 29th of February, 1872, was formally dedicated, free from debt.

'The church has received into its membership since its organization, as near as can be ascertained, eight hundred and twenty-eight. The present membership is about two hundred and .thirty. 'Of the former pastors two only are living,-Rev. J. C. Caldwell, of Chambersburg, Pa., and the Rev. R. T. Price, of Dunbar, Pa. Rev. David Hervey, the, first pastor, died June 19, 1881. Rev. W. B. Keeling died in 1878, and Rev. D. R. Campbell in 1873.

The United Presbyterian Congregation of Mount Pleasant.¹ -This congregation is located in Mount Pleasant township. The house of worship is situated in the village of Hickory, and not far from the centre of the township. The precise date of its organization cannot now be ascertained. It was most probably organized by the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania between 1790 and 1800. It is recognized as a congregation in the oldest minute of Char-tiers Presbytery now extant, the record of Nov. 10, 1801.

It cannot now be ascertained who entered into the organization at the first, or who were the elders under whom the organization was effected, as the records of the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania are not now available, and the oldest record of the session of Mount Pleasant that can now be found bears the date

¹ By the Rev. W. A. McConnell.


of June 1, 1821. There is a continuous record of the session from that date to the present time. At the above-named date the following-named individuals composed the session, and were the ruling elders of the congregation, viz.: Messrs. Patrick Douglass, William Nelson, Thomas McCall, David Reed, Loudowick McCarrell, and John McBride.

Succeeding elders have been installed as follows:

Installed 1825, Elijah Coulter, Robert Acheson, and John Little.

Installed 1828, John Moore, Samuel Cunningham, and John McCall.

Installed 1836, Samuel Agnew, Andrew Miller, and Heuston Buchanan.

Installed 1841, William Caldwell, Ephraim McKimans, Joseph Thompson, and Joseph McKnight.

Installed 1846, John Reed, Esq., and E. J. Agnew.

Installed 1861, John McBurney, Robert Jeffrey, and John L. Thompson.

Installed 1865, W. S. White, Nathaniel White, William M. Russell, and James Caldwell.

Installed 1879, Samuel Moore, J. H. Moore, T. M. Berryhill, and Alexander V. Reed.

The following-named individuals are the elders in charge of the congregation at the present time, viz. : Messrs. John McBurney, Robert Jeffrey, Nathaniel White, James Caldwell, Samuel Moore, J. H. Moore, T. M. Berryhill, and Alexander V. Reed.

The first pastor was the Rev. W. C. Brownlee. His pastorate was of short duration, extending over a period of only three years and four months. Dr. Brownlee was born in 1783, at Torfoot, Scotland ; graduated at the University of Glasgow, and at a subsequent period received the degree of D.D. from the same institution. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Sterling in the year 1808. Coming to this country soon after his licensure, he was ordained and installed pastor of Mount Pleasant congregation by the Presbytery of Chartiers May 3, 1809. September, 1812, he received and accepted a call to become pastor of the Associate Congregation of Philadelphia, which terminated his relation to the congregation of Mount Pleasant. Soon after removing to Philadelphia he connected himself with the Reformed Dutch Church, in which connection he remained until the year 1860, when he died, in the seventy-seventh year of his age, and in the fifty-second year of his ministry.

The Rev. Alexander Donnan, the second pastor of this congregation, was a native of Scotland, born in the year 1775. At the age of seventeen he entered the University of Glasgow. He was licensed to preach the gospel 'by the Presbytery of Kilmarnock in 1800. In the spring of 1818 he emigrated with his family to America, and at once connected himself with " the Associate Church of North America." In January, 1820, he received and accepted calls from what was then the Associate, now the United Presbyterian congregation of Mount Pleasant and Burgettstown, bath located in Washington County, Pa. Each of the aforesaid congregations received one-half of his pastoral labors until the year 1840, when he resigned the pastoral care of Burgettstown. The congregation of Mount Pleasant enjoyed his. undivided labors from the year 1840 to the year 185Z, when, on account of the infirmities of age, he resigned the charge of it also. After resigning this charge he lived upwards of seven years in the bounds of Mount Pleasant congregation. His death occurred on the 3d of June, 1859, in the eighty-fifth year of his age, and in the fifty-ninth year of his ministry.

The third pastor was the Rev. Joseph Russell Thompson. He was a child of the congregation, born and reared in it. Son of Joseph and Margaret Thompson, the former for about twenty years ruling elder of the congregation, he was born Sept. 15, 1823, nearly three years after the settlement as pastor of his immediate predecessor, the Rev. Alexander Donnan. In the year 1845 he entered the sophomore class in Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa., graduating in the year 1848. Soon after he commenced the study of theology in the Associate Theological Seminary, then located at Canonsburg, and was licensed to preach the gospel by the Associate Presbytery of Chartiers in the year 1851. He received a call to become pastor of the congregation of Mount Pleasant, and commenced to labor in said congregation January, 1853. On the 28th day of the April following he was ordained and installed pastor of the congregation, and the relation thus constituted continued most happily -until it was dissolved by his death, which occurred on the 16th day of December, 1861, in the thirty-ninth year of his age, and in the eleventh year of his ministry.

The fourth pastor, the Rev. W. A. McConnell, was born near Mansfield, Ohio, Jan. 11, 1830; graduated at Franklin College; studied theology at the Associate Reformed, now United Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Allegheny City, Pa., and was licensed to preach the gospel June 16, 1858. On the 15th of June, 1859, was ordained and installed pastor of the congregations of Mill Creek, Keen, and White Eyes by the United Presbyterian Presbytery of Mansfield, and was released from said charge in 1864. Received and accepted a call from the congregation of Mount Pleasant, in the Presbytery of Chartiers, July 4, 1865. Immediately took charge of the congregation ; was installed pastor Oct. 31, 1865, the relation thus formed still continuing.

A Sabbath-school was first organized in the congregation under the pastorate of Rev. J. R. Thompson, in or about the year 1853. It has now one hundred and twenty-five scholars, and some two hundred volumes in the library.

The congregation at the present time is occupying its third house of worship, though a tent had been used for that purpose for some years prior to the erection of a house of worship, the tent being located


near the site now occupied by the congregation. The first house of worship was a log building erected in the year 1803. The second was a good commodious brick building, erected in the year 1834, and completed in 1835. The third, the one occupied by the congregation at this date, is a brick building," sixty by eighty feet, one story, erected in the year 1867. Its cost with its fixtures was about $13,000. The congregation at the present time has about two hundred communion members, is free from debt, and in a state of peace.

Village of Hickory.—The tract of land on which the village of Hickory is situated was located by James Ross, who died in January, 1781, before the warrant was secured. He left a wife Mary, a married daughter, Mrs. Hannah Andrews, and Margaret, Mary, and Isabel, and three sons,—James, John, and Robert A. It was not until the 19th of October, 1785, the executors took out a warrant for the land in trust for the heirs of James Ross. It was surveyed to them on the 3d of September, 1786, under the name of " Executorship," and contained three hundred and two acres, adjoining John Ross, William Martin, James McClelland, and Matthew Hillis. The following advertisement appeared in the Washington Telegraphs of March 20, 1797 :

"To be Sold

"By the Subscriber on the first day of May next by Public 'endue a number of Town Lots situate in Smith Township Washington County at a place commonly known by the name of the Hickory Tavern or Mount Pleasant.


" March 20, 1797.

"N. B.—A Horse Mill will be erected this summer for the convenience of the town."

On the 7th of July, 1802, a deed was executed by John Ross and John Shannon, executors, to Andrew McCown for one hundred acres of land, part of the Ross tract. There is no record of any sales having been made in 1797, but at this time McCown opened a tavern and sold several lots. A tavern had been at this point several years, before. The first village lots that appear on record are as follows : Feb. 8, 1803, to William Hammond and Richard Donaldson ; the next day one to Thomas Cooper; March 6, 1804, one to Neill McFarland ; between that time and May 1st lots were sold to John Hoge, William Marshall, John Griffith, and one acre to the trustees of the Mount Pleasant Congregation. On the 1st of May, 1804, Andrew McCown sold the one hundred acres (except the lots mentioned above) purchased of the Ross estate to Samuel Miller. In this deed the town is called Mount Pleasant, and the land is mentioned as lying in Smith and Chartiers townships. The name " Hickory" originated from an incident which happened here before McCown owned the property. A party of axemen were opening a road from Wells' mill, on Cross Creek, to Canon's mill, on Chartiers. They came to this place at about dinner-time, and here found an old broken sled, which they used for a table. After the repast was over one of the company pulled down a hickory sapling standing near, to. which the sled was fastened, and springing to its original position carried the sled with it, where it remained several years. They jocularly called the place the "Hickory tavern," and when in the course of time it became a cross-roads and a tavern, blacksmith-shop, and store followed, the name still clung to it and became the name of the hamlet and town.

Thomas Miller, son of Samuel Miller, kept tavern at the town about 1812. He kept the tavern a year or two and removed to near Burgettstown, where he died in 1819. In 1820, John and James McCluskey bought a lot in Hickory. James kept tavern in that place many years.

A post office was established about 1830. William Walker was the first postmaster appointed. He was succeeded by James McCluskey, Samuel Griffith, William Simcox, and James M. Campbell, the present postmaster. The village now contains about forty dwellings, a United Presbyterian Church, Union school-house, post-office, hotel, three stores, and two physicians.

Physicians ¹ —Owing to the imperfect data at our command we will be unable to go back of the year 1300. Two brothers named Grant were located here in the practice of medicine somewhere between 1800 and 1810. Following them was one Dr. Carroll, who practiced for several years, winning the love and esteem of his patrons, and who died in the year 1815. The next in the practice was Dr.. John White, who was a graduate of Jefferson College of the class of 1804, moved to Steubenville, Ohio, studied law, was admitted to the bar, subsequently returned to Washington County and married, was one year in the prothonotary's office in Washington as clerk.

Feeling that the practice of medicine was or would be more agreeable to his taste than that of law, he removed to Cecil township and studied medicine under Dr. Robert Thompson, of Thompsonville, remaining with him three and a half or four years. On April 1, 1816, he removed to Hickory, becoming a successor of Dr. Carroll, and continuing in the practice till the spring of 1849, when impaired health required that he cease from all active pursuits of life, and died on the 19th day of August, 1853, aged sixty-seven years.

Dr. White was an eminent physician of his time, as well as a man peculiarly gifted with qualities that made him a valued member of the community, holding for many years the office of justice of the peace, his knowledge of the law fitting him especially for the transacting of such business as usually comes before such an officer. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church at Mount Prospect, in the cemetery of which he was buried.

¹ This sketch of the physicians of Hickory, Mount Pleasant township, is contributed by Dr. Joseph McElroy.


During the period of Dr. White's practice, from 1816 to 1849, we have, first, Dr. Hewitson, from 1833 to 1835, who removed to St. Clairsville, Ohio ; next, Dr. Anderson, who removed to Cross Creek; next, Dr. Hughes, who was a practitioner in Hickory and vicinity from about 1842 to 1850, who afterwards studied theology, and became a minister of the gospel.

On the retirement of Dr. White from the practice, his son-in-law, Dr. John Hanna Donnan (son of the Rev. Alexander Donnan), commenced the practice of medicine, and continued till the fall of 1861, when declining health warning him of approaching dissolution, he sent for Dr. D. M. C. McCarrell, a young man of promise located at Frankfort, Pa., who, being strongly pressed both by the doctor and his friends, consented to locate. After-several months of disease and suffering, Dr. Dorman died March 9, 1862, of chronic disease of the liver and bowels, in the forty-seventh year of his age. As above mentioned, Dr. McCarrell commenced the practice of medicine in Hickory in the fall of 1861, and he has been in continuous practice since. In the year 1863, Dr. A. M. Rea was a practitioner, and is now located in one of the northern counties of this State. In the year 1864, Dr. D. M. Read located here, and continued till 1868, when he removed West, where he died. In 1868, Dr. Isaac W. Chisholm located, and continued in practice a period of two years, when he removed to Ohio, and is now in practice in New Concord, in that State. In 1870, Dr. Joseph McElroy, a former student of Dr. McCarrell's located here, going into partnership with him, and has continued so since.

Schools.¹—The earliest school in Mount Pleasant township was on the farm of John McCalmont, known as the Cowen farm, in the winter of 1783 and '84. There was a school taught there, but by whom is not known at this time. William Marshall, who died in 1860, aged ninety-three years, used to relate his going that winter to this house. Among the young men that attended were Daniel Johnston. About the year 1795 this same Daniel Johnston taught in the same old school-house. The venerable David Lyle used to relate many things that happened during Johnston's teaching.

The next school-house built was near where Mount Prospect Church now stands. This was built about the year 1797. A widow lady with two daughters moved into the building, and taught school in it for some time. During the autumn of that year an old gentleman from. Cross Creek named Reynolds one day called to pay his addresses to the lady teacher. The school was dismissed for the occasion. In a few weeks the lady teacher's name was changed to Mrs. Reynolds, and she removed to Cross Creek. Soon after the house was burned by an incendiary. Another house was then built on the farm of John Lyle.

¹ Chiefly contributed by J. M. K. Reed, Esq.

This site was in the big woods known as "Poplar Hollow." The base of the old chimney can still be seen. The first teacher who taught there was John Dickey, a Scotch-Irishman, who died about 1860 in Hanover township.

Some years before the commencement of the present century a school-house was built on the farm of John Knight, now Joseph Rea's, on the old road. The remains can still be seen. A man named McCready taught there in the year 1803. He was a very severe disciplinarian, and taught in after-years in Cross Creek township, but was always a dread to the scholars both large and small. What became of him or where he went to no one knows. In the same house school was taught in the winters of 1811-12. Samuel Campbell and George Wallace, two of the scholars that year, enlisted in the navy in 1812, and were both killed in Perry's victory on Lake Erie.

Some time about 1800 a school-house was built on the farm lately owned by George Carroll. Here Samuel Lyle taught, and a number of others now forgotten. Lyle removed to West Middletown in 1811, and taught some two years, dying there in 1813.

There was another school-house on the farm now owned by Jacob Donaldson, Jr., on the State road near Mr. Orne's. This was built prior to 1800. Among the teachers were Thomas Merchant, who taught a number of years, and John Hogwe, a Scotchman, also taught there in the winter of 1812-13. He died some fifty years ago at the house of Ludwic McCarrel, in Mount Pleasant township, and was interred in the Hickory churchyard.

From the venerable William Rankin it is learned that about 1806 Humphrey Atcheson taught school in a log house on John Henderson's farm. James Rankin was a teacher about the same time. In 1807, James Irwin and Robert McClure were assessed as school-teachers. In 1818 and 1819, John Crawford and Humphrey Dedworth taught school in a log house on what is now the McCluskey farm. About 1820, James Rankin went to school on the Edward Cherry farm. John Hoge and Alexander Hays were the teachers. The school continued till 1826. A school was taught on the Josiah Allen farm (now J. Edgar Rankin) about the same time. Richard McClure was the first teacher, and Henry Robinson succeeded him.

In 1835 the township voted upon the acceptance or rejection of the school law, and declared in favor of it. S. Wort and William Rankin were chosen school directors. The township was divided into eight districts. Frame school-houses were built in each district, the greater part of which have been replaced. A new school-house was erected at Hickory in the fall of 1855, and opened with ceremonies on the 3d of December in that year. The districts have remained as at first, with the exception of Hickory, which was made independent about 1865.


STRABANE was an original township. For its erection reference is made to the history of South Strabane. The division of the township into North and South Strabane was made by order of court at the May term in the year 1831.

The township was an independent district for the election of justices from its erection till 1803, when it was embraced with Washington as District No. 1, and so remained until 1838, at which time it again became independent. The list of justices of old Strabane and of District No. 1 are here given from the first until 1838, from which time the justices only of North Strabane are mentioned :

Alexander Eddie, July 15, 1781.

Daniel Leet, July 15, 1781.

Nicholas Little, July 15, 1781.

David Clark, July 15,1781.

Henry Taylor, July 15, 1781.

John White, July 15, 1781.

Matthew Ritchie, Oct. 6. 1784.

Henry Taylor, Sept. 30, 1788.

Thomas McNary, Feb. 8, 1799.

George Craighead, Jan. 19,1799.

Alexander Lyttle, April 6, 1805.

John Colmery, April, 1811.

James Orr, Feb. 8, 1812.

David Little, Dec. 11, 1813.

James Blaine, Jan. 1, 1817.

Joshua Monroe, March 12, 1819.

Richard Johnston, March 22, 1819.

Daniel Palmer, May 7, 1819.

Matthew McNary, Dec. 4, 1820.

David Quail, Jan. 31, 1822.

John Marshall, May 20, 1822.

Thomas Morgan, Dec. 3, 1823.

Matthew Linn, Dec. 20, 1825.

Thomas Smith, Jan. 23,1826.

James McDowell, May 19, 1830.

Dickerson Roberts, May, 1833.

Archibald Kerr, Nov. 14, 1835.

North Strabane

David Quail, April 14, 1840.

Matthew McNary, April 14, 1840.

Matthew Linn, April 15, 1845.

Matthew McNary, April 15,1845.

Matthew Linn, April 9, 1850.

Ira C. Bebout, April 15, 1851.

Matthew Linn, April 10, 1855.

David Keyes, April 16, 1856.

James Kerr, April 12, 1859.

Matthew Linn, April 10, 1860.

James Kerr, April 14, 1864.

Matthew Linn, June 3, 1865.

Matthew Linn, March 29, 1870.

J. B. McBride, April 19, 1872.

William Reas, April 11, 1874.

William Reas, May 24, 1874.

Wm. H. Lawrence, March 21,1877.

William Pease, March 27, 1879.

The Morganza Tract and Morgan Family.—When the proprietaries' land-office was opened, April 3, 1769, there were three thousand two hundred applications on file, and on these warrants were issued in the order of the dates of applications. Tile first warrant issued for lands in this county was No. 517 to William Preston, and three others were issued immediately afterwards for tracts contiguous to Preston's, and all adjoining each other, forming a body of land of nearly eleven hundred and forty acres, all in the township of North Strabane. These tracts were all surveyed Nov. 3, 1769, as follows : William Preston, warrant No. 517, "Leicester," 374 acres; Robert Harrison, warrant No. 549, "Norfolk," 273 acres, 3 roods, and 33 perches ; Paul Fooks, warrant No. 1916,

- 866 -

"Shrewsbury," 288 acres, 3 roods, and 3 perches; David Evans, warrant No. 1969, " Leeds," 201 acres, 3 roods, and 26 perches. The original survey is now in possession of D. T. Morgan, Washington, Pa.

The tract of William Preston was in the forks of the East and West Branches of Chartiers Creek, and lay on both those streams. The land of Robert Harrison and Paul Fooks was on the East Branch, the former adjoining Preston, the latter adjoining Harrison, and being the southernmost. David Evans' tract was on the West Branch south of Preston, west of Harrison, and north of Fooks.

Dr. John Morgan, of Philadelphia, had become interested with others in the purchase of large tracts of land in the Western country, and purchased these four tracts lying in the valley of the Chartiers, containing eleven hundred and thirty-eight acres two roods and twenty-two perches, with six per cent. allowance. The Preston, Harrison, and Fooks tracts were deeded to him May 1, 1769, and the Evans tract May 1, 1771.

A certain William Wilson had settled upon a part of these lands, and had made some improvements, and by an article executed Oct. 18, 1774, between Morgan and Wilson, the former agreed to purchase Wilson's Improvements at such valuation as should be put upon them by referees agreed on by the two parties. Beyond the making of these betterments and their purchase by Dr. Morgan, nothing is known of the progress made in the improvement of these lands until they came into possession of Col. George Morgan, a brother of Dr. John Morgan. The latter died in 1789, and in his will, made July 22, 1788, and probated Dec. 23, 1769, he devised to his brother, Col. George Morgan, all his estate, real and personal, except such bequests as are otherwise mentioned. The lands in the valley of Chartiers were still in the possession of Dr. Morgan, and by this will the title became vested in Col. George Morgan. His relations with the government as Indian agent at Pittsburgh from 1775 to 1779 brought him into this section of country, and it is quite probable that he then visited those lands at that time, but nothing definite is known.

He came to the property in 1789, and from an advertisement issued in the Pittsburgh Gazette, bearing date Nov. 26, 1796, it is evident that the land had been pretty well improved, and that settlers, or rather tenants, had been living upon it some time. The


time that Col. George Morgan removed to the Western country to reside has been a matter of dispute, but one which a letter written to his son in 1796 and the advertisement hereafter given definitely settled. His son George, when sixteen years of age, was attending school at Princeton, preparatory to a three years' course at college. The letter referred to is written from Prospect (where he resided), a short distance from Princeton, and was written for the purpose of ascertaining whether George would prefer remaining at school, finish his course, and prepare himself for a profession, or to go West with the family. He says, "The resolution I have long since formed to leave New Jersey has now become necessary to be executed. . . . As there are good schools in Pennsylvania, I shall take Tom with me. I hope to leave Prospect next October." It is evident he removed at the time .he intended, as on the 26th of November, 1796, he published an advertisement in the Pittsburgh Gazette, in which he said,—

" I have six faints in and adjoining the forks of Chartiers Creek, twelve or thirteen miles due south from Pittsburgh, which I will rent for one year or a term of years, taking a share, or cash, or a certain quantity of produce in payment. On each farm are buildings with from forty to eighty acres of clear land under fence, with a proportion of good meadow. On one of them is an orchard of one hundred bearing apple trees, and on two of them are distill houses. . . . Lots will be ceded on easy terms to those who wish to build for themselves, which may be done as cheap in stone and lime as in wood. . . . One able to erect suitable buildings here fur an inn to accommodate travelers will meet particular encouragement, as the great number passing the route stand in daily and hourly need of supplies and accommodations here.

"Mr. Moses. Coe's saw and grist mill adjoin Morganza, about nine hundred yards down the Little Chartiers from the Cross-Roads, and Mr. J. Struthers' Fulling Saw and Grist Mills adjoin it on the West, ono mile front' the intersection of the above-mentioned public roads, from whence it is two miles to Mr. McMillan's Presbyterian Meeting-House, three miles to Canonsburg, and nine miles to the county town of Washington. . . ."

The advertisement was dated "Morganza, Nov. 26, 1796," this being the first mention found of the name which Col. Morgan gave to his great 'tract, the name "Morganza," which is still well known as applied to these lands.

It was evidently Col. Morgan's intention to make extensive improvements at Morganza. On the William Preston tract, "Leicester," he built a large frame house, about fifty feet square, two stories high, with an extensive wing on each end. In the rear of these buildings was a frame barn one hundred and thirty by one hundred and fifty feet. The main road passed on the south side of the house, and along this he planted trees. He brought with him from Prospect many articles of comfort and elegance, and was surrounded with much of culture and taste. Upon this farm he lived with his family till his death.

In the fall of 1806, Col. Aaron Burr (with whom Col. Morgan had long been acquainted) visited him at Morganza, with the purpose (as it afterwards became evident) of enlisting Morgan with him in his scheme for the founding of a Southwestern government. At Col. Morgan's dinner-table the subject of a dismemberment of the Union was adroitly brought up by Col. Burr, who remarked that, so weak was the government, two hundred men could drive Congress into the Potomac, with the President at their head; also, that with five hundred men he could take possession of the city of New York. To this remark Thomas replied that he would be d—d if the little town of Canonsburg could be taken with that number of men. To all his specious arguments and overtures Col. Morgan turned a deaf ear, and Col. Burr left baffled, and with his companion, Col. Dupeistre (De Peyster?), left the next morning, and proceeded to Wheeling. When Col. Burr was afterwards tried for treason at Richmond, Va., Col. George Morgan and two of his sons, John and Thomas, were called as witnesses, and related the circumstances' of Burr's visit at their home, and the conversation that there took place. It was while at Richmond on this occasion that Thomas Morgan, son of Col. George, became acquainted with Catharine Duane, daughter of Col. William Duane, of Philadelphia, who not long afterwards became his wife. Mrs. Catharine Duane Morgan was a woman of remarkable talent, and one whose name was for many years a familiar one in Washington County.

Col. George Morgan lived but a few years after that time, and died in 1810. His wife survived him fifteen years. They were both buried in the family ground at Morganza.

On the 24th of October, 1764, Col. George Morgan was married by the Rev. George Whitefield, at Philadelphia, to Miss Mary Boynton. Their children were John, Ann, George, Thomas, and Maria.

John Morgan was born in 1770, was educated at Princeton College, married Margaret, the only daughter of James Bunyan, of New York City, in 1795. He removed to this place with his father's family. His father-in-law, James Bunyan, also came to this section and purchased land on Chartiers Creek, opposite Morganza, in Cecil township. Col. John Morgan lived on this property, and died there in 1819, leaving five sons and three daughters. The only survivors are Col. James B. Morgan, of Pittsburgh, and Mrs. Barker, wife of Major Barker, of Washington, D. C. Thomas Gibbs Morgan, a son of Col. John Morgan, emigrated to New Orleans about 1824, where' he resided until his death. He was one of the leading lawyers of the State. His son, Philip Gibbs Morgan, also an attorney, is now minister to Mexico.

Ann Morgan, the eldest daughter of Col. George Morgan, was born in 1772, and became the wife of Thomas S. Gibbs, of John's Island, S. C., in 1793. He died in 1798, leaving three sons and one daughter. Later she married John Gibbs, a brother of her first husband.

George Morgan was born in May, 1780, educated at Princeton College, came West after he had finished his studies, and attended to his father's business. He


had charge of the saw- and grist-mill built across the creek in Cecil township. After the division and sale of the property he went to Bower Hill, Allegheny County, where he resided on a farm of about five hundred acres. His children were David T. Morgan, Mary B., Elizabeth, Nancy, Maria, George, Matilda, William McK., and Lauretta. Of these, David T., George, Maria (Mrs. James Watson), and Lauretta are living in Washington, Pa. William McKennan Morgan became a physician, studied medicine with Dr. F. J. Le Moyne, practiced in Pittsburgh, and died about 1854.

Thomas Morgan, the youngest son of Col. George Morgan, was born Aug. 25, 1784. Came to Morganza with his brother's family in 1796. Studied law in Pittsburgh, and was admitted to practice in Washington County in 1813. He was elected to the Legislature of the State in 1814-15, was prothonotary from 1821-23, postmaster at Washington, Pa., from 1829 to 1839. He was prominent in the organization of the Franklin Bank (now the First National), and of the Washington Female Seminary. He died July 19, 1855, aged seventy-one years. He married Catharine Duane, as before mentioned. She survived him eight years, and died March 23, 1863, at the age of seventy-six years. Their children were Thomas J., William D., George W., and Anna. Thomas J. Morgan was born at Morganza April 3, 1815, and died Nov. 30, 1850. He commenced the study of law with Isaac Leet. He established a newspaper at Washington called Cur Country, which he published a few years. In the summer of 1836 he raised a company of men for the war in Texas. In December of 1837 he was located at Columbus, Ohio, and received the appointment of chief clerk in the post-office of that city. In 1841 he completed his study of the law in Columbus with Noah H. Swayne. Was clerk of the Senate of Ohio in 1841-42. In the spring of 1846 he was appointed law clerk in the office of the solicitor of the treasury of the United States. In the spring of 1847 he was appointed secretary of legation at Brazil, under Governor David Todd, of Ohio. He died of yellow fever at Rio de Janeiro, March 30, 1850.

William Duane Morgan, son of Thomas, is now living at Newark, Ohio. Gen. George W. Morgan resides at Mount Vernon, Ohio, and Miss Anna Morgan is still a resident of Washington, Pa.

Maria Morgan, the youngest child of Col. George Morgan, was born in 1787, and became the wife of Dudley Woodbridge, of Marietta, Ohio, where she settled. Their descendants are numerous in that place.

About 1818 a division took place of the Morganza tract, which later was sold in parcels to several different purchasers. It is now owned by Samuel Vane-man, William Pollock, McClelland Brothers, and John McConnell. The old homestead is owned by William Pollock, who married a daughter of James Murray, by whom it was purchased from the heirs.

Other Settlements.—Dorsey Pentecost was one of the first to take up lands in the "New Purchase" in Western Pennsylvania. In 1769 a return of a survey was made to him from the surveyor's office of a tract of land which contained three hundred and fifty-two acres, and was called " Green Way." It was situated on the Youghiogheny River, in what is now Rostraver township, Westmoreland County. Soon after this purchase he came into possession of other tracts, one of three hundred and seven acres, another of five hundred and twenty-one acres, another of one hundred and sixty-three acres, and still another of four hundred and six acres, all lying in the neighborhood of the Youghiogheny except one, which was near the mouth of Mingo Creek, in what is now Washington County. The " Green Way" tract was the one on which he settled, and was known as the Mansion tract, The valley of the Chartiers attracted his attention, and he determined to sell his property on the Youghiogheny and remove to that section. On the 16th of May, 1777, he sold the " Green Way" tract to Samuel Purviance, Jr., and Robert Purviance, merchants of Baltimore, Md., for £500, and soon after disposed of the others. He was a Virginian, and as a portion of this territory was in dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, he became an active Virginia partisan. His connection with the boundary controversy between Pennsylvania and Virginia will be found mentioned elsewhere. His first purchase in what is now Washington County, except the tract on Mingo Creek, was made in the summer of 1777 from Paul Froman, of Yohogania County, Va. The deed recites that in consideration of £2000 the former conveys to Dorsey Pentecost that plantation on both sides of the East Fork of " Churtees" Creek, adjoining lands " claimed by Thomas Edgerton, Nathaniel Blackmore, Thomas Cook, James Allison, and others." Later, Pentecost purchased other lands in what is now South Strabane township.

Upon this tract of land purchased of Froman a mill had been erected, known in the early records as " Froman's Mill on Chartiers." On this tract Dorsey Pentecost built his log house, near the present residence of John Gamble, and resided there for some years. The titles to these lands, after the purchase from Frorman, he secured from Virginia by, certificates dated Dec. 20, 1779. They were afterwards confirmed by warrants Of acceptance, and were surveyed to him on the 20th of April, 1786, as follows: "Independence," 403 acres; "The Big Meadow," 407 acres ; " Sugar Tree Hill," 403 acres; and " Gravity," 194 acres.

" The Recovery," containing one hundred and forty-seven acres, was a preemption warrant in the name of George Rooles, assigned to Dorsey Pentecost, and surveyed to him on the 20th of December, 1786, adjoining lands of James Campbell and Thomas White. It was located on the North Fork of Chartiers.


The records show further that Mr. Pentecost was extensively interested in real estate transactions in other localities from 1779 to 1786, both on his individual account, as partner with Levi Hollingsworth, with Samuel and Robert Purviance, and as a member and director of the Ohio Trading Company, composed of himself, John Canon (the proprietor of Canonsburg), Andrew Robinson, Samuel McCullough, and Ebenezer Zane, of Ohio County, Va., Thomas Cook, Isaac Cox, and James McMahon. He had interests in large tracts on Saw-Mill Run, on "Tumblestone's" Run, above Logstown, on the south side of the Ohio, at the mouth of Chartiers Creek, and at other places.

On the large tract of land on which he lived in the township of Strabane, and on the site of the present town of Linden, Mr. Pentecost laid out a town in 1778-79 by the name of " Louisburgh," which is today one of the lost towns of the county. The only evidence of its existence is contained in the records of the county, from which it is learned that on the 20th of May, 1779, Dorsey Pentecost conveyed to Benjamin Mills lots Nos. 1 and 2 "in the town of Louisburgh, laid out on the mansion plantation of the said Dorsey Pentecost, adjoining the lots whereon the said Pentecost's Mills are erected," and on June 11, 1779, lots Nos. 72 and 73 are conveyed by him to Charles Records.

About the year 1784, Mr. Pentecost, by his large landed interests, became involved in financial difficulties, owing to the lessening of values, a depreciated currency, and other causes. On the 26th of February, 1785, he mortgaged his lands to Levi Hollingsworth to secure the existing indebtedness and future advances. This mortgage was satisfied eleven years later.

On March 29, 1786, Mr. Pentecost executed a power of attorney to Gabriel Peterson to enable the latter to collect debts and demands for him " in the western part of Virginia, commonly called Kaintucky Country;" also "in the Illinois country at the villages of Kaskaskie, Kahokia, Post St. Vincen, or elsewhere below the falls of the Ohio." On Sept. 29, 1786, he executed a power of attorney to George McCormick and Andrew Swearingen to sell ten lots of five acres each, laid out on the Richard Yeates tract.

Other mortgages were afterwards given and other powers of attorney executed by Mr. Pentecost for the selling of his lands in Washington County and other localities; and in November, 1789, certain lands which he had mortgaged to Levi Hollingsworth, July 25, 1787, were sold by David Williamson, sheriff of the county. But in the mean time (in or about the year 1786) he removed to Frederick County, Va., and retired permanently from all participation in the affairs of Washington County. He had held the highest positions in the gift of the people of the county where he had resided. His public acts will be more fully, as well as more appropriately, mentioned in the accounts of the boundary controversy and other political movements of his time. Neither the time nor place of his death is accurately known. His wife was Catharine Beeler, and their children were Joseph, Dorsey, Catharine, Sarah, Lucy, George W., and Rebecca. Joseph, the eldest, studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Washington County in 1792, and settled in Washington, Pa. He was known by the people throughout the county as " the Honest Lawyer." He died of apoplexy in 1823 in Washington borough. He left, among other children, a son, George W. Pentecost, now living with his family in West Middleton ; the latter's son, Joseph, the great-grandson of old Dorsey Pentecost, was mortally wounded at Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865, in the war of the Rebellion, while lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundredth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. His death occurred the next day.

Of the other children of Dorsey Pentecost, Catharine became the wife of Andrew Rabb, of German township, Fayette County. Lucy married James Ash-brook, at one time a prominent member of the bar of Washington County. Sarah married Ezekiel Graham, and removed from the county. Of the other children nothing definite has been learned.

The large brick house on the Pentecost lands was built by Joseph Pentecost, and later came into possession of Robert McClelland, ex-sheriff of Washington County ; and about two hundred acres of the tract, including the Pentecost house, is now owned by John Gamble. M. 0. Brownlee, Mrs. Ada B. Reed, of Washington, - Homer, and others own the old Pentecost estate.

John McDowell was a native of Ireland, born a few miles from Belfast on the 23d of September, 1736. When a young man he emigrated to this country, and settled near Elizabethtown, N. J., where he married Agnes Bradford, daughter of James Bradford, and sister of David Bradford, whose history is so well known in connection with the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794. In company with the Scotts, Allisons, and other families, they emigrated west of the mountains in 1773, and settled on the waters of Chartiers Creek, in what is now Washington County. That he lived here in August, 1775, is shown from Rev. John McMillan's journal, in which he says, "The fourth. Sabbath of August, 1775, preached at John McDowell's." Other records show that in pursuance of a warrant he obtained possession of a tract of land, which in the survey was called " Mount Pleasant," and contained four hundred acres, situated about two and a half' miles southwest of where Chartiers Church now stands. On this tract he built the log cabin in which Dr. McMillan preached his first sermon in the territory now Washington County. This log cabin served as his dwelling for some years, and was replaced by a two-story log house. This house was for a long time the finest residence in the vicinity. He purchased numerous tracts of land besides that already mentioned. In October, 1776, he was commissioned


one of the justices of the peace of Yohogania County, and was one of the first elders of the Chartiers Church. Upon the erection of Washington County, in 1781, he was appointed one of the three commissioners of the county. In 1783 he was one of the Council of Censors of the State, appointed by the Supreme Executive Council. In 1798 he was elected a member of the House of Representatives ; re-elected in 1799, 1800, 1801. He was prominent in the organization of the Canonsburg Academy in 1791, and was one of its trustees from the first. He succeeded Judge James Edgar, April 27, 1803, and served in that capacity four years. On the 31st of May, 1802, he took the oath of office as associate judge of Washington County, having received a commission from Governor Thomas McKean the 8th of April previous. He died on the 12th of August, 1809, in the seventy-third year of his age, leaving a widow, three daughters—Mary, Rachel, Rebecca, Sarah, and Agnes—and two sons, James and William.

Mary, the eldest child, was born April 24, 1766, and married John Urie, who then resided in the township of Strabane. They had seven children,—John, Thomas, Agnes, Rebecca, Sarah, William, David, and Mary. John Urie and Mary, his wife, both died about 1802. John, the eldest son, was born April 28, 1784. In 1822 he was elected county commissioner. In 1837 he was elected prothonotary, and served one term. He was president of the board of managers of the Washington and Pittsburgh Turnpike Company, and afterwards sequestrator of the road many years. His children were Nancy, William, and Samuel. Mrs. George Cook, of Canonsburg, is a daughter of William McDowell.

James, the eldest son of John McDowell, was born in November, 1767. Arrived at years of maturity he married and settled on part of his father's farm, and died in early manhood, leaving four sons,—John, Elijah, William, and Samuel. William, born in October, 1771, also settled on part of the estate and died, leaving two sons, John and James.

Rachel McDowell was born in November, 1773, after her parents had removed to this section of country. In 1790 she became the wife of Alexander Scott. They settled on part of the McDowell estate, where they raised. a large family of children. Violet, the eldest daughter, became the wife of William Colmery in April, 1810. She lived to be eighty-five years of age; their children are now residents of Ohio. A daughter Sarah became the wife of John Kerr, son of James, who lived in the neighborhood. A son Josiah was born Dec. 1, 1803, and early entered Jefferson College, where he graduated in 1823, when in his twentieth year. He was one of a class of thirty-two members, and the first class that graduated under the

presidency of the Rev. Matthew Brown. Soon after this he went to Newton, Bucks Co., Pa., and taught in a classical academy for about two years. He then taught near Richmond, Va., two years, and while there

commenced the study of law. About 1828 he returned home, and was a tutor in Jefferson College, still continuing the study of law. In the spring of 1829 he removed to Bucyrus, Ohio, and opened a law-office. Both his knowledge and practice were at first limited, but careful, unremitting study and his natural abilities soon placed him on a level with the best lawyers of the time. In 1849 he removed to Hamilton, Ohio, where he at once ranked with the foremost. In May, 1856, he was nominated for the office of judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio, and was elected, and remained on the bench fifteen years, at the end of which time he declined a renomination. He died in 1878, in the seventy-sixth year of his age.

In 1839, Alexander Scott, the father of Josiah, removed to Knox County, Ohio (where most of his children had settled), and died there in December, 1868, at the age of eighty-five years.

Rebecca, daughter of John McDowell, was born in 1776, on the farm in What is now North Strabane township, and in June, 1793, became the wife of the Rev. Abraham Scott, a brother of Alexander. He was connected with Jefferson College, and lived in Canonsburg for a time. They had eleven Children, —William, Violet, Nancy, Josiah, John, James, Rebecca, Abram, Park, Samuel, and Alexander T. Of these, Josiah studied law, and practiced in Cadiz, Ohio, represented Harrison County in the State Legislature, and was a member of the Constitutional Convention of that State that framed the present constitution. Most of the other children emigrated to the West.

Sarah, also a daughter of John McDowell, in 1792 became .the wife of John Parks, of Cecil township, where they settled. Further notice of this branch of the family will be found in the sketch of the Parks family in that township.

Agnes McDowell, the youngest daughter, became the wife of Dr. John White. They settled in Hickory, where he was in practice many years. Mrs. Dr. John H. Donnan, of Washington, Pa., is a daughter.

The Rev. John McMillan has already been mentioned so fully in the religious and educational chapters of this history that it is not thought necessary here to do more than note' the facts immediately relating to his settlement and life as a citizen of this township, with a brief account of his descendants. He was a native of the eastern part of the State, and when he made his first visit to this section of country resided at Fagg's Manor, Chester Co., where he had been preaching. He was licensed to preach in October, 1774. In the summer and fall of the next year he started out on a preaching tour, and passed through the settlements between the North and South Mountains in Augusta and Rockbridge Counties, Va., crossed the mountains between Staunton and the head of Tygert's Valley, preaching along the route. On the first Sabbath of August he preached at Mount


Moriah Meeting-house, in Fayette County ; the next Sabbath at John McKibbin's, on Dunlap's Creek, also in Fayette County. The next Sabbath he had reached. the house of Dorsey Pentecost, who then resided on the Yough River, now in Rostraver township, Westmoreland Co. The fourth Sabbath of the month he was stopping at the house of John McDowell, at which place he preached his first sermon in what is now Washington County. Here he remained for a short time and returned to his home at Fagg's Manor. He made a similar tour the next spring, and preached to the people in this section, who were much interested, and decided to give him a call to become their pastor. He returned home, was ordained by the Presbytery of New Castle at Chambersburg, to which Presbytery he had been dismissed by the Presbytery of Donegal that he might accept the call of the people of Chartiers and Pigeon Creek, who were within the limits of the territory embraced by that Presbytery. He married Catharine, daughter of William Brown, a ruling elder in the church of Upper Brandywine. She remained at home until 1778, when they removed to the new home in what is now North Strabane township. This course was 'thought best by reason of the troubled condition of the country. He accepted the call of the congregation, the church wag organized, and he commenced his labors, spending a part of the time at home with his family, and also preaching throughout the county of Washington.

On the 8th of September, 1777, John McDowell, as trustee of Mr. McMillan, purchased three hundred and thirteen and seven-tenths acres of land of Michael Thomas and Thomas Cook, "on the western side of the eastern prong of Shirtees Creek," adjoining lands of Paul Froman, Samuel Shannon, and Dr. John Morgan (Morganza). It was not until Oct. 29, 1784, that a warrant was obtained for the land. It was later surveyed, and named " Snow Hill." His settlement on his place with his family is best described in a letter by himself written in 1832 to Dr. Carnahan, president of Princeton College :

"When I came to this country the cabin in which I was to live was raised, but there was no roof to it, nor any chimney nor floor. The people, however, were very kind. They assisted me in preparing my house, and on the 16th of December I removed into it. But we had neither bedstead, nor tables, nor stool, nor chair, nor bucket. All these things we had to leave behind us, as there was no wagon-road at that time over the mountains. We could bring nothing with us but what we carried on pack-horses. We placed two boxes, one on the other, which served us fur a table, and two kegs served us for seats; and having committed ourselves to God in family worship, we spread a bed on the floor, and slept soundly till morning. The next day a neighbor coming to my assistance we made a table and a stool, and in a little time had everything comfortable about us. Sometimes, indeed, had no bread for weeks together, but we had plenty of pumpkins and potatoes, and all the necessaries of life. As for luxuries, we were not much concerned about them. We enjoyed health, the gospel and its ordinances, and pious friends. We were in the place where we believed God would have us to be, and we did not doubt but that He would provide everything necessary, and, glory be to His name, we were not disappointed."

In the cabin of which he speaks in the letter he lived many years. About 1782 he established a Latin school in his own house, and soon after built upon his farm not far from his house a log cabin school-house, and commenced the education of young men for the ministry. The first cabin was destroyed by fire, and another, still standing, was erected near the site of the first one. This school increased in numbers, and an assistant was obtained in James Ross, who later became a prominent lawyer at Pittsburgh and United States senator. This school was kept in operation until the opening of the Canonsburg Academy in 1791, at which time the students were transferred to that institution.

Upon the organization of the college, in 1802, Dr. McMillan became the president of the board of trustees and Professor of Divinity. He retained his connection with the Pigeon Creek Church for nineteen years, and from that time his life was devoted entirely to. Chartiers Church. His wife, with whom he had lived forty-three years, died on the 24th of November, 1819. He lived at his home on the farm all his days. When returning from a visit in 1833 he stopped at the house of Dr. Jonathan Letherman, his friend and physician, where he was taken sick and died Nov. 16, 1833, aged eighty-one years.

Dr. McMillan had three sons, William, John, and Samuel, and four daughters, Jane, Margaret, Mary, and Catharine. William settled in Mercer County, Pa., married and died there, leaving no children. John settled on the home farm and died there, leaving a family of children. John, his eldest son, lives on an adjoining farm. Rebecca (Mrs. Caldwell) and Sarah, her sister, settled in Allegheny County. Catharine became the wife of J. B. Haines, who lived on the Haines farm near the McMillan homestead. Thomas settled near Chartiers Church, and died there. Jane married T. H. Lyons, and settled at Linden.. Robert became a minister in the Presbyterian Church, and settled in the West. Samuel now resides at Canonsburg. William settled on the home farm, and about 1874 sold the homestead to the Fulton Brothers, whose mother, Mrs. John Fulton, was a daughter of Samuel, son of the Rev. John McMillan. Mary became the wife of John Means, and settled in the neighborhood.

Samuel, the third son of the Rev. John McMillan, settled on part of the homestead and died there. Two of his children arrived at maturity; one became the wife of John Fulton. They settled at Letonia, Ohio. In 1874 two of her sons purchased the homestead place of John McMillan, and now resides there, their mother living with them. Another son is a dentist ill Washington, Pa.

Jane McMillan, daughter of the Rev. John McMillan, married the Rev. William Moorhead, a Presbyterian minister. He died Nov. 30, 1802. She afterwards married Samuel Harper, of Greene County, where their descendants now live: Margaret married the Rev. John Watson, the first president of Jefferson College. He also died on the 30th of November,


1802. These two clergymen were married on the same day ; a short time afterwards they were taken sick on the same day, and died on the same day. The funeral services were held, one at Canonsburg, the other at the residence of Dr. McMillan. The processions met at the Chartiers churchyard, and they were buried in the same grave, and one slab covers their last resting-place. The widow of the Rev. John Watson later became the wife of John Neill, and settled in Peters township.

Catharine, a daughter of Dr. McMillan, became the wife of the Rev. Moses Allen. He was for many years pastor of the Raccoon Presbyterian Church. Of their children, Eliza became the wife of John Simonton, of Mount Pleasant township, and is still living. Watson died leaving two children, John and Catharine. Harper, also a son of Moses Allen, became a physician, and settled in Butler County, Pa. Moses R. Allen, of Burgettstown, is a son of Harper. He has in his possession the original journal of his great-grandfather, also a fine portrait of the veteran clergyman.

John, David, and James White, three brothers, emigrated to this county and township about the year 1773, and settled here. John was elected a justice of the peace July 15, 1781. He died in 1806. He had sons John, Jones, Samuel, William, George, Nathaniel, and Benjamin. The latter remained at the homestead. This land was adjoining that of his brothers David and James.

David White, brother of John and James, received a Virginia certificate for land which was surveyed to him on the 24th of September, 1787. The property was sold on the 31st of May, 1802, to William Smith, of Philadelphia, who transferred it to Joseph Pentecost on the 8th of December, 1806, and on the 15th of July the next year he conveyed it to Reynolds C. Neill, by whose heirs it is still owned.

James White received a Virginia certificate for a tract of land "on water of Chartiers Creek," dated Feb. 25, 1780, " to include his actual settlement made in the year 1773." On the 2d of February, 1797, he sold the whole tract to his son Samuel.

Col. George Craighead, who lived in his early days near Carlisle, was a colonel in the Revolutionary army. He emigrated to this township in 1795, and purchased ninety acres of land on the 15th of September in that year of Levi Hollinsworth. It was part of a large tract (the Pentecost lands) sold by David Williamson, sheriff of the county, in 1789. He was justice of the peace from Jan. 19, 1799, till his death in 1811. His two sons, Thomas and William, by a first wife, came from the East with their father. Thomas was a physician settled in .Chartiers township, and died there, leaving two children, who died young. William settled in Cecil township, and purchased in 1802 part of a tract taken up by Thomas Brocken, and later 'moved to Chartiers Creek, near the Morgan mill on the Bunyan property, where he died. Of his children, George settled in Peters township. His son, William R., lives on the homestead in Cecil township, and James and John, also sons of William, live in Cecil, near Canonsburg.'

Jonathan Crawford was in the township in 1788, and was in possession of a tract of land containing about one hundred acres. In 1799 he was assessed on three hundred, and each of his sons on one hundred acres each. He had four sons,—Josiah, John, James, and Gavin,—to each of whom he gave one hundred acres of land. The settlement of the Crawfords was in the southeast quarter of the township. These sons left numerous descendants, some of whom are on the original tract, others in the neighborhood, while many emigrated to the West.

Samuel Pollock emigrated to this country from Scot. land, and warranted a tract of land called "Plenty," containing one hundred and forty-eight acres.

On this place he settled and died, leaving three sons and four daughters,—John, Samuel, William, Mary, Grizella, Jane, and Margaret. John lived at home, single, and died there; William married Nancy McNary, and settled upon the homestead, where he lived and died ; James, his son, now lives upon the place. Samuel, son of Samuel Pollock, Sr., married Ellen Young, and settled in Mercer County; Mary married a Mr. House; Grizella became the wife of Robert Johnson, and located in Canton township; Jane became the wife of John Crow, and emigrated to Butler County, Pa.; Margaret married Alexander McNary, and settled in Ohio.

Daniel Weller was born near Lancaster, Pa., and on the 2d of May, 1781, married Elizabeth Mechie. He was a weaver by trade, and settled in that locality several years before coming to this county, and where the older children were born. On the 28th of May, 1796, he purchased a tract of land in Strabane township of William Price, who had purchased of Craig Ritchie in 1790. Price had built a cabin on the tract, and in this cabin Mr. Weller lived several years, then built the residence now occupied by his grandson, Daniel Weller, who was born in the old cabin in the year 1801. Daniel Weller died on the 23d of March, 1824, and left one hundred and four acres to each of his sons, Jacob and Daniel. His children were Barbara, John, Elizabeth, Jacob, Catharine, Agnes, Daniel, and Peter. Agnes became the wife of John Hair, who settled at Linden, and built what is known as Hair's mill ; Jacob settled on the homestead part of the farm, and died there, leaving the farm to his son Daniel.

James Bradford was a native of Ireland, who came to Washington in 1784, and obtained a warrant for a tract of land which was surveyed as " Montgomery," and contained three hundred and six acres, adjoining land of Robert Hamilton and Samuel Stewart. Several of his children had married and settled in the county prior to his coming. He lived on this farm till his death. On the 26th of December, 1788, he sold one hundred and ninety-one acres of the


tract to his son James, who was afterwards one of the elders of Chartiers Presbyterian Church. His son, the Hon. John Bradford, of Bell Brook, Greene Co., Ohio, is still living at ninety years of age. 

On the 3d of December, 1811, William Quail purchased one hundred and forty-seven acres of this land of the Rev. Thomas Hamilton, of New York City, March 12, 1813; he also purchased of Hamilton one hundred and fifty-seven acres, and later purchased other tracts. He lived and died on the farm, leaving four sons and two daughters,—David, James, Robert and William, Jane, and Mrs. John Hoge. David settled on the homestead, and left the farm to his son, William MCA. Quail, who now resides upon it. James bought a part of the old tract and died there. His son William now lives in Topeka, Kan. Jacob Moringer now owns the farm. Robert was a carpenter, and lived in Washington, Pa., where he died. Jane married Dr. George McFarland, and removed to Indiana. John Hoge married a daughter of William Quail. They lived in Washington for a time, and retired later in life to his farm in South Strabane, where he died. She survived him, and died in Cleveland.

A Virginia certificate was granted to George Vaneman on the 22d of February, 1780, for three hundred and eighty acres of land, "lying on the east fork of Shirtees Creek." Patent for it was granted Feb. 28, 1786. George Van Emen had four sons, Joseph, George, William, and Nicholas. Joseph settled in Cecil township, on the farm now owned by his son Samuel, who resides upon it. George, son of George, emigrated West, as did William, who later returned and purchased the mill property (now owned by William Smith) and resided below Canonsburg. The Rev. Thomas B. Van Emen, of Canonsburg, is his son. Nicholas, the youngest son of George, Sr., also emigrated West. Elizabeth, the only daughter of George Vaneman, became the wife of the Hon. Joseph Lawrence, and resided in West Bethlehem, in Washington County.

Andrew Vaneman, brother of George, also took up a tract of land on a Virginia certificate, which was named " Zobeide," containing three hundred and ninety-five acres. It was located on Chartiers Creek, adjoining land of his brother George. On this farm he lived and died, leaving a large family of children, of whom Catharine married John McCully and moved West.' William settled near Burgettstown, but finally went West and died there. Polly married James Wilson, and settled on the farm now owned by Homer Donnelly, who married a daughter. John died young. Margaret married James McDowell. Jane became the wife of Andrew Vaneman, a cousin. He died in Canonsburg, and she moved West. Andrew lives in Kansas. Elizabeth became the wife of Squire William Smith, of Somerset township. He owns the most of the original tract, which is in both Somerset and South Strabane townships. His son Wylie lives in the old Vaneman homestead. Hannah, a daughter of Andrew Vaneman, remained unmarried, and now lives in the township.

James Leeper received a warrant dated April 8, 1786, for the tract of land "Round Bottom," containing two hundred and forty acres. He sold a portion of it to James Thorn, who also bought ninety-six acres of Andrew Vaneman, April 1, 1813. James Thorn, a son of James, now lives on the land his father bought of James beeper.

One of the earliest warrants issued by the Pennsylvania land-office in what is now Washington County was to John Altman, and bears date May 23, 1769. It came into possession of Alexander Speer by patent, April 2, 1798. Alexander Speer left four children,—Robert, Maria, James, and Ellen. Robert settled on the hill on a part of the tract now owned by Mrs. John Weaver, who is a daughter of Robert. He had four children,—John, who settled in Mount Pleasant and still resides there; Mrs. John Weaver, now living on the homestead of her father; Nancy (Mrs.. Porter), Jane (Mrs. James McCoy), who both emigrated West. Maria became the wife of Moses Linn, and settled on the Linn farm in North Strabane township. Of their children, one became the wife of Ebenezer Boyle; Jane married John Campbell, and settled near Venice; Hannah married Andrew Henderson, and settled near McConnell's Mills. James, a son of Alexander Speer, lived at home, and died when a young man. Ellen, the youngest daughter, became the wife of John Patterson, and settled where their son, Speer Patterson, now resides.

About the year 1827, Alexander McConnell, of Cecil township, purchased two hundred and seventy acres of land, a part of the Morganza tract, in North Strabane township. His sons were John, who lives on the home place; Alexander has resided at McConnell's Mills (Locust Hill), in Chartiers township; Anderson lives at Burgettstown, and James at Houstonville.

Thomas McNary emigrated from York County, Pa:, in 1782, and on the 30th of December in that year purchased of James Allison two hundred and fifty acres of land "situate on the forks of Shirtee Creek, on Sugar Tree Run, bounded by lands of Dorce Penticost, and to a line of said tract run by Hendry Taler [Henry Taylor], and lands of John McDoll [McDowell]." For this tract he received a warrant dated Oct. 29, 1784, and on tire 21st of February, 1785, it ,was surveyed to him as "Sugar Tree;" and contained .two hundred and nineteen acres. He was the son of. James McNary, of York County, who settled in Han over township in 1787. He was elected an elder in Chartiers Church prior to 1799, and remained in that capacity till his death in 1820. His children were Samuel, James, David, Joseph, and Matthew. Samuel settled in Jefferson County, Ohio; James in Munntown, in. Nottingham township, where he was an elder in the Pigeon Creek United Presbyterian


Church ; David in North Strabane, where his sons Samuel and James now reside. Joseph settled in Cecil township, near Canonsburg, where his son-in-law, Andrew Griffin, now resides. He was elected an elder in Chartiers United Presbyterian Church May 10, 1832. Matthew settled on the old homestead, and later sold it to John Struthers. It is now owned by William Donaldson and James Farris. Matthew was elected an elder in Chartiers United Presbyterian Church May 21, 1825.

John McNary, a son of James, who settled in Hanover township, settled some years after his father removed to this county. On the 21st of December, 1801, he purchased one hundred and eighty acres of land of Samuel Smith. After the purchase he returned home, and died early the next year. On the 4th of May in that year (1802) the family removed to the new home, and John, his son, purchased the farm of his father's estate and settled upon it. In 1816 he was elected an elder in the Chartiers Presbyterian Church. His children were John, who lived on the homestead and died there ; James G., who now owns the farm ; Esther, who married Samuel Pollock ; and Jane, who now resides on the homestead with her brother.

John Murdoch and his wife (both natives of Scotland) removed from near Carlisle, Pa., to Washington County in 1778. Soon after his arrival in this county he purchased from Nathaniel Blackmore a tract of land containing three hundred and fifty acres on Char-tiers Creek (or, as it is written in the deed, Shirtee Creek), in Strabane, now North Strabane township, ,paying therefor £349 10s.

The journey was made over the mountains and through the wilderness on horseback. They occupied this farm with their children until the death of Mr. Murdoch. The farm was devised to Alexander Murdoch, the youngest son. In 1804 he sold the land to John Bebout for the sum of £1572 15s.

John Murdoch left four children,—three sons and one daughter,—all of whom were born near Carlisle, Pa. John Murdoch, Jr., the eldest son, left home at an early period, went South, studied the Spanish language, and was for several years employed as a Spanish interpreter. 'He finally settled down upon his plantation near Bayou Sara, La., and there died in 1822. He never married. Nicholas Pees, a German, came here prior to 1780, bringing his wife, his oldest son, Andrew, his daughter Molly, and his son George, four years old. He built a cabin on Chartiers just above the present mill of John Berry. Afterwards he built a log mill and a distillery. His daughter Mollie married John McGlumpey, and settled on land which James Roney now owns. George Pees bought of his. father one hundred and two acres, a part of " Amsterdam." He lived in the homestead; and there his son Zachariah was born in 1798, who is now living at the age of eighty-four years.

Andrew Pees purchased from his father one hundred and eighty-seven acres and lived on it till his death, leaving eight children, who are all dead or removed. John, James, and Nicholas Pees, of Finley township, are sons of John Pees, son of Andrew.

James Linn came from Carlisle, Pa., and settled in what is now North Strabane township, on a tract (two hundred and eighty acres) called "Cranberry." He married Eleanor, daughter of Robert Young. They had five sons, Robert, Moses, William, James, Matthew, and two daughters, Sarah and Mary. The farm was divided between the sons. Robert settled on the farm ; his descendants moved to the West. Moses settled on his portion and died there. Elizabeth, a daughter, became the wife of — Boyle, and settled in the north part of the township. William settled in West Newton, and died there. James settled on his part of the farm, and late in life sold out and settled near Washington, on the farm where Linntown now stands, that settlement deriving its name from the proprietor. His daughters were Eleanor (Mrs. James Pollock), of North Strabane ; Elizabeth (Mrs. Thomas Miller) ; Sarah J. (Mrs. Alexander McCoy), both of Canonsburg; Margaret (Mrs. Teasdell), of Batavia, Ohio. The sons were John Linn, of Washington, Pa.; Matthew Linn, of Linntown, and Robert Linn.

Matthew, a son of James Linn, Sr., settled on part of the homestead, and died there. He was a justice of the peace. Samuel, a son, lives on the old Hughes tract. Harriet, a daughter, married a Mr. Pitman, and lives on the homestead.

Richard Johnston (now spelled Johnson) emigrated with his father's family from County Down, Ireland, when nine years of age, to Lancaster County, Pa., and came to this county about 1800 and purchased a tract of land where R. V. Johnson, his grandson, now resides. He was elected an elder in the Chartiers Presbyterian Church, and served many years. He died in November, 1836, aged seventy-four years, leaving seven sons and three daughters. James and Richard, the first and fourth sons, died when about nineteen years of age. Mary became the wife of Thomas Allison, of Chartiers township, where she now resides at eighty! two years of age. William studied medicine with Dr. John Wishart, and graduated at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, commenced practice at Cadiz, Ohio, and continued there till his death. John settled on the home farm and lived many years, and about 1871 removed to Canonsburg, where he now resides. His son, R. V. Johnson, resides on the homestead, at Johnson's Station. J. B. Johnson, another son, lives on Chartiers Creek, opposite his brother. Elizabeth became the wife of George Gladden, and after his death married the Rev. John Stockton, of Cross Creek, who died May 5, 1882, leaving her a second time a widow. She still resides at Cross Creek. David settled on a farm near Steubenville, Ohio, and now lives there. Thomas graduated at Jefferson College, studied medicine, became a physician, and settled first


at Bloomfield, and later .at Steubenville, where he died. George graduated at Jefferson College, studied law with J. Marshall, of Steubenville, was admitted to the bar, but did not enter into active practice. He was elected president of the Bank of Portsmouth, Ohio, where he resided, and died there about 1875. Jane, a twin sister of Thomas, became the wife of Guion Morrison, of Chartiers township. They settled for some years in Stillwater, Harrison Co., Ohio, and returned to the old Morrison farm, where he died. She now resides near Philadelphia.

Alexander McClure purchased of William Wier one hundred and eight acres in this township in 1800. He lived and died on it, leaving two daughters, one of whom became the wife of Samuel Clokey. Elizabeth married Andrew Borland, who settled on the farm where he still lives. Of their children, Mary married Thomas McClelland ; Sarah became Mrs. John Watson, of Nottingham ; Elizabeth married James McClure, of Houstonville ; Robert Henry married, and lives on the old Henry farm. Alexander, a son, lives near Speers' Church.

James Martin came from York County, Pa., to this county in 1804. He married Margaret McNary, a daughter of John McNary, who, in 1801, purchased land in the township, and died soon after, and whose son John took the farm where James S. McNary now lives. He settled on the farm, and resided there till his death, and left three daughters and one son, Samuel, who was born in 1790. He inherited the farm, and lived there many years, till declining health rendered him unable for active duties, and he moved to Canonsburg, and died March 16, 1878. He was an active member of the Chartiers United Presbyterian Church. He married in 1812, and had three sons,—William, James, and Isaac. William now owns the homestead, and James and Isaac are in the West. Of the three daughters of James Martin, Isabel married John C. Hanna, of Hopewell. The Rev. Thomas Hanna, of Illinois, is their son. Esther became the wife of Joseph McNary, of Cecil township, and Margaret married David Templeton, of North Strabane, where they settled.

James Grier came to this township from Cumberland County about 1810 with his wife and one son, Samuel S., who later removed to Columbiana County, Ohio. James Grier died about 1833, leaving five sons and one daughter,—Samuel S., Thomas, James, Jane, Guion, and David.

Thomas graduated at Jefferson College and at Princeton Seminary. He then entered the ministry of the Presbyterian Church, and settled as pastor over a church at Sidney, Shelby Co., Ohio, where he died. James settled on the home farm, where he still resides.

James Clokey purchased on the 5th of May, 1813, a tract of land situated on both sides of Chartiers Creek, and containing three hundred and eighty acres. He had but one son, Samuel, who resided on the home farm till his death. A tavern was opened at this place soon after the pike was opened, which was kept by one Applegate: The place was named Clokeyville, after Samuel, who at that time was proprietor of the lands. Joseph Clokey, a son of Samuel, now lives on the homestead. A post-office was opened at the place, and Samuel Clokey was appointed postmaster. He was succeeded by his son Joseph. The office is now held by John Paxton, who keeps a store at the town, which is a' station of the Pittsburgh Southern Railroad.

Robert and James McClelland were brothers, of Scotch-Irish descent. Robert, at one time sheriff of Washington County, married Anna, daughter of Robert Officer. He purchased in 1823 at sheriff's sale a portion of the large Pentecost tract, now owned by John Gamble, Esq. He had no sons, but four daughters,—Anna, Manilla, Eliza, and one who became the wife of Dr. Adams, of Canonsburg. Anna married John Johnson, Manilla married Samuel Hughes; both resided in Washington County. Eliza married the Rev. James. P. Smart, a minister of the United Presbyterian Church, and settled at Xenia, Ohio.

James McClelland, the brother of Robert, raised a large family of daughters and one son, James, who now resides in Birmingham. Of the daughters, Margaret married Levi Griffith, Jane married Thomas Jackson, Julia became the wife of Robert McCoy, Sarah married Samuel McCloy, Emi married John McNary. They all resided in or near Canonsburg. Nancy J. married John Simpson, and Elizabeth married James Smith, of Mount Pleasant township.

Ebenezer McClelland purchased two hundred and seventy acres of land of Dudley Woodbridge on the 15th of November, 1831. This tract was part of the Paul Fooks' 'tract, "Shrewsbury," and part of the Morganza plantation. Mr. McClelland built upon it a cabin twenty feet square, and it became the home of the family. Mrs. McClelland is still living at the homestead and now in her eighty-first year. Here grew up to maturity five sons and two daughters. Three sons, William, Ebenezer, and. James, known as the McClelland brothers, reside upon the farm, which has been increased from time to time until at present it embraces an area of eight hundred and twenty-seven acres. Each of the brothers 'have a specialty : William, the management of sheep, of which they have a flock of about eighteen hundred; Ebenezer, the care of the cattle, of which twenty-eight are thoroughbred Shorthorns with a registered pedigree; James has the care of the horses and hogs, which are also thoroughbreds. The large farm is divided up into suitable fields for pasturage for the different stock. The farm is well provided with large, commodious, and suitable buildings necessary for the protection of stock.

William Berry, a son of John Berry, of Mount Pleasant (who settled on the Washington lands), after


many years' residence near Venice, in Cecil township, came to this township and purchased three hundred acres of land June 23, 1835, of Dr. Jonathan Letherman and John Ritchie, executors of Craig Ritchie. The tract was originally taken up on a Virginia certificate, and surveyed to Nathaniel Brown as " Peach Garden," and contained three hundred and twenty-four acres. The land had been rented over forty years when purchased by Mr. Berry. He moved his family to the farm on the 1st of March, 1836, and lived upon it till about 1850, when he moved to Canonsburg, and resided till his death, which occurred about 1865, in his eighty-fifth year. His son John settled on part of the old Nicholas Pees tract in this township. Mary became the wife of William McGlaughlin, and settled in Ohio. Jane married John Thorne, of Canonsburg. William married Elizabeth Collahan, and emigrated to Iowa. Prudence married Mr. Carson, and now resides in Canonsburg. Matthew settled on the farm his father purchased in 1835, and where he still resides. He and his sons are prominently engaged in the breeding of the "Black Top" merino sheep. James resides in Pittsburgh. The sons of John also are prominently engaged in sheep-breeding.

Linden.—On the site of the "lost town" of "Louis-burgh" now stands the town of Linden. The first store at this place was opened by James Hamilton, who was also the first postmaster. The mill site here is that of the old Pentecost mill. It passed from the Pentecost estate to the ownership of John Hair, and is now owned by Thomas Hixson. The town at present contains two stores, post-office, mill, blacksmith-shop, and a few dwellings.

Chartiers Presbyterian Church.¹ It is not known in what year the congregation of Chartiers was organized. It is probable there was no regular organization until Rev. John McMillan came. On his first visit to this region, in 1775, he preached at the house of John McDowell, or Chartiers Creek, on the fourth Sabbath of August. This is the earliest record of service at Chartiers, but there can be no doubt that the settlers had previously met many times for divine worship. In an obituary notice of the Rev. Reid Bracken, published in the Presbyterian Advocate in August, 1849, it is stated that he was born in September, 1778, that his father removed from. York County to Washington County, Pa., when he was an infant six weeks old, and that he was the first child baptized by Mr. McMillan in Chartiers Church. We know that Mr. McMillan preached and baptized at Chartiers three years before the Bracken family came, for he put it on record. We may reconcile the newspaper statement with historical facts by sup-

¹ This history of the Chartiers Church is taken largely from "An Historical Address by the Rev. Francis J. Collier, delivered at the McMillan Centennial Celebration held at the Chartiers Presbyterian Church, near Canonsburg; Washington Co., Pa., Aug. 25, 1875," supplemented by information as to its later history furnished by the present pastor, the Rev. Matthew H. Bradley.

posing that a house of worship was built by Chartiers congregation soon after Mr. McMillan was settled as pastor, and that Reid Bracken was the first infant baptized in the new church. The word "church" used in the obituary refers, as, we understand it, to the sacred edifice, and not to the congregation.

A charter was procured by the congregation of Chartiers in February, 1798. More than thirty of the male members signed the petition for the charter. The following is a list of the signers: John McMillan, John McDowell, Craig Ritchie, Moses Coe, Robert Hill, William Cochran, George Craighead, William Kerr, Robert Hughes, James Foster, James John Johnson, William Welch, James Officer, Hans McClean, Abraham DeHaven, Robert Welch, Robert Bowland, William Hayes, John McCahey, William Hartapee, Nicholas Smith, Daniel Kirkpatrick, James Wishart, John Donnell, William Gault, Alexander Frazer, John Lindsay, Thomas Briceland, Samuel Logan, Thomas Bracken, John McClain, James Gaston, John Crawford, George McCook. The charter was signed Feb. 15, 1798, and approved by the Governor March 28, 1798.

The first trustees were Robert Hill, William Kerr, James McCreedy, William Hays, John Mercer, James Morrison, George Craighead, James Bradford, and John Cotton. After the church was incorporated Josiah Haines conveyed to the trustees, in June, 1798, two and one-fourth acres of land. A year after, Samuel Gilpin, of Cecil County, Md., conveyed seven acres and three-fourths to the board of trustees. The church thus became possessed of ten acres of land. A part of this tract the trustees afterwards exchanged for other land more conveniently located.

The first pastor of Chartiers was the Rev. John McMillan. His parents emigrated from County Antrim, in the north of Ireland, in the year 1742, and settled at Fagg's Manor, in Chester County, Pa. There he was born on the 11th of November, 1752. In his infancy he was dedicated to the Lord by his pious parents, and their earnest prayer was that God would spare his life and make him a minister of the gospel. They first gave their son an English education, then, when he was prepared, they sent him to the Rev. John Blair's classical school at Fagg's Manor, and subsequently to the Rev. Robert Smith's classical school at Pequea, Lancaster Co., Pa. He entered Princeton College in 1770, and in two years graduated, at the age of twenty.

Having finished his course at Princeton, he went back to Pequea to study theology under the direction of Rev. Robert Smith, D.D.. At this period, as we learn from his famous manuscript, he was in an uncertain and perplexed state of mind about undertaking the work of the ministry. He determined to leave the matter wholly with God. If the way was opened he would go on ; if it was shut, he would be satisfied. When in the twenty-second year of his age he was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of


New Castle. This occurred on the 26th of October, 1774, at East Nottingham, Chester Co., Pa. The winter following he preached in the vacant congregations of New Castle and Donegal Presbyteries.

Young as he was, and difficult and hazardous as was the undertaking, he set out in the summer of 1775, under instructions from his Presbytery, to visit the settlements in Virginia and Western Pennsylvania. His course was in part determined by a desire to see some of his friends and kindred who had settled in this region of country. Starting from Chester County, Pa., he made his way westward and southward through the Cumberland and Shenandoah valleys. In July he crossed the Allegheny Mountains near Staunton, Va., and, it is probable, came down the valley of the Monongahela. As he traveled from place to place he preached the gospel. On the fourth Sabbath of August he preached at John McDowell's, on Chartiers Creek, and on the Tuesday following at Pigeon Creek. He then journeyed eastward, and in the month of October reached his father's house at Fagg's Manor. But he did not remain long at home. He returned to this region in the winter, by the same circuitous route through Staunton, Va., and preached at Pigeon Creek and Chartiers from January until nearly the end of March, 1776, when he received a call from these churches to become their pastor. He was not as yet ordained, but preached as a licentiate. He went East, and at a meeting of the Presbytery of New Castle, held in April, accepted the call. He was thereupon dismissed to the Presbytery of Donegal, and on the 19th of June was ordained at Chambersburg, Pa.

Before going to his field he married, on the 6th of August, 1776, Catharine Brown, a pious young woman, whose father, William Brown, was a member of "The Forks of Brandywine Presbyterian Church," or, as it is now more commonly called, " Brandywine Manor Church," in Chester County, Pa. It was the period of the Revolution; and the country was in such a disturbed condition that he judged it imprudent to take his wife to the frontier. He went himself and took charge of the churches, preached, ordained elders, and administered the sacraments, but at times returned to the East.

The account of Dr. McMillan's settlement in the wilderness of Washington County, his establishment of the log cabin school, and other matters not strictly pertaining to his pastorship of this church will be found in the chapters on the religious and educational interests of the county, and in that part of the history of this township referring to its early settlements and settlers.

Dr. McMillan was not more distinguished as an instructor than as a preacher and pastor. He explained the Scriptures with great clearness, ability, and skill. The inspiring theme of his discourse was "Jesus Christ and him crucified." He did not hesitate to preach the terrors of the law, and at the same

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time he proclaimed the sweet promises and encouraging invitations of the gospel. Death and the judgment, heaven and hell were realities to him, and he urged men to flee from the wrath to come. He alarmed the careless, encouraged the timid, consoled the afflicted, instructed the ignorant, confuted the skeptical, and reproved the proud and presumptuous, the hypocritical and contentious, the wicked and worldly-minded.

Sometimes his manner was austere. He ridiculed the man who first appeared at church carrying an umbrella, and the family who first rode to church in a carriage.¹ As two young women arose to leave during service he cried out, " Sit down, girls, sit down, for we have all seen your high combs." Meeting a man who had just recovered from an attack of sickness he said, " It is better that you are here than in hell." For his harsh expressions we offer no apology. They were the faults of a good man.

Dr. McMillan's costume would not accord with present fashions. He wore buckskin knee-breeches, blue stockings and buckled shoes, a coat and a vest of a peculiar style, and a hat with a broad brim.

He preached with marked effect upon sacramental occasions and at camp-meetings. With his powerful voice he could be distinctly heard by a great multitude. He expressed regret before his death that he could not leave his lungs as a legacy to some weak-voiced minister, for he thought they were strong enough to last for another generation.

For many years his salary did not amount to more than one hundred pounds in Pennsylvania currency, a sum equivalent to two hundred and sixty-six dollars. Some paid their subscriptions in cash, others in merchandise. In a small paper book in the writer's possession, dated 1782, Mr. McMillan gives one person credit for six pounds and a half of tallow, another receives credit for a quire of paper valued at two shillings and sixpence, others are credited for corn and wheat. The salary seems meagre and insufficient, but we must remember that provisions were cheap, the style of living was very plain, and the pastor was the possessor of a large farm, which he purchased when land was worth but three or four dollars an acre. Small as was his salary, Dr. McMillan was able by strict economy to save a portion, which he used for charitable purposes.

Dr. McMillan served the united congregations of Chartiers and Pigeon Creek for a period of nineteen years, and afterwards devoted his pastoral labors exclusively to Chartiers.

During his ministry it was Dr. McMillan's good fortune to have around him a noble band of elders, men of intelligence, energy, prudence; courage, and piety. Such men were John McDowell, James Allison, Moses Coe, George Craighead, James Foster, Samuel Logan, Jacob Bell, Thomas Briceland, Rich-

¹ Col. George Morgan's family.


and Johnstone, John Phillips, John Colmery, Samuel Miller, Jacob Howey, John Hare, John Neil, and others at Chartiers, and James Wherry, Patrick McCullough, Hugh Scott, John Hawkins, William McCombs, Patrick Scott, and others at Pigeon Creek.

In the year 1822, Dr. Matthew Brown, the eminent instructor and divine, whose praise is in all the churches, removed from Washington, Pa., to Canonsburg, being called to the presidency of Jefferson College. Dr. Brown preached each Sabbath at Chartiers, in conjunction with Dr. McMillan, for a period of eight years, or until the College Church was organized in 1830, when Dr. Brown became its pastor. In his historical sketch of the Jefferson class of 1828, the Rev. Loyal Young, D.D., said, " Our usual place of worship was old Chartiers Church. Dr. McMillan was still vigorous but aged. His voice when he became animated was stentorian. In the days of summer, Dr. McMillan preached the sermon in the morning and Dr. Brown in the afternoon. Our religious exercises were solemn, and at the prayer-meetings on Wednesday evening, in Franklin Hall, Dr. Brown exhibited a warmth and an unction in his address that often melted the listeners to tears."

In 1830, the same year in which Dr. Matthew Brown ceased his labors at Chartiers and took charge of the church organized in Canonsburg, Dr. McMillan, then an old man, resigned his pastorate, but he did not cease to preach the gospel. Being strongly urged, he accepted invitations to visit the churches in this region. In his eightieth year Dr. McMillan administered the Lord's Supper fourteen times and preached fifty times, leaning on his crutch on some occasions. In the last year of his life he assisted in administering the Lord's Supper seventeen times and preached about seventy-five times. Before he was called to rest his successor was installed at Chartiers, and same changes and improvements were made in the .old house of worship. The building was enlarged and a new pulpit constructed. Dr. McMillan did not like to see the old pulpit set aside, and he was unwilling to enter the new, and in his last days, when he addressed his people, he stood on the platform in front of the pulpit. The old pulpit was endeared to him by many associations.

Dr. McMillan's useful, laborious, and eventful life ended on the 16th of November, 1833. Of him, as of Moses, it could be said, "His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." The church mourned his departure, for a great man had fallen in Israel. " He, being dead, yet speaketh." His influence survives; his memory is imperishable. He was buried at Chartiers, where the remains of his father, wife, and two sons-in-law were interred. His sons-in-law, the Rev. John Watson, first president of Jefferson College, and Rev. William Moorehead, were married by Dr. McMillan on the same day ; a short time afterwards they took sick on the same day, died on the same day, and were buried in the same grave. They died on the 30th of November, 1802; his father on the 2d of July, 1792; his wife on the 24th of November, 1819.

About two years before 'the death of Dr. McMillan the Rev. Lemuel F. Leake was installed as the second pastor of Chartiers. This took place on the 12th of October, 1831. He served the congregation twelve years. He resigned in April, 1843, and became president of Franklin College, at New Athens, Ohio. Mr. Leake was a native of New Jersey, born at Chester, in Morris County, in 1790. He was educated at Princeton College and Theological Seminary. For a few years he was pastor of Oxford and Harmony Churches in New Jersey, in the Presbytery of Newton. Resigning his charge, he engaged for a while in missionary labors. In 1831 he made an extensive tour through Virginia, as McMillan had done, and preached the gospel, and came to Chartiers, where he was induced to settle. He was prospered in his ministry. In the first year twenty-two persons united with the church on profession, and seventeen in the second year. These were seasons of special religious interest which Dr. McMillan witnessed before he was called away. Soon after Mr. Leake came to Chartiers he was married to Miss Catharine Ritchie, of Canonsburg. She was his second wife. In the year 1835 he established a class of catechumens at Chartiers, and The session adopted a rule that in ordinary cases young persons should not be received into the communion of the church unless they had been for a time members of that class.

During Mr. Leake's pastorate a new church was built, at a cost of two thousand five hundred, dollars. It was finished in the summer of 1841, and having been repaired and improved from time to time, it remains to this day. The first house of worship erected by Chartiers congregation was made of logs, and it was probably built in the year 1778.. The people who worshiped in it knew nothing of the comfort afforded by a stove or furnace on a cold winter day ; and indeed when stoves could be had some were as much opposed to their introduction as they were to the use of hymns or organs in the house of God. The log church lasted until about the year 1800, when a stone church was built. The stone used in its construction was taken from an Indian mound which stood near by on the top of the hill. The stone church was enlarged and improved in 1832, about the time Mr. Leake was installed, and it stood until the present brick church was erected.

In Mr. Leake's time we find the first record of the election of church officers. An election of elders was held April 2, 1838, which resulted in the choice of Thomas Connelly, Samuel Logan, Jr., William Scott, George Gladden, and John Johnson. Mr. Scott declined the office ; the others were ordained and installed in May. Another election took place in September, 1841, at which Samuel Kerr, Joseph Homer,


and Andrew Allison were chosen elders, and Samuel Logan, Jr., deacon. Mr. Kerr accepted, and in December was ordained and installed ; the others declined.

After Mr. Leake left Chartiers he resided at New Athens, Ohio, Zelinople. Butler Co., Pa., Waveland and Terre Haute, Ind. He died on the 1st of December, 1866, and was buried at Terre Haute.

After the resignation of Mr. Leake, in April, 1843, the pulpit remained vacant two years. The third pastor of Chartiers was the Rev. Alexander B. Brown, D.D. He was elected to a professorship in Jefferson College in the year 1841. For some time after he supplied the pulpit of Centre Church, located about five miles east of Canonsburg. In the spring of 1845 he became pastor of Chartiers congregation, and so continued until the fall of 1847, when he was elected to the presidency of Jefferson College as successor to Rev. Robert J. Breckinridge, D.D. " During his short pastorate," says Dr. D. H. Riddle, " twenty-two persons were admitted to the communion of the church on professions of their faith, and in many hearts and households there the memory of his preaching and usefulness remains fragrant to this day."

Alexander B. Brown was the son of Rev. Matthew Brown, D.D., and Mary Blaine. He was born in Washington, Pa., on the 1st of August, 1808. He graduated at Jefferson College in 1825, He received his theological training at the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny. After his licensure he labored for a while as a missionary in the mountain regions of the State of Virginia. It will be remembered as a remarkable coincidence that his predecessors at Chartiers, Dr. McMillan and Mr. Leake, preached in the same region. He was married in December, 1833, to Miss Elizabeth Finley Nevin, whose brother was then a professor in the seminary at Allegheny. Dr. Brown was settled at Niles, Michigan, and Portsmouth, Ohio, before he was elected professor at Canonsburg. He was connected with Jefferson College as professor and president from 1841 to 1856. After years of devoted service in the cause of education and religion, his increasing bodily infirmities led him to seek rest and retirement in the country. But the change of residence did not bring him that freedom from care and labor which he needed and sought. Living near Centre Church, where he had formerly preached as stated supply, he was induced to become its pastor, and he continued to hold this relationship for several years, until he had not strength to preach. At his rural home he waited patiently until the Lord called him. He died on the 8th of September, 1863.

The fourth pastor of Chartiers was the Rev. Robert M. White. His pastorate lasted but a short time. He was called in September, 1848, about a year after Dr. A. B. Brown resigned his pastoral charge at Chartiers, and was installed in October. Two. months later, on the 14th of December, he died.

Mr. White was an earnest advocate of the cause of temperance. He twice represented his Presbytery in the General Assembly, the last time in 1846, when he .took a prominent part in a debate on slavery, in which he displayed great ability. and. tact. In June, 1848, he was elected professor extraordinary of rhetoric in Jefferson College.

Six months elapsed after the death of Mr. White before another minister was settled at Chartiers. The fifth pastor was Rev. Joseph R. Wilson, a native of Steubenville, Ohio, a graduate of Jefferson College and of Princeton Theological Seminary. In June, 1849, he was ordained and installed as pastor of Chartiers congregation. In July he was elected professor extraordinary of rhetoric in Jefferson College. He was encouraged during the first year of his ministry by the addition of twenty-five persons to the church on profession of their faith. His pastorate lasted less than two years. In January, 1851, the Presbytery released him from his charge. Mr. 'Wilson afterwards removed to the South, and became thoroughly identified with the Southern people, in feelings, principles, and interest.

Following the resignation of Mr.. Wilson there occurred a vacancy of one year in the pastorate. The sixth pastor of Chartiers was the Rev. William Ewing, a native of Washington, Pa., a graduate of Washington College, and of the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny. After leaving the seminary he went to Europe and spent some time in travel and study. He was ordained and installed Jan. 14, 1852, and he ministered to the congregation more than eighteen years. During three years of his ministry there was more than ordinary religious interest in the congregation. Twenty-one united with the church on profession in 1858, sixteen the next year, and twenty-two the year after. During his pastorate one hundred and twenty-nine persons were received into Chartiers Church on profession of their faith.

The session was increased during Mr. Ewing's ministry. In June, 1855, William Black and Thomas Weaver were ordained to the eldership. Alexander Boland and John Chambers, who had been chosen at the same congregational meeting, declined the office. In July, 1860, John Weaver, William McMillan, John Norris, and Israel Haines were ordained elders.

Towards the close of Mr. Ewing's pastorate a new roof was put on the church edifice, and the interior was renovated and improved.

Mr. Ewing was released from his charge in April, 1870. He became successfully engaged in the important work of instruction as principal of the academy in Canonsburg, organized since the removal of Jefferson College to Washington. He was elected professor extraordinary of history and modern languages' in Jefferson College in 1852. It is a fact worthy of mention that several of the pastors of Chartiers have been noted for their zeal in the cause of education.

For several months after Mr. Ewing left Chartiers


the pulpit was supplied by different ministers. In the winter of 1870 a call was given to Rev. Robert S. Morton, a graduate of Jefferson College of the class of 1845. The Presbytery placed the call in his hands. He asked and obtained permission to hold it for six months, before making known his decision. At the expiration of that time he declined the call. A vacancy of three years followed the withdrawal of Mr. Morton.

The seventh pastor of Chartiers is the Rev. Matthew H. Bradley. He was born at Mercersburg, Pa. He received his academical, and one year of his collegiate education at Mercersburg College; graduated at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., in June, 1871, and received his theological instruction at the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny. He was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Carlisle, convened at Chambersburg, Pa., in the same church in which Dr. McMillan was licensed. He was ordained and installed at Chartiers on the 10th of June, 1874. He has the confidence, respect, and affection of the people.

On the 10th of July, 1875, James McLaughlin and Robert Munnel were ordained to the office of ruling elder in Chartiers congregation, and in 1877, James T. Craighead was ordained and elected to the office of elder. The board of elders as at present constituted are John B. Weaver, James McLaughlin, Robert W. Munnell, and James T. Craighead. The deacons are Samuel McMillan and Frank C. Lyon. The number of communicants at present is one hundred and forty-eight.

Canonsburg United Presbyterian Church. This society was organized in 1830 as the Speers Spring Associate Reformed Church by the Monongahela Presbytery. The meeting for organization was held in a tent erected at the foot of the hill by a spring on the grounds of Alexander Speer. Worship was held at this place until 1832, when the main part of the present brick edifice was erected. An addition of twenty feet was afterwards made to this.

The first elders were Samuel Fergus, James Stewart, Moses Walker, James Gabby, Andrew Monroe, and William Berry, and on the 5th of April, 1832, John Ballentine, Sr., and Alexander McConnell were ordained and installed as elders. The present board of elders are D. G. Philip, John Thorne, John Connor, Sr., Isaac Weaver, William Giffin, and Alexander B. Borland.

The pastors who have presided over the congregation are as follows: Rev. Alexander McCahan, a native of Ireland, was installed on the 21st of September, 1831, as pastor of the Canonsburg and Cross-Roads Societies. He was released from the care of Canonsburg on the 12th of April, 1837, and remained in charge of Chartiers Cross-Roads till March 28, 1843. He died in Canonsburg Oct. 4, 1873.

Rev. Thomas Callahan, the second pastor, was born in Washington County, Pa., in 1820 ; was licensed to preach March 29, 1843, and ordained as pastor of the church July 16, 1844. He remained in this connection till 1848, when he was released.

Rev. William Wallace, D.D., was a native of Allegheny County, Pa.; graduated at Washington College in 1824 ; licensed April 24, 1827 ; ordained Oct. 3, 1828, as pastor of the church at Wheeling, Va., and Sept. 24, 1850, was installed pastor over this church. He died Jan. 31, 1851. , In connection with his duties as pastor he was Professor of Moral Science in Jefferson College, at Canonsburg.

Rev. David Paul, D.D., succeeded Rev. William Wallace, and was ordained Dec. 13, 1853. He remained but two years, and was released Dec. 25, 1855. He now resides at New Concord, Ohio.

Rev. William H. Andrews, D.D., studied theology at Canonsburg about 1846, and served as pastor over several churches. On the 30th of June, 1857, he became the pastor of this church, and after two years' service was released July 26, 1859. He died at Galt, Canada, March 30, 1869.

Rev. John W. Bain was ordained pastor over the society by the Presbytery of Chartiers Nov. 12, 1861, and remained till June, 1867.

Rev. J. G. Carson, D.D., graduated at Jefferson College in 1849; studied theology at the theological seminary at Canonsburg; was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Chartiers June 22, 1855, and ordained pastor of South Buffalo Church Nov.13,1856. He was released in May, 1867 ; was installed as pastor of this church October 1st the same year, and released Nov. 5, 1869. He is now professor in the theological seminary in Xenia, Ohio.

Rev. William Weir was ordained pastor in June, 1870, and remained till June 17, 1873, when he was released. He was succeeded by the Rev. John S. Speer, who was installed pastor on the 21st day of April, 1874; and has charge of the congregation at the present time.

The society has a membership of one hundred and ninety. A Sunday-school in connection with the society has one hundred and forty scholars, under the superintendence of William P. Morgan, assisted by eight teachers.

A cemetery also is connected with the church lot, the ground having been donated by Alexander Speer. It is situated in the township of North Strabane, but adjoining the town of Canonsburg.



James S. McNary was born in North Strabane township, Washington Co., Pa., May 22, 1810, the third in a family of eight children of John and Jane E. (Hill) McNary. (For full account of genealogy of the family, see biography of his brother, Wm. H.


McNary.) He was born on the place where he now lives, and where he remained until he was thirty years of age. His education was received in the district school of the neighborhood. For a number of years prior to the death of his father the sole management of the homestead farm devolved upon him. He eventually became its owner. To the original one hundred and seventy-nine acres he has since added sixty acres. He married, September, 1841, Hannah, daughter of John and Hannah (Rankin) Anderson, who was born in North Strabane township Aug. 18, 1822. She died Aug. 3, 1842. Mrs. McNary was a most amiable and lovely woman, and her early death was most keenly felt by a large circle of friends. To her husband it was a stroke hard indeed to be borne. Since her death Mr. McNary has remained single. After marriage he removed to his farm of one hundred and fifty-six acres, situated in South Strabane township, and lived there till 1857, adding, while there, sixty-five acres to the original farm. Having that year purchased the homestead farm, he removed to it, and has ever since resided there. The farm residence, a substantial brick, was built by his father in 1828. His family at the present time (1882) consists of himself, a sister, Jane E., a nephew, James E., and niece, Clara Ella, children of his brother, O. R. McNary.

In politics Mr. McNary was first an anti-slavery Whig, but has been actively identified with the Republican party since its organization. Has been no office-seeker.

He became a member of the Chartiers Seceder Church, now the Chartiers United Presbyterian, at the age of eighteen, and is still a member of the same church. He has been a member of its board of trustees, and was on the building committee in the construction of their present house of worship. Though by nature a quiet and reserved man, no private citizen in the community wields a more potent influence in either church or political matters. In all public enterprises he has always stood among the first with his influence and means. As a farmer he has always ranked among the most thorough and successful in a region noted for its good farmers. He is no visionary; ideas which may be wrought into PRACTICAL RESULTS have been the sort he preferred to entertain.

Mr. McNary has been a man of wonderful physical endurance, still doing a man's work at the age of seventy-two. His motto has always been "Come on," not " Go."

His house is one of the most hospitable in the region, always a pleasant resort for his friends. One who knows him well says, " If ever there was a man who for years has lived for his friends, that man is James S. McNary.


Zachariah Pees was born in North Strabane township, Washington Co., Pa., July 15, 1799. His grandfather, Nicholas Pees, accompanied by an uncle, emigrated from Germany when but twelve years of age. Eventually he settled and married in Caniguagig, east of the mountains. Here three of his children, viz., Mary, Andrew, and George, were born. About the year 1769 he journeyed on foot to the " backwoods," and located in what is now the township of North Strabane, on Little Chartiers Creek, four hundred acres of land. Returning East, with the aid of one horse, upon which were placed his worldly effects and the youngest child, he moved to the new home, the whole journey being made by himself, wife, son, and daughter on foot. At first a small log hut was built, in which the family lived during the first winter. It was situated near the present residence of John M. Berry. Mr. Pees was one of the three first settlers of the township. Here were born children as follows : Nicholas, Catharine, Betsey, and Susan. All of his children but Nicholas were married and raised families.

The grandfather died at the advanced age of one hundred and five years. In physique he was indeed " stalwart," being six feet and one inch in stature, and well proportioned. He was capable of great physical endurance. He raised, cured, and prepared his own tobacco, and was both a chewer and smoker of the weed. His wife lived upward of ninety years.

George Pees, father of Zachariah, was but four years of age when the family removed to Washington County. He was the only one privileged to ride over the mountains. He married Lydia, daughter of John Vaughn. She was a native of New Jersey. Their children were Polly, Andrew, Rebecca, Zachariah, John, Nicholas, George, Joseph, James, Eliza, Polly, Lydia, and two daughters who died in infancy. Polly was burned to death when a child, Joseph died at about the age of thirty, and James when twenty-five years of age. All the rest were married, raised families, and settled in Washington County. Only Zachariah, John, and George (1889) are living.

George Pees died March 1, 1849. His wife died Oct. 16, 1865. Father and mother were first members of the Chartiers Presbyterian Church, but for about twenty years prior to their death were members of the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Church. Both are buried there.

Zachariah Pees was born in the house now owned and occupied by John M. Berry, then owned by his grandfather. Lived on the place of his birth till twenty years of age. His opportunities for education were very limited. For a number of years he• drove team for his father to Pittsburgh, carrying the products of the farm, and bringing in return supplies from. that market. The cost of transportation in


those days to Pittsburgh was two dollars per barrel for flour, eight cents per bushel for oats, and fifteen cents for corn. The journey was made for most of the way through the woods, and at this time there was not a house on Mount Washington.

When twenty-one years of age his father exchanged farms with his uncle, Andrew Pees, securing in the exchange a saw- and grist-mill, which have always been known as " Pees' Mills." These mills were operated by Zachariah Pees fourteen years. The " Pees" brand of flour was well known throughout the region as the best in the market. He married, Dec. 27,1820, Hannah, daughter of Andrew and Polly Pees. She was born April 25, 1800. Their children were William, born Oct. 13, 1821 ; married Mary Jane Cheesman, May 20, 1844. The latter died Feb. 12, 1846. By this union one child, Mary Jane, wife of John L. Gault. Second wife, Eliza Davis. Two children, Hannah and Anderson, both deceased. Third wife, Cordelia Sutman. Children, Catharine, William, Abner, Mattie, John, Belle, and Susan.

Joseph, born Aug. 21, 1823; married Sarah Newsom.

Andrew, born July 4, 1825; married Julia Ann, daughter of John and Sarah (Haines) Dickson. Children, Zachariah Mason, Ida, Elizabeth, and John Dickson.

Mary, born May 1, 1827; wife of Jacob Anthony, a farmer living in Illinois. Children, Hannah, Pearson, Belle, Jane Ann, Abbie, Ettie, Grant, and John Zachariah.

Lydia, born July 24, 1830, wife of Zachariah Pees, a farmer, also living in Illinois. Children, Swan, Francis, Clark, and Lessie.

Elizabeth, born June 5, 1833; died March 11,1841.

George, born April 27, 1835 ; died May 3, 1835.

Hannah Jane, born May 20, 1839; died May 16, 1841.

Phebe, born April 7, 1841 ; died Oct. 30, 1841.

Mrs. Pees died Oct. 4, 1846. Mr. Pees married Jan. 13, 1848, for his second wife, Jane, daughter of Robert and Margaret Jackson. Her family were a connection of President Andrew Jackson. Mrs. Jane Pees was born in Lancaster County, Pa., Oct. 18,1806. One child was the fruit of this union, viz., Margaret Jane, born May 12, 1849 ; died May 18, 1877.

About the year 1825, Mr. Pees purchased a farm in Ohio, near Richmond, with the intention of removing to it, but was persuaded to remain in Pennsylvania by his father. Sold his farm in Ohio, and purchased the farm in North Strabane township now owned and occupied by his son William. He subsequently purchased the farm upon which he now resides, which is worked by his son Andrew.

In politics Mr. Pees has been a lifelong Democrat. Has been called to fill a number of township offices.

He became a member of the Chartiers Presbyterian Church when eighteen years of age, but for the last sixty-four years of his life has been a member of the Pigeon Creek Church, and an elder in the latter for many years. Mr. Pees has always commanded the respect of his neighbors, and the declining years of his life are brightened by the loving regard of a large family circle.


THIS was the ninth of the thirteen original townships of Washington County, formed by the trustees appointed for that purpose July 15, 1781. It retained its original area for eleven years. In 1792 a petition of "sundry of the Inhabitants of the lower end of Strabane and upper end of Nottingham townships," prayed that a part of Nottingham be added to Strabane township. The action on this petition is indicated by the indorsement upon it, viz.: " December, 1792—Petition granted, and that part of Nottingham township which lies within Washington Election District added to Strabane township."

On Sept. 30, 1834, the boundaries of the township were somewhat curtailed by the formation of Carroll, and on March 3, 1836, were further lessened by the erection of Union. As now constituted, Nottingham is bounded on the north by Peters, east by Carroll and Union, south by Fallowfield and Somerset, and west by North Strabane.

The township is generously drained,—in the north by the waters of Peters Creek, and in its central and southern portions by Little Mingo and Mingo Creeks, all flowing east into the Monongahela River.

Nottingham is hilly, partaking of the general topographical character of all the eastern townships. In the north along Peters Creek and in the east at Ginger Hill the hills rise with considerable abruptness, but are easily cultivated to their very summits. The township is underlaid with a vein of the valuable Pittsburgh coal ; along Peters Creek it crops out at many places and is easily mined, but in the central and southern portion lies at too great a depth for present profitable development.

Nottingham was an independent district until 1803, when it became a part of District No. 6, and so remained until 1838, when it became again an independent district. The justices of the peace for the territory of Nottingham while it remained a part of


District No. 6 will be found in the list of justices of Peters township. Following is a list of justices having jurisdiction in Nottingham prior to 1803 and after 1838, the periods of its existence as an independent district, viz.:

Joseph Parkinson, July 15, 1781.

Benjamin Parkinson, July 15,1781.

Hugh Scott, Nov. 8, 1788.

David Hamilton, Feb. 29, 1792.

George McGibbony, April 14, 1839.

George Creuch, April 14, 1840.

Samuel Morrison, April 15, 1845.

Andrew Clark, Aug. 25, 1845.

Andrew Clark, April 9, 1850.

James McNary, April 9, 1850.

James McNary, April 10, 1855.

Andrew Moore, April 10, 1855.

Andrew Clark, April, 1858.

James McNary, Apr11, 1860.

David Hootman, April, 1863.

Jonathan Cosebeer, April 11, 1865.

Andrew Clark, April 11, 1865.

David Hootman, Jr., May 5, 1866.

Jonathan Cosebeer, Nov. 30, 1870.

Andrew Clark, April 15, 1873.

Andrew Clark, Jan. 28, 1874.

Jonathan Cosebeer, Jan. 31, 1874.

David Hootman, March 17,1875.

Jonathan Cosebeer, March 16, 1876.

George McGibbony, March 13,1880.

Andrew McDonald, April 9, 1881.

Settlements.—Hugh Scott was one of the earliest settlers in this township. He was a son of Abram Scott, born in Chester County (now Adams) in 1726. He married Miss Janet Agnew, and lived on the Millerstown road, about five miles from Gettysburg, Pa. In 1772 he came to the territory of Washington County with his brother Josiah (who settled in what is now South Strabane), and settled on a tract of land now in possession of his grandsons, J. K. and H. C. Scott. Hugh Scott was a blacksmith, and in that year built a blacksmith-shop on Mingo Creek, almost opposite the residence of his grandson. He was one of the commissioners appointed to purchase a site for the county court-house and jail in 1781. A man of great piety and influence, he was one of the signers of the " Religious Agreement" written by James Edgar, and one of the founders and first elders in the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Church. He died at his home, Oct. 11, 1819, aged ninety-three years. His wife died Oct. 9, 1814, aged seventy-seven. They were both buried in the Pigeon Creek graveyard. Their children were Abraham, James, Hugh, Josiah, John, Rebecca (Mrs. George Vanemen), Margaret (Mrs. Ramsey), Sarah (Mrs. Jordan), and Elizabeth (Mrs. Todd). The three last settled near Steubenville, Ohio. Of the sons, Abraham and James returned to Adams County when young men, and settled there. George K. Scott, an early teacher and merchant of Washington, was a son of Abraham. Hugh, the third son of Hugh, emigrated to Newark, Ohio, where he settled and died. Josiah settled on the homestead, and died there. His grandchildren now occupy the place. He married Jane, a sister of Daniel Darragh. He died of cholera in 1834, and was buried in Mingo churchyard. Mrs. Thomas Weir and Mrs. A. D. Scott, of Beallsville, are his children.

John, the youngest son of Hugh Scott, Sr., married Martha Patterson, and settled in the town of Washington. They both died of cholera in 1834. Of his children, three are now living,—Dr. John Scott, of Pittsburgh, J. Randolph Scott, of Washington, Ill., and Mrs. Robert Officer, of Council Bluffs, Iowa.

Among the Hessian soldiers captured at Trenton by Washington's army was 'a boy named Andrew Devore. He, entertaining no love for the English, and detesting his prince for having sold him and his comrades into the service of foreign potentate, refused to avail himself of an exchange of prisoners, and with a number of others enlisted in the American army, and in the summer of 1782 came to Nottingham township, where he settled on a farm named in the Pennsylvania patent which he received in 1784 " Up and Down." A portion of the original tract is still owned by his grandson, James Devore. In 1792 he erected a distillery on Mingo Creek, and operated it continuously until 1794, when it was seized by the government for non-payment of the excise. Devore died in 1834 at the age of seventy-six.

Benjamin Parkinson, famous in the annals of the Whiskey Insurrection as one of the leaders, resided in Nottingham township near Kammerer from 1792 until the time of his death in 1834. Parkinson was of English descent, his father having emigrated about the middle of the eighteenth century and settled in the Cumberland valley near Carlisle, where Benjamin Parkinson was born in 1750. Shortly after the close of the Revolutionary war Parkinson came to Washington County and settled. In 1792 he built for himself a dwelling-house and tavern stand on his farm, acquired several years previous both by Virginia certificate and Pennsylvania patent. His home and tavern stood on the " Glades road," eight and one-half measured miles from Parkinson's Ferry, and is now occupied as a residence by Mr. William Gamble, who is also owner of a portion of the farm. At the same time he built a distillery, and in 1795 a blacksmith-shop just west of the tavern. This still, of one hundred gallons capacity, was seized for non-payment of the excise on Nov. 14, 1794. John Coulson was the first smith in charge of the shop, and was succeeded by David Hootman, Parkinson's son-in-law. The " Buck Tavern," the name of the stand, to the management of which he gave his personal attention, was famous for its hospitality, its table, and good liquor.

Benjamin Parkinson died Oct. 26, 1834, at the advanced age of eighty-four, and lies buried in the graveyard of Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Church, a plain stone slab covering his grave.

David Hamilton, Esq., was born in Adams (then York) County, Pa., in 1759. He removed with his father's family to Washington County at an early period, and became possessor of the tract of land known as Ginger Hill. He was commissioned a justice of the peace in 1792, and for more than forty years continued in this office, filling it with more than ordinary acceptability and efficiency. His name occurs quite frequently in the historical records of the insurrection. That he took an active part in that great popular uprising is not to be denied. But there is no evidence that he approved of any of the acts of violence committed. Though: he was present at the


burning of Neville's house, the only connection in which his name appears is in the performance of an act of humanity. In his history, H. M. Brackenridge, relating the manner in which Neville's brother-in-law, Maj. Kirkpatrick, who commanded the soldiers within the house, escaped, states : " Kirkpatrick, after being carried some distance under guard, was taken by David Hamilton behind him on horseback ; when, thinking himself protected, he began to answer those who came up occasionally with indignant language, when Hamilton said to him, ' You see I am endeavoring to save you at the risk of my own safety, and yet you are making it still more dangerous for me.' On this he was silent, and being carried some distance further by Hamilton, he was advised to make his escape, which he did." Subsequently, when Hamilton was deputed by a committee of the people to go to Pittsburgh and return the pistols taken from Marshal Lenox and require the fulfillment of what had been agreed upon on his part, it is testified by a witness under oath that " Hamilton consented to go in order to prevent the people from coming in themselves and doing mischief, for there was danger of their going in at that time." These and similar references show that however strenuous may have been his opposition to the excise law, his influence was on the side of order and humanity. Though some attempts were made toward the close of the insurrection to apprehend him, he was successful in evading their efforts, and without further molestation spent the remainder of his life in peace.

He was married in early life to Margaret Hamilton, niece of Col. John Hamilton, a lady in whom were singularly combined the refined manners of the East and the hardihood of the West. She lived to the advanced age of ninety-six, dying in 1872. It is related of her that she crossed the mountains to and fro between Adams and Washington Counties seventeen times, and always on horseback, except on her last trip. Five of Esquire Hamilton's sisters married husbands who established families well known in the county. Their names were Wylie, McDonough, Scott, Bolton, and Barr. Two of his brothers, Daniel and John, settled in Kentucky. Whatever hot blood may have coursed in his veins in youth, his age presented the picture of a mild and courteous gentleman, an intelligent and useful citizen, and an exemplary Christian. For more than fifty years he was a member in full communion in the Presbyterian Church. At his death, which occurred May 10, 1839, in his eightieth year, he bequeathed half of his estate to the educational charities of that church. Providence denied to this worthy couple the gift of children. They sleep side by side in the old Mingo graveyard.

James Morrison received a Virginia certificate for a tract of land "containing four hundred and thirty-eight acres on the waters of Mingo Creek." He came to this country in 1773 with his two sons, John and Henry, from Chester County, Pa. Henry was a lieutenant in the Revolution. He died at the age of eighty-two. His son, Henry Morrison, Sr., and grandson, Henry, Jr., still reside on part of the old homestead. John Morrison, a son of Henry, lived on the farm also, and his son, Maj. William H. Morrison, resides in Monongahela City. James Morrison, one of the sons of James, sold his portion of the estate about 1869, and now lives with James W. Gaston, of Union township.

William Scott emigrated from Ireland with his wife and his children,—John, Thomas, Alexander, Joseph, Mary, Fanny, Elizabeth, and Angel. John married Margaret McNary. John, son of John, settled in Somerset township, where he was justice of the peace for fifteen years from 1854. He sold his farm in 1869 to Jeremiah Myers, and removed to Washington, where he still resides. Rebecca, daughter of John, Sr., married Martin Baile, and moved to. Belmont County, Ohio. Thomas married Margaret Rodgers, and settled in the township. Alexander married Gertrude Kerr. They settled in the township for a time and emigrated to Tuscarawas County, Ohio. Joseph, brother of John, Thomas, and Alexander also emigrated to Ohio.

About 1804, Daniel Williams built a saw-mill on the farm now owned by Harman Raney. It was destroyed by fire several years later, and never rebuilt. In 1807, John Kenton built a tannery on Mingo Creek, east of Dunningsville, and in 1819 leased it to William McGregor, Esq., who had learned his trade in Washington with Christopher Hornish. In 1828, Mr. McGregor and William Barr bought the tannery from Kenton, who then moved to Indiana. Among the many apprentices who learned their trade with McGregor and Barr was Col. William Hopkins, the father of the late Andrew Hopkins, Esq., of Washington, and Hon. James H. Hopkins, of Pittsburgh.

In 1830, Robert and John Scott came from .Pittsburgh and built a steam saw- and grist-mill on the Devore farm on Mingo Creek. It was kept in active operation until 1846, when it was destroyed by fire.

From 1827 to 1836 Charles Farquar ran a tannery on Mingo Creek, on the farm of the late Hiram Warren. Adam Devore, a son of Andrew, established, in 1830, a tannery on the farm now owned by John Gamble, Esq., and kept it running continuously until 1853, when it was dismantled. George Miller built a tannery on his farm about 1830, but about 1845 it was abandoned. Now no traces of any of these establishments remain. .

Dunningsville.—On the 10th of December, 1791, Alexander Scott bought of Joseph and Alexander Campbell a tract of land, embracing the present site of Dunningsville, which tract had been purchased in 1788 by the Campbells from Nicholas Vaneman, who had warranted it from the land-office March 23,1786. The " Glades road" passed through the tract, and on this road, in 1798, Scott built a dwelling and store,


the site of which is now occupied by the residence of James Leyda. In 1801-2, Scott built a horse gristmill opposite his house, and a year or two subsequent a tavern stand just east of the Leyda homestead, and west of it a blacksmith-shop. Having installed William Sheets in the blacksmith-shop, and a certain John Kehoe in the tavern, Scott gave his personal attention to keeping store and grinding his neighbors' grain.

Scott, who was an Englishman by birth, .was a strong Tory during the war of 1812, and this greatly incensed the patriotic citizens of the vicinity, and his life was openly threatened. Scott being frightened, and believing the threats would be carried into execution, fled to Washington and subscribed to the oath of allegiance.

In 1835, Scott removed to Ohio, having sold his farm, tavern, and store to John Dunning, who for many years previous had been a wagoner on the road, After taking possession of his purchase, Dunning succeeded in having the little village made a post-town, and from him it derives its name. He was its first postmaster, having been appointed in 1830, and continued in office until his death. During the time of Dunning the sign of his tavern was two gold keys crossed. And the " Crossed Keys" was a famous tavern in its day, as its landlord was the, typical landlord of the road. He died Sept. 7, 1843, and lies buried in the graveyard of Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Church.

After Dunning's death, a man named Bell kept the tavern, the farm having been purchased from the executors of the estate by Dr. Boyd Emery, who subsequently sold it and the tavern to Aaron Brawdy, under whose administration the tavern was destroyed by fire in 1858. Mr. James Leyda bought the property from the assignee of Mr. Brawdy, and is its present owner.

In 1863, William Welch built a wagon-shop, and John Dornan the same year built the present blacksmith-shop of the place. Both came from Pittsburgh, and are still engaged in their respective pursuits.

The postmasters intervening between Dunning and Thomas H. Long, appointed in 1858, have not been ascertained, but following the latter have been John T. Sumny, W. H. Hickson, and John Caseber. A. C. Gamble, appointed in 1875, continues to hold the office.

Kammerer.—This village is located on a tract of eighty-five acres, which was patented by George Meyers, March 12, 1788, and which by subsequent transfers became the property of William McFeeley, who owned it in 1832, it being at that time under lease to Thomas Officer, who placed John Kammerer upon it. Kammerer built a dwelling and store-room upon it, and April 1, 1841, bought the farm and buildings he had erected from the owner, McFeeley. Shortly afterwards he built a tavern stand, which before the war of the Rebellion was a place of great

resort, and known far and wide as " Dutch John's." In 1845, on Mingo Creek, near the site of the old Leyda mill, built in 1790, he. built a saw- and gristmill, which was burned on Sept. 22, 1850, and rebuilt the following year. Mr. Kammerer died at his home in 1856, and in 1859 his son Joseph built his distillery and kept it in continuous operation until 1871. In 1881 a partnership was formed between Joseph Kammerer, Christian Hootman, and John Leyda, for the purpose of manufacturing liquors. The old saw-mill, built in 1851, was changed into a distillery, to which was given the name of Mingo. In connection with his distillery business, Joseph Kammerer conducts an extensive country store, and is the postmaster of the village.

Munntown is located on a tract of land named in the survey " Medina," which was patented to John Munn, Sr., Oct. 29, 1790. He sold it May 4, 1793, to David Munn, from whom the place takes its name. A small village grew up on Munn's land, and a post-office was established here in 1843, Samuel Hamilton being the first postmaster. The office was afterwards removed to Thomas' store, on the Pittsburgh Southern Railroad. Mr. Thomas was appointed postmaster, and still continues in the office.

Ginger Hill, a small village on the Washington and Monongahela City pike, in Southeastern Nottingham, on the Carroll line, has enjoyed a " local habitation and a name" ever since the time of the Whiskey Insurrection. On the night of Nov. 14, 1794, Robert Johnson, excise collector for Washington and Allegheny Counties, seized the still of Squire David Hamilton, who lived near the site of Ginger Chapel. The squire was a shrewd Scotchman, and pretended to be in no way exercised over the action of the government officials. It was a dark disagreeable night, and the road to Parkinson's Ferry being none of the smoothest, the officers were easily prevailed upon to remain under the hospitable roof of Hamilton. Around the glowing logs of the backwoods fire Hamilton and his guests discussed the excise law, the conversation being enlivened by oft-repeated draughts from "Black Betty," which had been previously "doctored" by Hamilton with a liberal quantity of Jamaica ginger. One by one the officials dropped from their chairs until all lay on the floor in the deep sleep of intoxication. Hamilton speedily gathered his neighbors, and taking the still and whiskey carried them many miles across the country to a place of safety. This action, which now would be a serious matter, was then regarded as a good joke, and the place became known as" Ginger Hill." Such at least is the tradition.

At this time a man named Arbuckle kept a tavern opposite the home of Hamilton, and after this occurrence gave it the name of " Ginger Hill Inn." About 1796, David Hamilton purchased Arbuckle's stand, and the year following a competing one was established by James McFlister, to which he gave the


name of the " Black Horse," and there was a strong and even bitter rivalry between these two taverns for many years.

Jacob Meyers about 1820 built a tavern on the Glades road just east of the village of Kammerer, to which he gave the name of " Olive Inn." The first landlord was Alexander Reynolds, and his successors in order were Joseph Butler, William McCune, Thomas Officer, — Poole, Alexander Campbell, John Kammerer, and Daniel Meyers, eldest son of Jacob. Daniel Meyers was succeeded by his brother David, who abandoned the business in 1860, but still occupies the stand as a dwelling.

Churches.—Wright's Chapel, in Northeast Nottingham, on Peters Creek, was built by Enoch Wright, who was a member of the Baptist Church, and his chapel was intended as a place of worship for members of that sect, but by reason of internal dissensions he became in 1835 a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. During the time the chapel was used by the Baptists, Rev. Shadreck was the minister in charge, and under Methodist administration the Revs. Pershing, Samuel Wakefield, George Crook, David McCready, John Snyder, William Ward, M. M. Sweeny, and Thomas Patterson have been among the number of clergymen in charge. The Conference of Butler in 1881 assigned Rev. George A. Sheets to the congregation, which numbers one hundred and fifty-seven. The trustees are Thomas Robb, Nathan Crouch, James N. Barkley, Alexander G. Hopkins, John Means, Charles Grant, D. M. Anderson, Robert Barkley, and Samuel Devore; Stewards, Nathan Crouch, Robert Barkley, Thomas Robb, and D. M. Anderson. The chapel building and lot on which it stands was willed by Enoch Wright to his son Joseph, a Methodist clergyman, who at his death gave it to the Methodist Church, to have and to hold so long as it was kept free from debt; and adding the additional clause that all religious bodies were to have free use of the church, providing they were not pro-slavery.

The Mount Prospect United Presbyterian Church at Munntown was organized in January, 1860, by the orders of the Presbytery of Chartiers, which convened that year at Canonsburg. Rev. Thomas Ralph was the first pastor, and served until May 1, 1869, when he was succeeded by the Rev. J. P. Davis, the present pastor. Since its organization Thomas Rankin, James Fife, Ezra Patterson, Mitchell Bryant, John Templeton, Richard Fife, John Bower, John Watson, and J. C. Mathews have been elected elders. The Sabbath-school has been successively under the superintendency of John Templeton, J. C. Mathews, John Watson, and Daniel Crouch.

The Presbyterian Church of Fairview, also at Munntown, was organized by order of the Presbytery of Ohio, on the petition of James McClain, Esq., and at the instance of Robert McPherson, J. Hazlett, and Rev. C. C. Braddock. On the 24th day of February the organization was perfected; with twenty-one members, in the district school-house, which building was occupied as a place of worship until the completion of the church edifice the subsequent fall. The Revs. George Marshall, James Black, George Birch, S. M. Neebling, and John Aiken filled the pulpit as supplies until Sept. 1, 1864, when the Rev. John Ewing was called. He was almost immediately followed by the Rev. Gray, and the latter was succeeded Sept. 1, 1864, by Rev. William Hannah. Rev. Hannah resigned April 1, 1869, and for the three following months Rev. William Brown was in charge. On Sept. 1, 1869, Rev. Wasson was installed, and was succeeded Sept. 1, 1872, by Rev. J. F. Hyde. On September, 1879, Rev. 0. A. Rockwell succeeded the latter, and the congregation has since then been in the pastoral care of that clergyman. Since the organization S. Thomas, James Kerr, Jonathan Caseber, John P. Cochran, William Rees, Josiah Kerr, John Crouch, and George Smith have been elected to the office of elder. The superintendent of the Sabbath-school is John Crouch. The church has a membership of one hundred and eight, with a Sabbath-school attendance of forty-three.

In 1868 the Methodists of Southeastern Nottingham erected a chapel at Ginger Hill. The building was completed in the summer of 1868, and dedicated in November of that year, the Rev. James R. Mills preaching the dedicatory sermon. It was given the name of Edwards Chapel, in honor of the first pastor, Rev. Charles Edwards. Succeeding Mr. Edwards the pastors in charge have been the Revs. James Meachem, R. B. Mansell, Samuel G. Miller, W. J. Kessler, Joseph H. Henry, and E. B. Griffith, who was assigned the charge in 1881 by the Conference of Butler. The trustees have been William Jones, Andrew Griffith, John Hess, William McKindry Nicholson, Zebulon Hess, Jesse Jones, and William Griffith. Stewards, John Kahle and Andrew Griffith. Sabbath-school superintendents, Andrew Griffith, David Sumny, Homer Burgett, and William Jones. The church has a membership of one hundred and four, and a Sabbath-school attendance of thirty-one.

Schools.—About 1790 a man named " Forgee" Johnson came from the East and became a schoolteacher in Nottingham township. He "taught round" for several years until 1798, when a school-house was built on Mingo Creek on the farm of Andrew Devore, and near where the present School No. 1 now stands. The schools taught by Johnson were "subscription schools," a plan which was universal in this section of country prior to the enactment of the public school law in 1834. In that year Nottingham township sent John Morrison as a delegate to attend the county convention held on the 4th of November to decide upon the acceptance or rejection of the provisions of the school law. Mr. Morrison voted in favor of it,


and Nottingham accepted the provisions and shared in the first State appropriation issued to the county Jan. 12, 1835.

Election of school directors was held at the Mingo school-house March 20, 1835, and H. Dunlap and G. McGibbony were elected, and soon after laid out the township into school districts, selected sites, and erected school-houses. In that year (1835) there were three hundred and fourteen taxables in the township liable to school tax, and the amount collected was $258.73. There was collected in 1836 from the county $502, and received from the State $101.42. In 1837, $319.26 was collected. The township in 1863 had five school districts (which remain unchanged), two hundred and thirty-four scholars. Total receipts for school purposes, $723.17; expenditures, $629.17. In 1873 there were two hundred and twenty-five scholars. Total receipts, $1539.02 ; expenditures, $1141.30. In 1880, two hundred and one scholars ; receipts, $1149.60; expenditures, $903.03.



Rev. Luke J. Wasson was born in the County Antrim, Ireland, October, 1846, the youngest in a family of six children of Hugh and Elizabeth (McQeety) Wasson. The family emigrated to this country when he was two years old, and settled in the township of Robinson, Washington Co., where both his father and mother died.

He received his academic education at Cander, where he prepared for the Junior Class in Jefferson College, which he entered in 1863, and was graduated from that institution in 1865. He prosecuted his theological studies at the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny City, from which institution he was graduated in 1868. He was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Allegheny City. Soon after leaving the seminary he received a call as pastor to the church of Long's Run, at Calcutta, Columbiana Co., Ohio. After preaching there one year, during which time (April 28, 1869) he was ordained by the Presbytery of New Lisbon, he returned the call as not accepted.

June, 1870, he united with the Pittsburgh Presbytery, and was installed pastor of the church of Fairview Oct. 12, 1870, from which he was released on account of ill health April, 1873. During the early part of that summer he went west in the expectation of regaining his health, but while at Minneapolis was suddenly called by the Master to his reward June 13, 1873, in the twenty-sixth year of his age.

He was united in marriage to Jennie, daughter of James and Esther (Watson) Crawford, Nov. 5, 1868, the year he began his ministerial labors. Mrs. Wasson was a descendant on her mother's side of the Watson family. William Watson, her great-grandfather, was a soldier in the war of the Revolution. He emigrated from County Down, Ireland, first settled in Lancaster County, and was one of the first settlers in the "backwoods," Washington County. Her mother is the only representative of the Watson family living. Alice G. and Frances C. are the only children of the Rev. and Mrs. Wasson. We cannot more appropriately close this brief sketch than by quoting the following, taken from the minutes passed Sept. 24, 1873, by the Pittsburgh Presbytery :

"As a man he was much respected; as a laborer for Christ- he was diligent and consecrated ; and as a preacher earnest and successful. Among his late parishioners his character and ministry are held in fond and grateful remembrance."


PETERS was the tenth on the list of the thirteen original townships formed under the act erecting Washington County, passed March 28, 1781, the eighteenth section of which act authorized and directed the trustees to divide the county into townships before July 1, 1781. The territory originally embraced in the township comprehended the present township of Peters, the north part of Union township, and all that portion of Allegheny County lying east of Chartiers Creek and south and west of the Monongahela River.

The first effort to divide the township was made in September, 1784, when a petition to that effect was presented to the court of Washington County. The court decreed the division and certified the same to the Executive Council. No action was taken till Nov. 21, 1786, when the Council confirmed-the order of the court dividing Peters and erecting upon the part taken off the township of Dickinson. In the mean time the new township had assumed separate jurisdiction and elected township officers,¹ without waiting

¹ In the election returns of constables in Washington County, made at the March term of court in 1785, the township of Dickinson appears in the list,-with the name of Oliver Elliott as constable.


for the confirmation by the Council. Dickinson continued a township of Washington County till it became a part of Allegheny County upon the erection of the latter. This township of Dickinson was formed from the north part of the territory of the original township of Peters. The part of the old township which was thus thrown into Allegheny County was all that part of Peters north of a line running from Chartiers Creek at the mouth of Miller's Run eastwardly to the Monongahela River, at a point opposite the mouth of Perry's Run. In 1789 the township was further reduced in territory by the extension of Allegheny County southward to its present boundary line between Chartiers Creek and the Monongahela. In 1834, Union township was formed from Nottingham and Peters, thus reducing Peters to its present area and boundaries, which are : on the north by Allegheny County, on the east by Union, south by Nottingham and North Strabane, and west by the last named township and Cecil, the western boundary being marked by Chartiers Creek,. which is the most important water-course of the township, though Peters Creek, which marks the eastern boundary against the township of Union, is also a mill-stream of considerable size.

Settlements.—The assessment-roll of Peters township for 1788 shows the names of a number of military men, some of whom were well known as prominent actors in the events and campaigns of preceding and succeeding years. Among these were Gen. Edward Hand, Gen. John Neville, Maj. William Lee, Col. John Campbell, Col. David Philips, and Capt. Joseph Beeler. The names of William Fife, Philip Ross, David Steele, Daniel Shawan, Aaron Work, and John Watt, —these were all residents in that part of old Peters township which is now embraced in Allegheny County, except Capt. Joseph Beeler. Gen. Hand's residence was on the river nearly opposite Pittsburgh. He was assessed in the year mentioned on thirteen hundred acres. David Steel was in service in 1776 under Capt. Isaac Cox, and himself rose to the grade of captain. On the 1st of March, 1778, he was with the troops who rendezvoused at Cox's Station, under Cols. Isaac Cox and John Canon. His residence was where Peter Simmons now lives. The property was owned by Daniel McClure in 1800. Steele was a surveyor of good repute, and well known through the county. There are no .descendants of his now living in this region.

Col. John Campbell lived (as before stated) in that part of old Peters which is now Allegheny County. (Another of the same name lived in Union township, where he was justice of the peace for many years.) Col. Campbell was assessed in 1788 on two hundred and twenty-eight acres of land in Peters. In the same year Jacob Bowsman was assessed on two hundred and ninety acres. He lived on the south side of the Monongahela, opposite Pittsburgh.

The Rev. John Clark was assessed on one hundred acres in 1788. He was the Rev. Mr. Clark mentioned' in the annals of the Whiskey Insurrection as being present at the Mingo Creek meeting in 1794, and as having counseled and warned the infuriated people present not to break the laws of the United States or engage in hostile acts against the government.

Lieut.-Col. Stephen Bayard was another resident in the same part of the old township, and was a very prominent man in his time.

Col. David Phillips, who appears on the roll above mentioned as taxable on three hundred acres in old Peters, was a relative of the person then known as " Preaching David Phillips," who was assessed on three hundred and thirty acres. All the persons above named, except the last, were residents in that part of old Peters township which is now included in Allegheny County.

Within one present limits of the township the first tract of land taken up was that called " Benton," granted on a Virginia certificate, Feb. 11, 1780, to James Matthews, "situate on the waters of Chartiers Creek, to include his actual settlement made in the year 1774." He died on the tract; his widow survived him several years. They had three sons, Paul, James, and Robert, The first and last named emigrated to the West. James settled near Washington, Pa. He had two sons, James and William, of whom the former is now living near the McMurray post-office. William removed to the West. A daughter of his married Andrew Crawford, and settled in Peters. Of the original tract called "Benton," above mentioned, a part passed from the Matthews family, through intermediate hands, to John and William McMurray.

About 1765 two brothers of Scotch-Irish descent, named Joshua and James Wright, came from the Cumberland valley and settled on Peters Creek, in Nottingham township. The brothers went resolutely to work, and cleared a sufficient amount of their land to put in a crop. Joshua then returned to their home in the East and married Charity, a daughter of John Harris, from whom the city of Harrisburg derived its name, and soon returned with his bride to his forest home. Sept. 16, 1779, Joshua Wright purchased from his brother James all his share of their joint purchase. After this sale James Wright went to live in Kentucky, where he was killed by the Indians.

Joshua Wright engaged in the New Orleans trade, and about 1783, while on his way to that city in one of the flat-bottomed, square-prowed boats, was attacked and captured by Indians and taken to a point near Sandusky, Ohio, where he was burned at the stake. The family thus left without a protector were his wife and three children, Lydia, Enoch, and Agnes.

Joshua Wright had sold to Daniel Townsend, his brother-in-law, four hundred acres of the original


eight-hundred-acre tract purchased by himself and brother James. Charity Wright, the widow of Joshua, afterwards married a Mr. Colvin, who lived on Pigeon Creek. Her daughter Lydia married John Laird, and settled on a part of the land which she inherited from her father, and upon which she died. After her death her brother Enoch purchased the property. The other daughter, Agnes, became Mrs. Joseph Barrows. Enoch, the only son, was but a boy when his father was killed. He became a man of influence, and filled many positions of trust and honor in his neighborhood. He had but one child, his son Joseph, who became a Methodist minister. Joseph Wright was a close student, and in the later years of his life was engaged in work upon a dictionary. He had reached the letter M at the time of his death. And it proved labor lost, as the completed manuscript was entirely destroyed in the hurricane which swept over this township in 1854. Rev. Joseph Wright left a family of ten children, as follows : Darthula, who married Dr. James Miller, and died in Pittsburgh; Catharine, who married Thomas Rankin, and settled upon the farm her father gave her on Mingo Creek. She raised a large family of children, who emigrated to Nebraska, and she now lives with them. Lucinda Wright married John Storer, and settled on a part of the home farm. Dr. John Storer, of Hillsboro', is her son. Joshua Wright had that part of the original Wright tract called the homestead, which he still owns. The old log house in which Joshua Wright first lived stood where the garden now is. He now lives in Washington, Pa., where he is engaged in banking. Enoch Wright settled on a portion of the Wright land, but in 1866 left it and emigrated to Iowa. Joseph, another son of Rev. Joseph Wright, also inherited some of the original property, but sold it, and died in Pittsburgh. Margaret married Dr. C. M. Townsend, and lives in Peters township, near Bower Hill. Mary. Wright married Rev. J. C. Brown, of the Methodist Church. Hopkins, another son, owns a part of the home farm, and Charity, who married Dr. D. M. Anderson, also lives on land inherited by the children of Joshua Wright.

Anthony Dunleavy came from Ireland about 1745, and settled near Winchester, Va. While living there he married Hannah, a daughter of Judge Alexander White, of that State. In 1772 he removed to the western part of Pennsylvania, but which he supposed was Virginia, settling upon a tract of land that is now included in Peters township. The tract contained three hundred and seventy-three acres, and a patent for it was granted to Mr. Dunleavy May 24, 1787, under the title of "The Tower." He made this his home for some years, but in 1700 removed to Kentucky. Previous to this, however, he disposed of some of his land to John Reed and Dennis Dunleavy. Some of the property is now in possession of Harvey McMurray.

Anthony Dunleavy had a family of four sons and three daughters, of whom "Francis was the eldest. In the spring of 1782, Francis Dunleavy entered the Latin school or academy. of Rev. Thaddeus Dodd, then in operation in Amity, on Ten-Mile Creek. While in school a call was made for troops, to which he promptly responded, but was absent only ten days. And when the call for troops for the Sandusky expedition was made he again volunteered, and served through that disastrous campaign. After his return and as soon as peace was restored he was sent to Dickinson College. Having completed his studies he put himself under the care and teaching of Rev. James Hoge, of Winchester, Va., and later taught a classical school in that State. Upon the removal of his father's family to Kentucky in 1790, he went out with them, and two years afterwards opened a classical school at Columbia, Ohio, in which he was associated with John Reily, of Butler County, Ohio, for several years. Mr. Dunleavy finally removed to Lebanon, Warren Co., Ohio, which he made his permanent home. He was sent to the Legislature two terms to represent the Northwest Territory, and was a member of the convention of 1802 which framed the first constitution of Ohio. He was also a member of the first Legislature of the State after Ohio was admitted, and he held the office of presiding judge of the Court of Common Pleas of the First Circuit for fourteen years. After retiring from the bench Judge Dunleavy continued the practice of law for some ten years. He retired from active business some years before his death, which occurred Nov. 6, 1839.

John Swearingen, whose name is often. found in the records of Yohogania County Court, was a resident of Peters township, and lived upon the land which has since been known as the Borland property. The tract, which was called " Oswego," contained three hundred and fifty acres, for which the patent was granted in 1790. In 1796, Mr. Swearingen sold his land to Andrew Borland. In 1808 the latter gentleman sold one hundred and three acres of it to Joseph Henry, who in turn disposed of that part to William Caldwell, and it is now owned by Mrs. Joseph Caldwell. The sawmill on Brush Run was built by Henry Borland while he owned the property. It afterwards belonged to Robert and Joseph Caldwell, and is now in the possession of their descendants. A part of the Swearingen tract is now owned by Moses Hickman.

John Brackenridge owned land in this township as early as 1779, as the records of November 1st of that year show him to have sold one hundred acres to James Matthews, who lived near him. Mr. Brackenridge was elected a justice of the peace on June 18, 1800. He continued to live upon this place, and in February, 1826, died, leaving his wife, Catharine Brackenridge, two sons, and three daughters,—John, William, Margaret, Jane, and Agnes. The farm in this township, which at that time contained one hundred and sixty-seven acres, was sold by Mrs. Catharine Brackenridge, John Gilfillan, and Alexander Brack-


enridge, the executors of the estate, to William Arthur. It passed from one to another, and in 1855 was purchased of James T. Smith by Harvey McMurray, the present owner. Brush Run, a branch of Chartiers Creek, passes through this tract of land. Many years ago a pottery was located upon this stream, the site of the building being near Mr. McMurray's present residence. The business was operated by a man named Bracken, and the clay used therein was found upon the McCloney farm, a short distance east of the pottery. This business was discontinued, and as early as 1830, or before, a woolen-mill was established upon Brush Run by James and William Hannah. In 1840 this mill was remodeled and made into a flouring-mill by William Arthur, and this branch of industry was continued until the destruction of the property by fire in May, 1866. In 1881, Mr. McMurray rebuilt the mill, upon nearly the same site and using the same water-power. The new mill is still in operation, and Mr. McMurray has also a store at the same place.

Daniel Townsend was a native of New Jersey, born at Little Egg Harbor in 1749. He was a soldier in the Revolution. In 1780 he came to this township with his family, and purchased of Joshua Wright, his brother-in-law, three hundred and fifty acres of land, which had been previously surveyed to Wright. A warrant of acceptance was issued to Daniel Townsend for this property March 17, 1790, and the patent was granted a few days later, the tract being named "The Sale." On this farm Mr. Townsend lived and died. Of his children, Elijah settled upon the southeast portion of the homestead, and died there in 1871, leaving a family who still own the farm. Joseph, the other son of Daniel Townsend, married a daughter of Col. William Blackmore, and also made his home upon a portion of his father's farm. He died there in 1871, aged seventy-five years, leaving a family of four children. The daughters of Daniel Townsend were seven in number. Catharine married John Bird, and settled in Beaver County, Pa.; Naomi became Mrs. Uriah Burton, and lived in Peters township ; Julia became the wife of Peter Sharp, and went with him to Gallipolis, Ohio ; Margaret married William Chisler, and removed to Ashland County, Ohio; Rebecca, now Mrs. John Hozer, settled in Mercer County, Pa. ; Ruth is Mrs. Stephen Higby, living in Sandusky, Ohio ; and Lydia, who married Arthur Devore, went to Marion, Ohio. Of the children of Joseph, second son of Daniel Townsend, Dr. C. W. Townsend. is the eldest; Daniel died leaving a family ; Elijah T. is county commissioner, and lives on the homestead ; and Margaret, who married J. W. Boyer, lives in Union township.

Before the year 1780, Col. Joseph Beelor was living. in Peters township, and owned a tract of land on Chartiers Creek, above the present residence of David G. Phillips, the property now owned by Mr. Phillips and Mrs. Brown. He was actively engaged in the expeditions against the Indians, ranking as colonel under the authority of Virginia until 1781 (by reason of his office of county lieutenant of Yohogania County). He was a justice of the peace under the jurisdiction of Yohogania court, and in 1782 and 1795 was licensed to keep tavern in this township. Col. Beelor passed his life upon his farm in this township. His daughters, Margaret and Mary, settled near him. His only son, Joseph Jr., lived on the farm now occupied by Robert Wilson, on Little Chartiers Creek, adjoining the farm of Moses Coe. He left several children to inherit his property, which was divided equally among them, each receiving a tract of ninety acres.

John McLoney came from the eastern part of Pennsylvania and settled in Peters township at a very early date, but did not receive patents upon the land he located until 1785. He was elected sheriff of Washington County in 1805, and after serving the term of his office kept a tavern from 1808 to 1811. He died at his homestead in this township Feb. 24, 1823, aged eighty-five years. His son, Luke McLoney, also lived and died upon the homestead. It is now owned by Harvey McMurray, and the old log house in which he and his father both lived and died, and in which Margaret McLoney, a sister of Luke, was born, is still standing upon the farm. Margaret McLoney is still living unmarried at the age of ninety-seven years at Bower Hill, with a niece, Mrs. Jones Fawcett. John McLoney, a son of Luke McLoney, and grandson of John McLoney, Sr., resides on the National road, in West Bethlehem township, having purchased the Myers farm there a few years ago. He relates many interesting reminiscences of the pioneer days which he gathered from his father and grandfather, some of which occurred within the protection of the block-house then located on Chartiers Creek.

Robert Bell, who purchased the tract "Curious Bend," of Anthony Boley in 1795, came from near Carlisle, Pa. He was married before corning to Peters township, and lived until his death upon the property he purchased here. Anthony Boley first built a cabin below the spring-house, and then put up a better one where the residence now stands. In this first cabin Robert Bell made the early home of himself, wife, five sons, and two daughters. These children have all died except the son Robert and a daughter, who was the youngest child. She married William Barr, and lives on Mingo Creek, near Kammerer's, in Nottingham township. The son Robert, who inherited the homestead, is still living upon it, and is eighty years of age.

John Moore was an early settler in this township, locating upon the land now owned and occupied by his son, Robert Moore. The farm of Dr. Hugh Thompson was on the west side, Ephraim Norton's farm was on the north side, and that of Robert Guthrie bounded it on the east.


The Rev. David Phillips was emphatically the leading clergyman of the pioneer days of Peters township. He was born in Wales in 1742, and emigrated from that country to America with his father's family, settling in Chester County, Pa. He married during his residence at that place, and in 1780 came into Washington County and took out a warrant for land which now lies in both Allegheny and Washington Counties. This tract of land was surveyed to him as three hundred and ninety acres, under the title of " Norwich," and he obtained the patent for it March 4, 1786. In 1809 he sold one hundred and fourteen acres of this land to his son Isaac, and the land upon which the present house of worship of Peters Creek Baptist Society stands was granted by Mr. Phillips for the church site. Rev. Mr. Phillips was a member of the Great Valley Baptist Church before coming to this section, and had held a captain's commission in the Revolutionary war. He reared a large family of children, and when he died at the age of eighty-seven years; having given more than forty years of his life to the exclusive service in the cause of Christ, he left numerous descendants. Among them were Rev. T. C. Phillips, of New York City ; Joshua Phillips, of Pittsburgh, Pa. ; J. M. Phillips, of Chattanooga, Tenn.; Byram Pratt, residing in the State of Pennsylvania; and Henry and Archibald Bass, both living in Tennessee. It is said that a full company of lineal descendants of Rev. David Phillips served in the Union army during the late Rebellion, and that at the present time the persons living who trace their lineage directly back to him number nearly one thousand. The old Phillips homestead is now occupied by Charles Phillips.¹

Enoch Philips came to Peters township, and on April 2, 1796, purchased one hundred and four acres of land of John Allison, a part of the tract patented by Anthony Dunleavy, under the title of "The Tower," this portion of which he sold to John Allison, May 17, 1792. Enoch Phillips continued to reside upon this land for a long time. He kept one of the taverns known here at an early day, it being located at the forks of the road near his farm. He was a soldier in the war of-1812. His son, David Phillips, also kept a house of public entertainment in 1826, occupying the same house his father did at an earlier date. His son, David Phillips, has a farm in this township, and there is still standing upon it a house built in 1814. David Phillips, Jr., was elected to the office of justice of the peace April 10, 1855, and served two terms.

James Mitchell came from Ireland to this country, and served for a time in the Revolutionary war. On Oct. 15,1791, having come into Peters township, he purchased a part of the tract of land called " Crookston," of about three hundred acres. The tract was granted

¹ The preceding is mainly based on information received from Samuel king, of Allegheny County.

to Richard and Levi Crooks on a Virginia certificate, and patented May 1, 1786. James Mitchell made his home for life on the place, save a few years that he lived in 'Williamsport, now. Monongahela City. Mr. Mitchell filled the office of justice of the peace for many years, and was one of the first elders in Peters Creek Church. He had one daughter, who became the wife of John Wright, of Monongahela City. Mr. and Mrs. Wright settled on the Mitchell homestead, and it is still in the possession of their descendants.

Andrew Devore was one of the early settlers of Peters township, although no accurate dates of his investments have been found. He, however, owned a large tract of land, taking it up as one of the original settlers. A portion of the tract is now owned by James Johnston.

Churches.—Peters Creek Baptist Church was constituted Nov. 10, 1773, the covenant made and executed on that day being signed by the following persons, viz.: Rev. John Whittaker, minister; members, Thomas Applegate, J. Barrett, Henry Semmons, Peter Elrod, Christopher Miller, Mary Whittaker, Margaret Jaret, and Ailey Lemmons.

The church thus formed used as a place for their religious services a log house which was built on the Robert Estep property, which is now in Union township, but then belonged to the territory of Peters township. The Rev. John Whittaker preached for them for some time after, but for what length of time is not known, as no church records are extant until the year 1793. From a road record filed in the recorder's office at Washington, in this county, it is seen that in 1783 this society presented a petition that a road might be opened " from McKee's Ferry to the Peters Creek Meeting-House."

The trustees of Peters Creek Baptist Church purchased a building site of John Cox and wife, the transfer being made Sept. 10, 1788, according to the tenor of a deed recorded on page 462, Book 2, vol. I., of Washington County records. The church edifice was built on property now owned by Benjamin Lytle, adjoining the Bradford mill.

Among the relics having reference to the early history of this church is an ancient subscription paper which is now in possession of E. M. Townsend, of Peters township, and of which the following is a copy :

" We, the under-subscribers, do promise to pay or cause to be paid the sums annexed to our names, for the use of the Rev. David Phillips, for his labour in the gospel, into the hands of William Phillips, and that on or before the first day of March ensuing.

" Witness our hands this second day of May, 1789.


William Phillips

Lemuel Sayer

Joseph Phillips

Samuel Foster

John Masters

Peter Sharp.

Richard Masters

Daniel Townsend

Peter Rowietter

Abram Whittaker

Thomas Rigdon

William Rigdon

John Mallory

£ s. d.

    2 0

 2 0 0

 1 0 0

 1 0 0

    7 6

 1 4 0

 1 0 0

  2 0 0

  1 0 0

  1 0 0

  1 0 0

   12 0

     6 0


This paper shows that Rev. David Phillips was serving the church at that time. The church then consisted of two branches, one at Elizabethtown and one at Peters Creek. Rev. Mr. Phillips was called to the ministry of these two churches in April, 1781, and in the May following was ordained by a council consisting of Rev. Mr. Woods and William Taylor, and from that date preached at Elizabethtown, Finleyville, and Budd's Ferry, on the Youghiogheny River, until 1793. In the assessment-roll for Peters township in 1784 he is mentioned as "Preaching David Phillips," to distinguish him from Col. David Phillips, also a resident of the township.

In 1793 there occurred a revival in the Peters Creek branch, through which the church was greatly augmented in numbers, and on Jan. 1, 1794, they chose Rev. Mr. Phillips for their pastor. The consolidation with the Elizabethtown branch soon followed, and the two were afterwards one society, and one pastor served both, there being two houses of worship in use, one at or near Gastonville, and one at Elizabethtown.

On April 3, 1810, the property at Gastonville was sold by the pastor and Daniel Townsend and Charles Daily, trustees of said church, to James Gaston. Two years later Samuel Gaston became the owner of the land. The proceeds of the sale of the church property were applied to the erection of a hewed log house upon another building lot, which was the gift of the pastor, Rev. Mr. Phillips, and which was used until 1832, when it gave place to the present brick edifice. Rev. Mr. Phillips continued to discharge the duties of pastor of the Baptist Church until 1824, when he had become disqualified by his great age. He died in 1829, of paralysis, leaving many relatives and friends, and loved and honored by all who knew him.

From 1824 to 1829 the church was supplied by several ministers, among whom were Revs. Charles Wheeler, John Winter, and Joshua Bradley. During this time the quiet of the church was so greatly disturbed by the doctrines preached by Rev. Alexander Campbell and others of his faith that on Aug. 5, 1829, a meeting was held and the society adopted the Philadelphia Baptist Confession of Faith, in concurrence with its former church covenant and discipline, as generally expressive of its views of Scriptural doctrine.

Early in the year 1829, Rev. William Shadrach, a young man who had just commenced to preach, was given a trial in the church, and so pleased the people that he was called to the pastorate of the church, which he accepted. This relation existed for six years (the new brick church being built at a cost of $1250, and the cemetery renovated and improved during the time), when it was dissolved at the pastor's request. Revs. William Penny and Benoni Allen seem to have served the church jointly for the next three years, and were then succeeded by Rev. Dr. James Estep, who was unanimously chosen pastor.

This relation continued for nearly a score of years, when Dr. Estep became enfeebled by old age and was obliged to resign, although he occasionally filled the pulpit afterwards. He died Feb. 26, 1861, after having given more than half a century to the ministry.

Rev. David Williams, who came to preach in the church in January, 1859, remained four years, and under his teachings the church grew and prospered greatly. Of Rev. George Saymore's service here it has been said, " His pastorate took place during the great Rebellion, which moved the heart and tried the spirit, resources, and patriotism of every loyal citizen, and this church felt deeply the paralyzing influence on its prosperity and piety." The Rev. J. W. Collins commenced his labors with the people of Peters Creek Baptist Church in March, 1866, remained two years, and through his influence a number of new members were added to the church, and the building was repaired and improved. Rev. A. G. Collins succeeded him in 1869 and labored three years, when Rev. Henry Lewellen came to the place, and is still in charge, having served all the years in a most gratifying manner.

Since the organization of the Baptist Church the persons who have served as its deacons have been Joseph Phillips, Sr., Joseph Higbee, Charles Daily, Ephraim Estep, Isaac King, William Benson, John King, Joseph Phillips, John Maits, Sr., John Maits, Jr., Samuel Hetts, Peter Boyer, Samuel Boyer, Edward Riggs, and Isaac Phillips. Between six hundred and seven hundred persons have been received on profession of faith, and the contributions of the church to the various evangelical societies have been very liberal in proportion to its ability. Of the many persons who have gone out from this church to engage in ministerial work, Charles and John Rigden labored in Ohio, James Estep and Henry Wade were two of whom but little has been learned, Joshua Phillips is now preaching in Ohio, and J. W. Higbee is in the University of Lewisburg as a licentiate. Sidney Rigden went from here and for some time was pastor of the First Baptist Church in Pittsburgh. He first became interested in the peculiar tenets advocated by Rev. Alexander Campbell, and afterwards made a total wreck of his faith and the hopes of his brethren by associating himself with Joseph Smith in originating and espousing Mormonism.

For more than a hundred years this church has been enthusiastic and generous in the advancement of religion, and for upwards of forty years has ably and creditably sustained its excellent Sabbath-school. The church edifice has always belonged to the old original territory of Peters township, but at one time was in the part since set off as Union township, then in Peters township, and is now within the limits of Library, Allegheny County, but a little distance from the county line.


Peters Creek United Presbyterian Congregation.—A full century ago a religious association was formed in this section, which became the nucleus of the Peters Creek United Presbyterian Congregation, one. of the most prosperous and influential religious institutions in Peters township. In January, 1809, this congregation purchased a site whereon they built a house of worship. It was on a lot containing two acres, surveyed from the tract " Crookston," granted to Richard Crooks in 1786, and sold by him in 1791 to James Mitchell. The purchase was made by John Frear, Andrew Borland, Robert Thompson, and Joseph Logan, who were the trustees of the church, and they paid ten dollars for the land. The deed conveying the property stipulated for the church the " liberty of the spring west of the meeting-house, and a foot-path to the spring from the meeting-house, and of a road from the main road between James Moss' line and James Mitchell's line." The following details of the rise, growth, and prosperity of this church are chiefly taken from a historical sermon by the pastor, the Rev. R. M. Patterson.

A portion of the emigrants from Scotland and the north of Ireland who settled in this country were originally connected with the Associate Reformed Church of Scotland. Petitions had been sent by members in the eastern part of Pennsylvania to the Synod of Edinburgh as early as 1754 for missionaries, again in 1758, 1761, and in 1770. In the year last named came the Revs. John Smith and John Rogers. Some of those who had emigrated had found for themselves homes in Washington County. They were men like those who sent the first petitions home to Scotland for preaching; they were anxious to have the means of grace ministered to them. Application was made to the Presbytery of Pennsylvania in 1773, and in answer to their prayers Revs. Smith and Rodgers visited this section. It seems that the most central and most accessible place of meeting was at Canonsburg. In 1775 the Rev. Matthew Henderson (who came to America as a missionary in response to the call of 1758) came to Canonsburg and ministered to their spiritual wants. The result of this visit was the making out a call for him to become their pastor. He accepted this call, and began his pastorate in 1781. This call, from the best data to be had, was a joint one from three congregations,—Chartiers, Buffalo, and Mingo Creek. The early history of the first and second of these congregations is in a measure complete. Of Mingo Creek there remains nothing but a fragment here and there. So that of the origin of this congregation but little is known and that little not well known. It appears that the first place of meeting together for worship was at or near Daniel Darragh's, on Mingo Creek.

That the congregation then called Mingo Creek and the one now called Peters Creek is one and the same appears from the fact that Mrs. Darragh offered the congregation a lot of ground on which to build a

- 57 -

church ; and at the same time James Mitchell, Esq., offered a lot for the same purpose; and by a vote of the members and those interested Mr. Mitchell's (being the better offer) was accepted, and the church located where it now stands.

There seems to be no doubt but this congregation formed part of Rev. Mr. Henderson's pastoral charge. He was one of those members of the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania who went into the union which gave rise to the. Associate Reformed Church in 1782, but he did not remain long with that body. He withdrew and was received back into the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania on the 20th of October, 1789, when a letter was addressed to him by Presbytery, and also to the three congregations over which he had the pastoral care, vii.: Chartiers, Mill Creek, and Mingo Creek. From this it seems evident the first pastor of this congregation was the Rev. Matthew Henderson, although there is no record to show that he was formally installed over it as a part of his charge, or that the congregation was organized by the election of elders during his ministry. It is probable none were elected, and that the members either went to Chartiers on communion Sabbaths, or the session of Chartiers came with the pastor to assist in the dispensation of the supper.

In the absence of any data to prove the installation of the Rev. Mr. Henderson or the election of elders, it is shown that the labors of Mr. Henderson were with a congregation in its swaddling bands, unable to walk or even bear a name, for it was not released from these or had an official name until October, 1795.

A short time after the Rev. Mr. Henderson's death, October, 1795, different ministers visited the congregation and preached to them, but only one name is remembered as having been spoken of by the fathers, Rev. James Proudfit.

In the summer of 1796 a call was made out for Rev. John Smith, and he, having accepted the call, began his pastoral labors about the 15th of November. He remained as pastor of this congregation, it is believed, until the early summer of 1803, when he was released by the Presbytery of Chartiers, and at its meeting Aug. 31, 1803, he was suspended from the ministry.

From this time till 1808 the history of the congregation is a blank, but now the congregation is again settled by the Rev. Dr. Bunce taking the pastoral charge of it in connection with Pittsburgh. This relation continued with perfect harmony between pastor and people until the year 1814, when the relation was severed that his whole time might be given to Pittsburgh.

The congregation was again placed on the list of vacancies, and not until 1817 was it again named with the settled congregations.

On the 2d day of April, 1817, a call was made by the congregation for the pastoral labors of Rev. Alexander Wilson, and was by him accepted, and on the


8th of October he was ordained and installed pastor of this congregation. The Rev. Mr. Ramsey preached the ordination sermon from Eph. iii. 8, and the Rev. Mr. Anderson delivered the charge to pastor and people. The relation thus formed continued through a period of twenty-two years, when it was dissolved by his own act in severing his connection with the Associate Church and uniting with the Associate Reformed Presbytery of Monongahela, and shortly after was settled in Cadiz, Ohio, where he remained about twenty years. He died at Philadelphia, Pa., June 20, 1867, in the seventy-fifth year of his age.

After the Rev. Mr. Wilson's withdrawal the congregation was without a settled pastor for about eighteen months, when, about the beginning of July, 1840, Mr. James Brown, a licentiate of the Associate Synod, having received and accepted a call to become pastor of the congregation, began his labors, and was ordained and installed Sept. 11, 1840. He continued his pastorate until the first Tuesday of December, 1843, when he was released. He then took charge of the congregation of Keokuk, Iowa.

The congregation thus left vacant by the resignation of the Rev. James Brown after a short but successful and acceptable pastorate, were without a pastor until the 14th of October,. 1845, when the Rev. James C. Herron was ordained and installed. This relation he sustained until 1852, when he was released to enter upon the mission to California, to which he had been appointed by Synod.

Again for a period of about two years the congregation was vacant. In the August of 1854, Mr. James B. Whitton began his labors as pastor, and on the 25th of October following he was ordained and installed. Two years after his settlement he received and accepted a call from a congregation in the city of New York.

After the usual length of interval between pastorates, Mr. A. Y. Houston began his labors on the first Sabbath of January, 1858, and on the 17th of February was ordained and installed pastor. He remained with the congregation until December, 1864.

On the 21st of June, 1867, the Rev. John Patterson began his labors in the congregation, and was in the following September installed as pastor. He was released on the, 30th of April, 1872, and was installed by the Beaver Valley Presbytery over the congregations of Mountville and Camp Run Aug. 25, 1874.

The Rev. R. M. Patterson, the present pastor, began his labors on the first Sabbath of January, 1873, and was installed on the 6th of February by the following committee of Presbytery : Rev. D. M. B. McLean, William Weir, and Thomas Ralph. Thus in a period beginning with the first known election of elders, of eighty-one years, this congregation has had but sixty-one years of pastoral care, divided among nine pastors, being on an average of a little less than seven years to each one.

The first elders of the church, elected in October, 1795, were James Mitchell, Thomas Douglass, Neil McNeil, and John McCormick. When or by whom they were ordained and installed is not known. During Rev. Mr. Smith's pastorate David Bower and Adam Gott were elected elders. It is not known that there was any change in the session from that time till August, 1812, when Mr. Gott died. In 1824, James Anderson, a member of the session, died. No record of his election as elder is found.

During the years 1825-26, Messrs. George Murray and Daniel Leggett were elected and ordained. In 1828 the session was increased by the election of Frederick Whitely, Hugh Lusk, and probably Hance Dunlap. These men were ordained and installed by Rev. Alexander Wilson. In 1830 another change occurred by the death of Mr. Thomas Arthur. The time of his election and ordination is unknown. Until July of this year, 1830, in so far as known, the four elders who constituted the first session still remained members of it; but at that time Mr. John McCormick died. Thus far the church was without a minute-book. On the 28th of May, 1831, the minutes of Peters Creek session begin. The roll of members is as follows : D. Bower, James Mitchell, Hugh Boyd, Hugh Lusk, Frederick Whitely, John Calahan, Hance Dunlap, and George Murray. On the 27th of September, 1831, Mr. David Gibson was elected an elder, and on the 14th of October was installed, he having been an elder in the Secession Church. On the 11th of May, 1836, the session was enlarged by the election of James McCormick, Sr., James Crawford, and James McNeil. They were ordained and installed on the 26th, and their names added to the roll of the session. Between the 28th of May and the 18th of August two members of session, viz., Frederick Whitely and Daniel Leggett, were removed by death. The record of Jan. 7, 1839, records the death of David Bower. He had been an elder about forty years. James McCormick, Sr., who was elected a member of session in 1836, was in 1839 called away by death. On the 18th of January, 1841, Archibald McCallister and Ebenezer Archer were elected members of session, and on the first Sabbath of the following March were ordained. The following note is found in the minutes in the year 1841: "James Mitchell, a very aged member of the congregation, and during most of his life a member of the session, was removed by death about the 1st of January." He was the last of the four original elders. He served the church as an elder forty-six years. From May 28, 1831, until Jan. 17, 1839, the minute-book reports thirty-nine meetings of sessions, and James Mitchell was at thirty-six of them. May 13, 1843, Ebenezer Archer was chosen clerk.

On the 16th of April, 1846, James McFadden and James M. Bryant were elected elders. They were ordained and installed on the 7th of May. The record of Oct. 26, 1849, shows that John Wilson and William Murray had been elected members of ses-


sion, and at this meeting it was ordered that they be ordained on the first Sabbath in November. The session was again enlarged by the election of William Howie, Andrew Crawford, and Richard Patterson. Messrs. Howie and Crawford were ordained, and Mr. Patterson installed, he having been an elder in Centre Presbyterian congregation. On the 12th of February, 1863, James McCormick, Samuel Murray, and James R. Wilson were ordained and installed members of session. The last addition to the session was made Sept. 2, 1867, by the election of Thompson Benton, Harvey Wadsworth, and Edward Wright. The former of these was installed, being an elder in the congregation of Union, and the latter ordained and installed on the 28th of November, 1867. The present members of the session (1882) are Thompson Benton (clerk), James McFadden, Harvey Wadsworth, Richard Patterson, Edward .Wright, James McCormick, and James K. Wilson. The present trustees are Harvey McMurray, James Crawford, John Patterson, William McConkey, A. W. Pollock, and Alexander Douglas.

In 1841 the report to the Synod shows a membership of two hundred and four, and the same in 1851. In 1861 there is reported only one hundred members; in 1871, one hundred and sixty-nine; and there is now reported (1882) one hundred and fifty-six members of this church.

Peters Creek Christian Church.¹—The Christian Church in Peters township, near Library, Pa., was the offspring of the agitation in the Baptist Churches of Western Pennsylvania about the year 1830. In 1829 the Baptist Church at Library had a great many accessions under the labors of William Shadrach, then pastor of the church. These converts were not committed to the doctrines of the Philadelphia Confession of Faith, and were disposed to allow greater freedom in the exercise of that "soul liberty" which had reflected glory upon the Baptist denomination.

Among these accessions was Henry Bennett, who, not agreeing with the Baptists in doctrine, was accused of heresy, and in 1833 was excommunicated because he believed in baptism for the remission of sins, as taught in Acts ii. 38, and that in conversion the Holy Spirit operates only through the word of God.

About this time William Shadrach stated in the monthly church meeting that there was a report in circulation that some of the members of the church had embraced the heresies taught by Alexander. Campbell, and moved that a committee of five be appointed to draft articles of faith expressive of the views of the church in contradistinction to these heresies. This motion prevailed; and the committee was composed of William Shadrach, Enoch Wright, Esq., Daniel Van Voorhis, Samuel Boyer, and Edward Riggs.

¹ By Rev. W. L. Hayden.

At the instance of the committee the chairman, William Shadrach, wrote five articles setting forth the Baptist faith on the points in question. Four members of the committee signed these articles, but Edward Riggs refused to sign the paper for two reasons, viz.: First, he did not believe the articles were in contradistinction to the teaching of A. Campbell; and, second, if he did so believe, he would not sign them, for they, as Baptists, had no more right to proscribe Mr. Campbell in the articles of faith than they had to proscribe any other man with whom they might disagree. He believed in "soul liberty."

At the next meeting of the church William Shadrach read the articles to the church, and moved that they be annexed to the church covenant, and that all the members be required to sign their names to the amended covenant, or be dealt with accordingly. A small minority of the members complied with this requirement, but a large majority declined to commit themselves. The minority then passed a resolution that all the members who did not sign the newly-amended covenant should be suspended from the fellowship of the church until they did so. Soon after this action this same minority removed the lock from the door of the meeting-house, and put a new one in its place, and thus retained possession.

While these events were transpiring, David Newmyre preached occasionally at the house of Edward Riggs, who was yet a deacon in the Baptist Church. This aroused suspicion, and an ineffectual attempt was made to get him out of his position. At length in 1835 he was called a heretic and a disturber of the church and disowned. After his exclusion the most of the discontented members went back, and were reconciled to the church, the obnoxious articles having been previously expunged from the covenant.

The prominent members who were left out, under. the leading of David Newmyre, planted congregation of Disciples of Christ at Edward Riggs' house in 1836, consisting at first of six members, to wit : Edward Riggs, James Boyer, Samuel Blackmore, Henry Bennett, Sarah Moore, and Sarah Philips. These persons united themselves together to maintain public worship on every Lord's day according to the order of the primitive church, and were governed by the New Testament alone.

The infant church continued to meet in the dwelling-house of. Mr. Riggs for about three years, and slowly increased in numbers, some coming from the Baptists, and others from the world by conversion. The preachers during this time were Robert Forrester, Warrick Martin, Richard Ward, James Darsie, and John T. Smith. Those added by immersion were Mary Tidball, Josiah Philips, Obadiah Higbee, David Higbee, Davis Hammond, Benjamin Abbott, and Margaret Philips.

In the autumn of 1839 a brick meeting-house was completed on a lot a little east of the site of the present house. In the spring of 1840 Thomas Campbell


visited the congregation, and set in order the things that were wanting by setting apart Edward Riggs as elder, and James Boyer, Obadiah Higbee, and William Morrison as deacons. On March 7, 1840, John Boyer gave a deed to James Boyer, John Philips, and Edward Riggs, trustees of the Disciple or Christian Church, of a lot containing three thousand square feet, for the consideration of one dollar. The congregation met in the brick house which had been erected on this lot for nineteen years, when, by reason of some fault in construction, it was declared unsafe for meetings.

On the 22d of March, 1856, John Philips and Edward Riggs, trustees of the property belonging to the church, gave a deed to James Boyer of the lot above described, for the consideration of one dollar. On the 23d of the preceding January, James Boyer and wife gave a deed to John Philips and Edward Riggs, trustees, etc., for the lot now owned by the church. The present frame house was built on this lot in 1858. In the same year Edward Riggs moved to California, Pa., and the oversight of the church devolved chiefly upon David Higbee, who was chosen as elder, and was ordained to the office on Jan. 10, 1859, by his brother, Jesse Higbee, assisted by Thomas Strathem and Henry Bennett, on the occasion of the formal opening of the new house. At the same time John Philips was set apart as deacon. Here the church has met ever since.

Most of the time the church has been without a settled preacher, and the elders before named, with others sometimes associated with them in counsel and official responsibility, have endeavored to feed and care for the flock of God over which they had been made overseers. A few times preachers have located with them and preached regularly, but seldom more frequently than every other Lord's day. Beside this, the church has enjoyed frequent visits from preaching brethren, and had the labors of some able men in protracted meetings, which resulted in the edification of the church and in additions to the membership.

Among the preachers not already mentioned who have labored, statedly or occasionally, with this church are the following, viz.: R. Milligan, William Baxter, Henry Langley, Samuel Church, Robert Ashworth, J. Bryson Piatt, L. P. Streator, Marcus Bosworth, James E. Gaston, W. W. Eaton, Charles Berry, Henry Bennett, W. J. Loos, J. L. Darsie, M. L. Streator, William S. Loyd, E. L. Allen, N. P. Lawrence, O. G. Hertzog, A. Wilcox, Carroll Ghent, Thomas Strathern, J. F. Rowe, J. C. Hay, Benjamin Franklin, L. F. Bittle, S. B. Teagarden, and W. L. Hayden.

On Nov. 11, 1879, John S. Galley was set apart as elder, W. L. Hayden officiating, and has since shared in the oversight and the public instruction of the congregation. He has acted as superintendent of the Sunday-school, which numbers about twenty-five pupils. In this work E. B. Philips has been an efficient aid, and has sometimes been called to the superintendency.

The congregation has been constantly depleted by emigration, and has thus been a feeder for other churches. But it has steadily and quietly held on its course, and received into its fellowship about one hundred and fifty members. The present membership is forty, all of whom are regarded in good standing, and the church is in a peaceful and healthy condition.

In all its history this rural church has borne faith ful testimony to the truth of God, has been careful to maintain good works, and to promote righteousness in the measure of its ability and influence, and still abides as a monument of fidelity to cherished convictions and of Christian steadfastness.

Centre Presbyterian Church.¹—This Christian organization had its origin in the year 1828. It was organized by persons who had been members of neighboring congregations of the same denomination, namely, Chartiers, Bethel, Bethany, and Mingo. Because its house of worship was nearly the same distance from each of the four churches above mentioned the congregation was called Centre. The increased population in that vicinity and the inconvenience of going several miles to a place of worship led to the organization of Centre Church.

The Presbytery at first only allowed the people to organize, build a church, and have preaching occasionally and the administration of the sacraments. At a later period they were permitted to call a pastor. Having received permission from Presbytery, the people soon built a brick church, fifty feet in length and forty in width, at a cost of twelve hundred dollars, on a piece of land donated by Daniel Bell. Their next step was to send a petition to the Presbytery, in session at Canonsburg, Jan. 5, 1830, asking the privilege of calling a pastor, arid their request was granted.

Under the first action of the Presbytery, Centre Church was regularly organized on the 29th of August, 1829, which was a year and four months after the people began to hold religious services. Dr. Matthew Brown, president of Jefferson College, being appointed by the Presbytery, presided at the organization of the congregation. Daniel Coe and George Craighead were elected, ordained, and installed as ruling elders. On Dec. 10, 1830, Jacob Bell, an elder from Chartiers Church, Samuel Wilson, an elder from Bethel, and Alexander Anderson, an elder from Bethany, were added to the session of Centre. Since that time the following-named persons have served as elders, viz.: John Barr, William Park, and John Fife, ordained Aug. 3, 1834 ; William Crouch, an elder from Chartiers Church, elected Sept. 25, 1836 ; William Hill, Richard Patterson, and Joseph Van Eman, ordained Jan. 14, 1844; Thomas Fife, Samuel Van Eman, and Arthur J. Hopper, ordained April 1, 1855 ; James Espy, an elder from Bethel Church, installed May 9, 1860; William R.


¹ By Rev. Francis J. Collier.


Craighead, William H. Barr, John B. Bell, and Robert L. Park, ordained April 23, 1876.

Under the second action of the Presbytery, allowing the people to call a pastor, a meeting was held four months afterwards, on May 4, 1830, and they united in a call to Rev. John H. Kennedy, Professor of Mathematics in Jefferson College. Prof. Kennedy accepted the call, and served the church for ten years, when he resigned on account of ill health. He died of consumption Dec. 15, 1840.

After Prof. Kennedy's resignation there was a vacancy for one year, and only occasional service was held. In 1841, Rev. Alexander B. Brown, Professor of Belles-Lettres and Adjunct Professor of Languages in Jefferson College, became stated supply, and preached at Centre about four years.

Rev. Robert W. Orr, Professor of Civil Engineering and Natural History in Jefferson College, was chosen pastor in 1845, and his ministry at Centre lasted seven years, or until 1852. Towards the close of his pastorate a new church edifice was erected, a few rods south of the old one, on higher ground. It was built of brick, and cost two thousand dollars. The building was begun in the spring of 1851, and finished early the following year.

Rev. William F. Hamilton, a native of Monongahela. City, Pa., a graduate of Washington College in 1844, and of Allegheny Theological Seminary in 1849, succeeded Rev. Robt. W. Orr in the pastorate at -Centre. It was his first charge. He began to preach there in September, 1852. He was installed May 2, 1853. His labors continued until April, 1855, when he was released by the Presbytery of Ohio. He removed to Uniontown, Pa. For several months subsequently the pulpit was supplied by various ministers of the gospel.

Centre Church again enjoyed the ministrations of Rev. Alexander B. Brown, D.D., who returned after an absence of ten years, during which period he served first as a professor and then as president of Jefferson College at Canonsburg. His health being impaired, he resigned his office as president in 1856, and removed to a farm which he purchased in the vicinity of Centre. For two years he preached to the congregation as often as his strength would permit, and there being for a while an evident improvement in his health, he yielded to the entreaties of the people and became their pastor in 1858. His labors, which greatly promoted the spiritual welfare of the church, were continued until Dec. 18, 1862, when, owing to physical debility, Dr. Brown gave up his charge. The people met at that time and passed resolutions expressing their sympathy for Dr. Brown in his severe affliction, and declaring their high appreciation of his services, talents, and piety. He died on the 8th of September, 1868. In the graveyard at Centre a handsome marble monument, erected by the willing hands of a loving and grateful people, marks the spot where his body reposes. Dr. Brown's labors at Centre, from 1841 to 1845 and from 1856 to 1862, though much interrupted, covered a period of ten years.

One month after the death of Dr. Brown the congregation called Rev. Francis J. Collier, a native of Steubenville, Ohio, a graduate of Jefferson College in 1858, and of Princeton Theological Seminary in 1862, and who was at the time of his call a licentiate of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, in which city he resided. He began his labors at Centre in November, 1863, and continued until February, 1871, two months after the dissolution of his pastoral relation. During his pastorate of seven years and three months one hundred persons were added to the membership of the church, more than nine thousand dollars was raised for various objects, the edifice was painted, papered, carpeted, and otherwise improved, and the first building, then standing, was torn down. William Park, an esteemed elder, amiable, generous, and devoted, a man full of faith and good works, was called to his reward. Nov. 6, 1870. An affection of the eyes influenced Mr. Collier to resign. After leaving Centre he went to Europe in the spring of 1871 with Rev. Dr. William P. Breed, of Philadelphia. On his return he was recalled to Centre, but declined. In 1872 he settled at Downingtown, Chester Co., Pa., where he has labored since.

In August, 1872, after a vacancy in the pastorate of a year and a half, the congregation called Rev. Ezra S. Heany, a native of Reiglesville, Bucks Co., Pa., a graduate of Lafayette College in 1867, and of the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, in 1870, then pastor of Mount Pisgah Presbyterian Church, near Pittsburgh. He was installed Nov. 14,1872, and was pastor until April, 1878, five years and five months, when he was released by the Presbytery of Pittsburgh. After leaving Centre he took charge of a church at Strasburg, in Lancaster County, Pa., to which he has since ministered.

The church was without a pastor, and the pulpit was supplied by different ministers for a year after Mr. Heany left. On the 9th of June, 1879, Rev. Alexander B. Brown, son of Rev. Dr. A. B. Brown, deceased, a member of the congregation, a graduate of the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, and a licentiate of the Presbytery of Pittsburgh, was elected pastor. After preaching some months, he was ordained and installed Dec. 15, 1879. Under his faithful ministry the church is prospering. A neat dwelling for the sexton was built during the past year. The church has a membership of one hundred and fifty-six, and there are one hundred and thirty-five persons connected with the Sunday-school.

Schools.—The first school recollected in Peters township was held in a little log cabin on the Black-more property, where John Galley now lives, in the year 1800. The cabin was first built for a dwelling, but was converted to the use of this first school. A little later another school-house was built on the farm


of Abram Ward, the one now owned by John Swagler. This school was taught by Ephraim Sayers. In 1808 a school-house was put up on the farm of James Gailey, where Messrs. Burke, Flemming, and Crawford were teachers at different times, and which was made to do service for many years. In the year 1809 a log school-house was in use about a mile up the run from the forks of Chartiers Creek, which was rather old then. Martha Reed was the earliest teacher now remembered in this house.

Peters township accepted the new school law in 1835, and shared in the first State appropriations. In that year the township was divided into four districts, —Bower Hill, Townsend, Craighead, and Dennison. The number of taxable persons in the township at that time was two hundred and forty-eight, and the amount of money collected that year was $204.35. In 1836 the township received $79.29 from the State, and the next year $287.75. The first new building put up after the adoption of the school law was on the road from James Johnston's farm to Bower Hill. The township remained divided into four districts until 1859, when the section known as Townsend, Bower Hill, and Dennison Districts was made into four districts, the new one being given the name of Wright District.

This was the first township in the county to establish a higher grade of schools, adopting the graded school system in 1876, with A. B. Stanford as principal. The graded schools were thrown open to all the pupils in the township who were sufficiently advanced to profit thereby.

In 1863 Peters township contained five school districts, employed eight teachers, and had two hundred and ten pupils enrolled. The total amount collected for school purposes was $1250, and the amount expended was $593.75. In 1873 there were five teachers in the five districts, and two hundred and twelve scholars in attendance. The amount of tax levied for school purposes was $1528.57, and total receipts $1920.56. The cost of the schools that year was $1768.55. In 1880 the number of districts had increased to six, with seven teachers employed, and one hundred and forty-three pupils enrolled. The receipts for schools were $1887.63, and the total expenditures $1812.99.

Justices of the Peace.—Peters was an original township and independent district till 1803. Upon the laying out of election districts it was embraced with Nottingham in District No. 6, and so remained till 1838, when it became a separate district. Following is a list of justices of the pace of the township from its erection to the present time, viz.:

John Douglas, July 15,1781,

Robert Thompson, July 15, 1781.

John Douglas, March 3, 1789.

James Mitchell, Aug. 24, 1790.

John Campbell, Feb. 8, 1799.

John Breckenridge, June 18, 1800.

John Hair, July 4, 1806.

Simeon Mailman, Jan. 7, 1808.

Enoch Wright, March 29,1808.

George Bentley, March 4, 1811.

James Gordon, Dec. 7, 1811

William Wallace, Jan. 20, 1817.

John Bower, Jan . 16,1819.

Wash. Parkinson, Dec. 13, 1820.

Joseph Pollock, Jr., Dec. 3, 1822.

Enoch Phillips, March 1, 1823.

Dennis Darragh, March 0, 1823.

Elijah Townsend, Dec. 3, 1823.

S. Bentley, Jr., Feb. 18, 1830.

Enoch Wright, Oct. 16,1830.

Dennis Darragh, Nov. 11, 1830.

Ephraim Estep, Jan. 23, 1834.

George Gibbony, Dec. 6, 1834.

James McGrew, Nov. 18, 1835.

Elijah Teeple, Dec. 7, 1835.

Levi Finley, Feb. 16,1836.

John Clemens, March 18, 1836.

John Kennedy, June 1, 1836.

John Samuels, Nov. 1, 1836.

John McLoney, April 14, 1840.

Elijah Townsend, April 14, 1840.

John Bower, April 9, 1844.

John Bower, April 10, 1849.

Ebenezer Archer, April 15,1845.

Robert Caldwell, April 9.1850.

John Bower, April 11,1854.

David Philips, April 10, 1855.

George E. Smith, May 13,1858.

David Philips, April10, 1860.

George E. Smith, April 14,1861.

David Philips, June 3,1865.

George E. Smith, April 14,1868.

David Philips, Nov. 30,1870.

George E. Smith, April 23, 1873.

George E. Smith, Jan. 29, 1874.

David Philips, Jan. 31, 1874.

George E. Smith, March 25,1878.

John H. Murphy, March 27,1879.

Physicians.—Dr. Hugh Thompson was the earliest resident physician of Peters township of whom any knowledge is obtained. He lived very near Thompsonville, and practiced his profession over a large tract of country. He died many years ago. His son, Robert Thompson, familiarly called " Doctor Bob," succeeded to his father's large practice, retaining it for a long time. He eventually removed to Bridgeville, where he married a Mrs. Beltzhoover, and died in the house now occupied by Dr. Donaldson. A daughter of Dr. Hugh Thompson married Dr. Carlisle, of Thompsonville, where he lived and died.

Dr. C. W. Townsend was born in Peters township, and is a son of Joseph Townsend. He studied medicine with Dr. William B. Lank, of Finleyville, attended lectures at a medical college in Ohio in 1847 and 1848, and in 1849 and 1850 pursued his studies at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He commenced to practice while residing upon the old homestead in this township, but in 1860 purchased the farm at Bower Hill on which he still lives. He has a practice that extends through his own and several adjoining townships.

Dr. David M. Anderson is a native of Beaver County, Pa., and is a brother-in-law of Dr. Townsend. In the early gold excitement in California he accompanied his father to that State, going from there to South America; remained there two years and commenced the study of medicine during his stay in that country. He returned to this State about the tune that Fort Sumter was attacked, and entered the Western army in the capacity of surgeon. He remained in the service until the close of the war, when he went to New York City and graduated from Bellevue Medical College. He came to Peters township, married a daughter of Rev. Joseph Wright, and commenced and still continues the practice of medicine here. He is also extensively interested in coal operations, his mines lying along the line of the Pittsburgh Southern Railroad.

Thompsonville.—This village has grown up at the point in Peters township where Moses and John Thompson settled in 1814. They opened a store at Thompsonville, next commenced the mercantile trade at Library, in Allegheny County, and then at Finleyville, in Washington County. In these different places the brothers accumulated a little money, and


then began an extensive trade between New Orleans and Pittsburgh, being the first in that line in this section of country. Afterwards they opened a broker's office in Pittsburgh. During the panic these men made considerable money, operating in bank paper, and after that they engaged in the wool trade. In one year,1859 or 1860, they purchased wool at twenty-five cents and held it until, by reason of the war, it brought them one dollar and five cents per pound for their whole investment. In 1860 they bought the fine farm in Union township, upon which they went to live. John Thompson died not long afterwards, and Moses died in 1880. The widow of Moses Thompson is still living on the farm in Union township. The subjects of this sketch were in no way related to Dr. Hugh Thompson, also an early settler of Peters township.

Post-Offices.-Of the several post-offices which have been established in Peters township the first was at Thompsonville, the office being in the store of Moses and John Thompson, and Moses was appointed postmaster. The office was established about 1815, or soon after the Thompson brothers settled in this township. The persons who succeeded Moses Thompson in the office of postmaster were James Moore, James Reed, Dr. John Fife, James Pollock, Robert Caldwell, David G. Moore, A. W. Pollock, H. H. Brown, J. J. Vaneman, D. J. Moore, D. F. Brown, and William C. Wright, the present postmaster.

On Aug. 21, 1880, a post-office, known as the McMurray office, was established in this township. James McMurray is the postmaster, having received this appointment when the office was established.

There is an office at McComb's Station, on the Pittsburgh Southern Railroad, called the Venetia post-office. This office has existed only since September, 1880, and Leonard McCormick is the postmaster.

The office at Bower Hill was established under the administration of President James Buchanan. John Bower was the first postmaster appointed, and has been the only one, continuing in the office from that time until the present.


Elijah Townsend was born in Peters township, Washington Co., Pa., May 8, 1784, the eldest son of Daniel and Lydia Townsend. His father was among the first settlers of Peters township. He emigrated from England with his brothers John and Isaiah. His children were Judith, Rebecca, Catharine, Elijah, Oma, Charity, Lydia, Margaret,. and Joseph. All were married and raised families ; all are deceased (1882) except Margaret.

Daniel Townsend was a well-to-do farmer, owning at the time of his death about four hundred acres of land in Peters township, which was divided between his sons Elijah and Joseph, and is still owned by his descendants. He was born Aug. 13, 1747 ; died July 31, 1833. His wife, Lydia, was born Dec. 5, 1751 ; died Sept. 5, 1819. Elijah Townsend always lived in Peters township. He was a prosperous farmer, owning at the time of his death a number of farms in addition to the homestead farm. He was a great reader, and was emphatically a self-educated man. In politics he was first a Democrat, but in the later years of his life became identified with the Republican party. At an early age he united with the Baptist Church at Library, and was an active member and a liberal supporter of that church for many years. The last years of his life and at the time of his death he was a member of the Maple Creek Church.

He was an officer in the war of 1812, and was justice of the peace in Peters twenty-one years. No successful appeal was ever made from his decisions. No stronger evidence could be furnished' of his sterling good sense and excellent judgment. His advice and counsel were often sought in settlement of questions of difference among neighbors. The poor always found in him a steadfast friend.

He was united in marriage April 30, 1807, to Nancy daughter of Edward and Mary Riggs. The marriage ceremony was performed by the Rev. David Phillips.

Mrs. Townsend was born June 20, 1787. Their children were Mary, born Feb. 28, 1808, married to Robert Phillips; six children living; she is deceased. Lydia, born Jan. 16, 1810, wife of F. K. Cooper, a farmer at Ginger Hill ; two children. John, born Jan. 30, 1812, a merchant at White Mill Station, married Catharine McLaughlan ; four children. Eleanor, born Jan. 25, 1814, wife of Dr. John Gousher, a physician residing in Cleveland, Ohio. Mrs. Gousher is deceased ; four children. Rebecca, born Jan. 22, 1816, wife of John Hill ; four children. Daniel, born March 22, 1818, twice married; first wife, Nancy Larimer, by whom he had three children ; second wife, Rosanna Tenant, one child. Edward R., born June 22, 1820, married Jane Larimer; three children living. Elizabeth, born June 22, 1820, owning and residing at the homestead. Joseph, born Dec. 25, 1824; died in infancy. Enoch Wright, born Oct. 12, 1825, a physician living in Greensburg, Westmoreland Co., Pa., married Sarah Garner. Margaret Ann, born Nov. 16, 1827, living at the homestead. William, born Jan. 15, 1831, married Mary A. Devore, one son.

Mr. Townsend died May 18, 1871; his wife June 11, 1861.